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‘f*rt?’' 


Effective Date July Q1 ,2010 
Authorized by ORS 476;030 
Adopted by OAR 837 Division 40 






Based on the 2009 International Fire Code 

■ ■ ■ ■ 







2010 Oregon Fire Code 


First Printing 


ISBN-978-1-58001-957-6 


COPYRIGHT © 2009 
by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2010 Oregon Fire Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2009 International 
Fire Code which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the 
copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without 
limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an 
information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publica- 
tions, 405 1 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks; “International Code Council,” the “International Code Council” logo and the “International Fire Code” are trademarks 
of the International Code Council, Inc. 


PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 


Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date fire code addressing conditions hazardous to life and 
property from fire, explosion, handling or use of hazardous materials and the use and occupancy of buildings and premises. The 
International Fire Code®, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the 
public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive fire code establishes minimum regulations for fire prevention and fire protection systems using prescriptive 
and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new 
system designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International 
Code Council (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, International Energy Conservation Code®, International Exist- 
ing Building Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, ICC Performance Code®, International 
Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, International Resi- 
dential Code®, International Wild land- Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Fire Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers 
an international forum for fire safety professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides 
an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions.': 

Development 

The first edition of the International Fire Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by a development commit- 
tee appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council: Building 
Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and South- 
ern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of fire safety regulations consistent 
with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, 
ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1 998 and 1 999 to consider proposed 
changes. This 2009 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2006 edition and further changes 
approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2008. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a fire code that adequately pro- 
tects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Fire Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental Jurisdic- 
tion is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the Jurisdiction’s 
laws. At the time of adoption. Jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local informa- 
tion, such as the name of the adopting Jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code 
and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page xiii addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordi- 
nance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Fire Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Fire Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and those 
participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provi- 
sions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of 
this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


Hi 



Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the ICC Fire 
Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the pro- 
posed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a different 
code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 607.2) are 
considered by the ICC Building Code Development Committee at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in 
accordance with the following: 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee; 

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee; 

[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and 
[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee. 

Marginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2006 edition. 
Deletion indicators (^) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or item has been deleted. > indicates IFC model code lan- 
guage deleted by Oregon. Double vertical lines in the margin denote amendments and additions promulgated by the State of Ore- 
gon, modifying the 2009 International Fire Code. Minor changes, such as section renumbering and removal of references to 
international codes are not indicated with a double rule in the margin. 

Coordination between the International Building and Fire Codes 

Because the coordination of technical provisions is one of the benefits of adopting the ICC family of model codes, users will find the 
ICC codes to be a very flexible set of model documents. To accomplish this flexibility some technical provisions are duplicated in 
some of the model code documents. While the International Codes are provided as a comprehensive set of model codes for the bui It 
environment, documents are occasionally adopted as a stand-alone regulation. When one of the model documents is adopted as the 
basis of a stand-alone code, that code should provide a complete package of requirements with enforcement assigned to the entity 
for which the adoption is being made. 

The model codes can also be adopted as a family of complementary codes. When adopted together there should be no conflict of 
any of the technical provisions. When multiple model codes are adopted in a jurisdiction it is important for the adopting authority to 
evaluate the provisions in each code document and determine how and by which agency(ies) they will be enforeed. It is important, 
therefore, to understand that where technical provisions are duplicated in multiple model documents that enforcement duties must 
be clearly assigned by the local adopting jurisdiction. ICC remains committed to providing state-of-the-art model eode documents 
that, when adopted locally, will reduce the cost to government of code adoption and enforcement and protect the public health, 
safety and welfare. 

Italicized Terms 

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. Such terms are not italicized where 
the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions 
which the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the eode. 


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2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



Effective Use of the International Fire Code 


The International Fire Code® (IFC®) is a model code that regulates minimum fire safety requirements for new and existing build- 
ings, facilities, storage and processes. The IFC addresses fire prevention, fire protection, life safety and safe storage and use of haz- 
ardous materials in new and existing buildings, facilities and processes. The IFC provides a total approach of controlling hazards in 
all buildings and sites, regardless of the hazard being indoors or outdoors. 

The IFC is a design document. For example, before one con.structs a building, the site must be provided with an adequate water 
supply for fire-fighting operations and a means of building access for emergency responders in the event of a medical emergency, 
fire or natural or technological disaster. Depending on the building’s occupancy and uses, the IFC regulates the various hazards that 
may be housed within the building, including refrigeration systems, application of flammable finishes, fueling of motor vehicles, 
high-piled combustible storage and the storage and use of hazardous materials. The IFC sets forth minimum requirements for these 
and other hazards and contains requirements for maintaining the life safety of building occupants, the protection of emergency 
responders, and to limit the damage to a building and its contents as the result of a fire, explosion or unauthorized hazardous material 
discharge. 


Arrangement and Format of the 2009 IFC 

Before applying the requirements of the IFC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and format. The IFC, like other codes pub- 
lished by the International Code Council, is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan 
review or inspection. The IFC is divided into eight different parts: 


Chapters 

Subjects 

I -2 

Administration and definitions 

3-4 

General safety requirements 

5-I0 

Building and site requirements 

n-26 and 45 

Special processes and uses 

27-44 

Hazardous materials 

46 

Construction requirements for existing buildings 

47 

Referenced Standards 

Appendices A-J 

Appendices 


The IFC requirements for fire-resistive construction, interior finish, fire protection systems and means of egress are directly corre- 
lated to the requirements of the IBC. The following chapters of the IFC are correlated to the IBC: 


Chapter 

Subject 

7 

Fire-resistance-ratcd construction 

8 

Interior finish, decorative materials and furnishings 

9 

Fire protection systems 

lO 

Means of egress 


The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the International Fire Code'. 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of 
subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and 
structures come under its purview. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining “due process of law” in enforcing the regula- 
tions contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provisions can the code official rea- 
sonably expect to demonstrate that “equal protection under the law” has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. While a defined term may be 
used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 is applicable throughout the code. 

Where understanding of a term’s definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of a particular code provision, the 
term is show in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning pre- 
scribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding terms not defined in this code are 
also provided. 

Chapter 3 General Requirements. The open burning, ignition source, vacant building, miscellaneous storage and hazards to fire 
fighters requirements and precautions, among other general regulations, contained in this chapter are intended to improve premises 
safety for everyone, including construction workers, tenants, operations and maintenance personnel and emergency response per- 
sonnel. As with other chapters of \h& International Fire Code, Section 302 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness. This chapter addresses the human contribution to life safety in buildings 
when a fire or other emergency occurs. The requirements for continuous training and scheduled fire, evacuation and lockdown drills 
can be as important as the required periodic inspections and maintenance of built-in fire protection features. The level of preparation 
by the occupants also improves the emergency responders’ abilities during an emergency. The International Building Code® (IBC®) 
focuses on built-in fire protection features, such as automatic sprinkler systems, fire-resistance-rated construction and properly 
designed egress systems whereas this chapter fully addresses the human element. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 402 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features. The requirements of this chapter apply to all buildings and occupancies and pertain to access 
roads; access to building openings and roofs; premises identification; key boxes; fire protection water supplies; fire command cen- 
ters; fire department access to equipment and emergency responder radio coverage in buildings. As with other chapters of the Inter- 
national Fire Code, Section 502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems. This chapter focuses on building systems and services as they relate to potential safety 
hazards and when and how they should be installed. This chapter brings together all building system- and service-related issues for 
convenience and provides a more systematic view of buildings. The following building services and systems are addressed: 
fuel-fired appliances (Section 603), emergency and standby power systems (Section 604) electrical equipment, wiring and hazards 
(Section 605), mechanical refrigeration (Section 606), elevator recall and maintenance (Section 607), stationary storage battery 
systems (Section 608) and commercial kitchen hoods (Section 609). As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 
602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 7 Fire-resistance-rated Construction. The maintenance of assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated is a key com- 
ponent in a passive fire protection philosophy. Chapter 7 sets forth requirements to maintain required fire-resistance ratings of build- 
ing elements and limit fire spread. The required maintenance of fire-resistance-rated assemblies and opening protectives is 
described in Section 703 while Section 704 covers the enclosure requirements for shafts in existing buildings. As with other chap- 
ters of the International Fire Code, Section 702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings. The overall purpose of Chapter 8 is to regulate interior fin- 
ishes, decorative materials and furnishings in new and existing buildings so that they do not significantly add to or create fire hazards 
within buildings. The provisions tend to focus on occupancies with specific risk characteristics, such as vulnerability of occupants, 
density of occupants, lack of familiarity with the building and societal expiectations of importance. This chapter is consistent with 
Chapter 8 of the International Building Code® (IBC®), which regulates the interior finishes of new buildings. As with other chapters 
of the International Fire Code, Section 802 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active systems of fire protection 
equipment to perform the functions of detecting a fire, alerting the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency, control- 
ling smoke and controlling or extinguishing the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and 
the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a spe- 
cific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Build- 
ing Code; however, this chapter also contains periodic testing criteria that are not contained in the IBC. In addition, the special 
fire protection system requirements based on use and occupancy found in Chapter4 of the IBC are duplicated in Chapter 9 of 
the IFC as a user convenience. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Seetion 902 contains definitions applica- 
ble to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 10 Means of Egress. The general criteria set forth in Chapter 1 0 regulating the design of the means of egress are established 
as the primary method for protection of people in buildings by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both 
prescriptive and performance language is utilized in this chapter to provide fora basic approach in the determination of a safe exiting 
system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (i.e., exit access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design 
requirements as well as provisions regulating individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and pro- 
tection of means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics also are specified for the components that will per- 
mit their safe use without special knowledge or effort. The means of egress protection requirements work in coordination with other 
sections of the code, such as protection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and detec- 
tion systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Sections 1 002 through 1 029 are duplicated text 
from Chapter 10 of the IBC; however, the IFC contains an additional Section 1030 on maintenance of the means of egress system in 


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existing buildings. Retroactive minimum means of egress requirements for existing buildings are now found in Chapter 46. As with 
other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1002 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities. Chapter 1 1 specifies minimum requirements for the fire-safe operation of airports, heliports and 
helistops. The principal nonflight operational hazards associated with aviation involve fuel, facilities and operations. Therefore, 
safe use of flammable and combustible liquids during fueling and maintenance operations is emphasized. Availability of portable 
Class B:C-rated fire extinguishers for prompt control or suppression of incipient fires is required. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 1 102 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning. The provisions of Chapter 12 are intended to reduce hazards associated with use of flammable and com- 
bustible dry cleaning solvents. The.se materials, like all volatile organic chemicals, generate significant quantities of static electricity 
and are thus readily ignitable. Many flammable and nonflammable dry cleaning solvents also possess health hazards when involved 
in a fire. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1 202 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-producing Operations. The requirements of Chapter 13 seek to reduce the likelihood of dust 
explosions by managing the hazards of ignitable suspensions of combustible dusts associated with a variety of operations including 
woodworking, mining, food processing, agricultural commodity storage and handling and pharmaceutical manufacturing, among 
others. Ignition source control and good housekeeping practices in occupancies containing dust-producing operations are empha- 
sized. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1 302 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition. This chapter outlines general fire safety precautions for all struc- 
tures and all occupancies during construction and demolition operations. In general, these requirements seek to maintain required 
levels of fire protection, limit fire spread, establish the appropriate operation of equipment and promote prompt response to fire 
emergencies. Features regulated include fire protection systems, fire fighter access to the site and building, means of egress, hazard- 
ous materials storage and use and temporary heating equipment and other ignition sources. 

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes. Chapter 15 requirements govern operations where flammable or combustible finishes are 
applied by spraying, dipping, powder coating or flow-coating processes. As with all operations involving flammable or combustible 
liquids and combustible dusts or vapors, controlling ignition sources and methods of reducing or controlling flammable vapors or 
combustible dusts at or near these operations are emphasized. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1 502 
contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening. Chapter 16 provides guidance that is intended to reduce the likelihood of explosions result- 
ing from improper use or handling of ethylene gas used for crop-ripening and coloring processes. This is accomplished by regulat- 
ing ethylene gas generation; storage and distribution systems and controlling ignition sources. Design and construction of facilities 
for this use are regulated by the International Building Code to reduce the impact of potential accidents on people and buildings. 

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging. This chapter regulates fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations which use toxic pesticide chemicals to kill insects, rodents and other vermin. Fumigants and thermal insecticidal fogging 
agents pose little hazard if properly applied; however, the inherent toxicity of all these agents and the potential flammability of some 
makes special precautions necessary when they are used. Requirements of this chapter are intended to protect both the public and 
fire fighters from hazards associated with these products. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1 702 con- 
tains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities. The requirements of this chapter are intended to control hazards associated 
with the manufacture of electrical circuit boards or microchips, commonly called semiconductors. Though the finished product 
possesses no unusual hazards, materials commonly associated with semiconductor manufacturing are often quite hazardous and 
include flammable liquids; pyrophoric and flammable gases; toxic substances and corrosives. The requirements of this chapter are 
concerned with both life safety and property protection. However, the fire code official should recognize that the risk of extraordi- 
nary property damages is far more common than the risk of personal injuries from fire. As with other chapters of the International 
Fire Code, Section 1802 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities. Provisions of this chapter are intended to prevent fires and explosions, 
facilitate fire control and reduce exposures to and from facilities storing, selling or processing wood and forest products, including 
sawdust, wood chips, shavings, bark mulch, shorts, finished planks, sheets, posts, poles, timber and raw logs and tbe hazard they 
represent once ignited. This chapter requires active and passive fire protection features to reduce on- and off-site exposures, limit 
fire size and development and facilitate fire fighting by employees and the fire service. As with other chapters of the International 
Fire Code, Section 1902 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatings. This chapter regulates materials and processes associated with the manufacture of 
paints as well as bituminous, asphaltic and other diverse compounds formulated to protect buildings, machines and objects from the 
effects of weather, corrosion and hostile environmental exposures. Paint for decorative, architectural and industrial uses comprises 
the bulk of organic coating production. Painting and processes related to the manufacture of nonflammable and noncombustible or 
water-based products are exempt from the provisions of this chapter. The application of organic coatings is covered by Chapter 15. 
Elimination of ignition sources, maintenance of fire protection equipment and isolation or segregation of hazardous operations are 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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emphasized. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2002 contains a definition applicable to the chapter con- 
tents. 

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens. This chapter addresses the fuel supply, ventilation, emergency shutdown equipment, fire protection 
and the operation and maintenance of industrial ovens, which are sometimes referred to as industrial heat enclosures or industrial 
furnaces. Compliance with this chapter is intended to reduce the likelihood of fires involving industrial ovens which are usually the 
result of the fuel in use or volatile vapors given off by the materials being healed or to manage the impact if a fire should occur. As 
with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2102 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. This chapter provides provisions that regulate the storage 
and dispensing of both liquid and gaseous motor fuels at public and private automotive, marine and aircraft motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, 
Section 2202 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 23 High-piled Combustible Storage. This chapter provides guidance for reasonable protection of life from hazards asso- 
ciated with the storage of combustible materials in closely packed piles or on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage 
is greater than 12 feet in height. It provides requirements for identifying various classes of commodities; general fire and life safety 
features including storage arrangements, smoke and heat venting, fire department access and housekeeping and maintenance 
requirements. The chapter attempts to define the potential fire severity and, in turn, determine fire and life safety protection mea- 
sures needed to control, and in some cases suppress, a potential fire. This chapter docs not cover miscellaneous combustible materi- 
als storage regulated in Section 315. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2302 contains definitions 
applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures. The requirements in this chapter are intended to protect temporary as well as 
permanent tents and air-supported and other membrane structures from fire by regulating structure location and access, anchorage, 
egress, heat-producing equipment, hazardous materials and operations, combustible vegetation, ignition sources, waste accumula- 
tion and requiring regular inspections and certifying continued compliance with fire safety regulations. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 2402 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage. The requirements of Chapter 25 are intended to prevent or control fires and explo- 
sions associated with the remanufacture and storage of tires and tire by-products. Additionally, the requirements are intended to 
minimize the impact of indoor and outdoor tire storage fires by regulating pile volume and location, segregating the various opera- 
tions, providing for fire department access and a water supply and controlling ignition sources. 

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work. This chapter covers requirements for safety in welding and other types of hot work by 
reducing the potential for fire ignitions that usually result in large losses. Several different types of hot work would fall under the 
requirements found in Chapter 26, including both gas and electric arc methods and any open-torch operations. Many of the activities 
of this chapter focus on the actions of the occupants. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2602 contains 
definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials — General Provisions. This chapter contains the general requirements for all hazardous chemi- 
cals in all occupancies. Hazardous chemicals are defined as those that pose an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of operating 
or emergency personnel, the public and the environment if not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, process- 
ing, packaging, use, disposal or transportation. The general provisions of this chapter are intended to be companion provisions with 
the specific requirements of Chapters 28 through 44 regarding a given hazardous material. As with other chapters of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code, Section 2702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 28 Aerosols. Chapter 28 addresses the prevention, control and extinguishment of fires and explosions in facilities where 
retail aerosol products are displayed or stored. It is concerned with both life safety and property protection from a fire; however, his- 
torically, aerosol product fires have caused property loss more frequently than loss of life. Requirements for storing aerosol prod- 
ucts are dependent on the level of aerosol product, level of sprinkler protection, type of storage condition and quantity of aerosol 
products. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2802 contains definitions applicable to the chapter con- 
tents. 

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers. Chapter 29 establishes the requirements for storage and handling of combustible fibers, includ- 
ing animal, vegetable and synthetic fibers, whether woven into textiles, baled, packaged or loose. Operations involving combustible 
fibers are typically associated with salvage, paper milling, recycling, cloth manufacturing, carpet and textile mills and agricultural 
operations, among others. 

The primary hazard associated with these operations is the abundance of materials and their ready ignitability. As with other 
chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2902 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases. This chapter regulates the storage, use and handling of all flammable and nonflammable com- 
pressed gases, such as those that are used in medical facilities, air separation plants, industrial plants, agricultural equipment and 
similar occupancies. Standards for the design, construction and marking of compressed gas cylinders and pressure vessels are refer- 
enced. Compressed gases used in welding and cutting, cryogenic liquids and liquefied petroleum gases are also regulated under 
Chapters 26, 32 and 38, respectively. Compressed gases that are classified as hazardous materials are also regulated in Chapter 27, 


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which includes general requirements. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3002 contains definitions 
applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials. Chapter 3 1 addresses the hazards of corrosive materials that have a destructive effect on living 
tissues. Though corrosive gases exist, most corrosive materials are solid and classified as either acids or bases (alkalis). These mate- 
rials may pose a wide range of hazards other than corrosivity, such as combustibility, reactivity or oxidizing hazards, and must con- 
form to the requirements of the code with respect to all their known hazards. The focus of this chapter is on materials whose primary 
hazard is corrosivity; that is, the ability to destroy or irreparably damage living tissue on contact. As with other chapters of the Inter- 
national Fire Code, Section 3102 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids. This chapter regulates the hazards associated with the storage, use and handling of cryogenic fluids 
through regulation of such things as pressure relief mechanisms and proper container storage. These hazards are in addition to the 
code requirements that address the other hazards of cryogenic fluids such as flammability and toxicity. These other characteristics 
are dealt with in Chapter 27 and other chapters, such as Chapter 35 dealing with flammable gases. Cryogens are hazardous because 
they are held at extremely low temperatures and high pressures. Many cryogenic fluids, however, are actually inert gases and would 
not be regulated elsewhere in the code. Cryogens are used for many applications but specifically have had widespread use in the bio- 
medical field and in space programs. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3202 contains definitions appli- 
cable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks. This chapter prescribes minimum requirements for the safe manufacture, storage, han- 
dling and use of explosives, ammunition and blasting agents for commercial and industrial occupancies. These provisions are 
intended to protect the general public, emergency responders and individuals who handle explosives. Chapter 33 also regulates the 
manufacturing, retail sale, display and wholesale distribution of fireworks, establishing the requirements for obtaining approval to 
manufacture, store, sell, discharge or conduct a public display, and references national standards for regulations governing manu- 
facture, storage and public displays. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3302 contains definitions appli- 
cable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids. The requirements of this chapter are intended to reduce the likelihood of fires 
involving the storage, handling, use or transportation of flammable and combustible liquids. Adherence to these practices may also 
limit damage in the event of an accidental fire involving these materials. These liquids are used for fuel, lubricants, cleaners, sol- 
vents, medicine and even drinking. The danger associated with flammable and combustible liquids is that the vapors from these liq- 
uids, when combined with air in their flammable range, will burn or explode at temperatures near our normal living and working 
environment. The protection provided by the code is to prevent the flammable and combustible liquids from being ignited. As with 
other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3402 contains definitions applicable to tbe chapter contents. 

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids. Chapter 35 sets requirements for the storage and use of flam- 
mable gases. For safety purposes, there is a limit on the quantities of flammable gas allowed per control area. Exceeding these limi- 
tations increases the possibility of damage to both property and individuals. The principal hazard posed by flammable gas is its 
ready ignitability, or even explosivity, when mixed with air in the proper proportions. Consequently, occupancies storing or han- 
dling large quantities of flammable gas are classified as Group H-2 (high hazard) by the International Building Code. As with other 
chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids. This chapter addresses general requirements for storage and handling of flammable solids, espe- 
cially magnesium; however, it is important to note that several other solid materials, primarily metals including, but not limited to, 
such metals as titanium, zirconium, hafnium, calcium, zinc, sodium, lithium, potassium, sodium/potassium alloys, uranium, tho- 
rium and plutonium which, under the right conditions, can be explosion hazards. Some of these metals are almost exclusively labo- 
ratory materials but because of where they are used, fire service personnel must be trained to handle emergency situations. Because 
uranium, thorium and plutonium are also radioactive materials, they present still more specialized problems for fire service person- 
nel. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials. The main purpose of this chapter is to protect occupants, emergency responders 
and those in the immediate area of the building and facility from short-term, acute hazards associated with a release or general expo- 
sure to toxic and highly toxic materials. This chapter deals with all three states of toxic and highly toxic materials: solids, liquids and 
gases. The code does not address long-term exposure effects of these materials which are addressed by agencies such as the Envi- 
ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 3702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases. Chapter 38 establishes requirements for the safe handling, storing and use of LP-gas to 
reduce the possibility of damage to containers, accidental releases of LP-gas and exposure of flammable concentrations of LP-gas 
to ignition sources. LP-gas (notably Propane) is well known as a camping fuel for cooking, lighting, heating and refrigerating and 
also remains a popular standby fuel supply for auxiliary generators as well as being widely used as an alternative motor vehicle fuel. 
Its characteristic as a clean-burning fuel having resulted in the addition of propane dispensers to service stations throughout the 
country. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3802 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides. This chapter addresses the hazards associated with the storage, handling and use of organic perox- 
ides and intends to manage the fire and oxidation hazards of organic peroxides by preventing their uncontrolled release. These 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


IX 



chemicals possess the characteristics of flammable or combustible liquids and are also strong oxidizers. This unusual combination 
of properties requires special storage and handling precautions to prevent uncontrolled release, contamination, hazardous chemical 
reactions, fires or explosions. The requirements of this chapter pertain to industrial applications in which significant quantities of 
organic peroxides are stored or used; however, smaller quantities of organic peroxides still pose a significant hazard and, therefore, 
must be stored and used in accordance with the applicable provisions of this chapter and Chapter 27. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 3902 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids. Chapter 40 addresses the hazards associated with 
solid, liquid, gaseous and cryogenic fluid oxidizing materials, including oxygen in home use, and establishes criteria for their safe 
storage and protection in indoor and outdoor storage facilities, minimizing the potential for uncontrolled releases and contact with 
fuel sources. Although oxidizers themselves do not burn, they pose unique lire hazards because of their ability to support combus- 
tion by breaking down and giving off oxygen. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4002 contains defini- 
tions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials. This chapter regulates the hazards associated with pyrophoric materials, which are capable of 
spontaneously igniting in the air at or below a temperature of 130°F (54°C). Many pyrophoric materials also pose severe 
flammability or reactivity hazards. This chapter addresses only the hazards associated with pyrophoric materials. Materials that 
pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all hazards. As with other chapters of the Inter- 
national Fire Code, Section 4102 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics. This chapter addresses the significant hazards associated with pyroxylin (cel- 
lulose nitrate) plastics, which are the most dangerous and unstable of all plastic compounds. The chemically bound oxygen in their 
structure permits them to burn vigorously in the absence of atmospheric oxygen at a rate 1 5 times greater than comparable common 
combustibles. Strict compliance with the provisions of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrangements, help 
to reduce the hazards associated with pyroxylin (cellulose nitrate) plastics in a fire or other emergencies. 

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials. This chapter addresses the hazards of unstable (reactive) liquid and solid materials as 
well as unstable (reactive) compressed gases. In addition to their unstable reactivity, these materials may pose other hazards, such as 
toxicity, corrosivity, explosivity, flammability or oxidizing potential. This chapter, however, intends to address those materials 
whose primary hazard is unstable reactivity. Materials that po.se multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with 
respect to all hazards. Strict compliance with the provisions of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrange- 
ments, help to reduce the exposure hazards associated with unstable (reactive) materials in a fire or other emergency. As with other 
chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4302 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 44 Water-reactive Solids and Liquids. This chapter addresses the hazards associated with water-reactive materials that 
are solid or liquid at normal temperatures and pressures. In addition to their water reactivity, these materials may pose a wide range 
of other hazards, such as toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness or oxidizing potential. This chapter addresses only those materials 
whose primary hazard is water reactivity. Materials that pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with 
respect to all hazards. Strict compliance with the requirements of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrange- 
ments, helps to reduce the exposure hazards associated with water-reactive materials in a fire or other emergency. As with other 
chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4402 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 45 Marinas. Chapter 45 is a new chapter in the 2009 International Fire Corfe addressing the fire protection and prevention 
requirements for marinas. It was developed in response to the complications encountered by a number of fire departments responsi- 
ble for the protection of marinas as well as fire loss history in marinas that lacked fire protection. Compliance with this chapter 
intends to establish safe practices in marina areas, provide an identification method for mooring spaces in the marina, provide tire 
fighters with safe operational areas and fire protection methods to extend hose lines in a safe manner. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 4502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 46 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings. Chapter 46 is also a new chapter in the 2009 International Fire 
Code. This chapter applies to existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of this code and intends to provide a minimum 
degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying existing buildings by providing for alterations to such buildings that do not com- 
ply with the minimum requirements of the International Building Code. While this chapter is new, its content existed previously in 
the IFC but in a random manner that was neither efficient nor user-friendly. In the 2007/2008 code development cycle, code change 
F294-07/08 was approved that consolidated the retroactive elements of IFC/2006 Sections 607, 701, 704, 903, 905, 907 and 2506 
and all of Section 1027 into a single chapter for easier and more efficient reference and application to existing buildings. As with 
other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 47 Referenced Standards. The code contains several references to standards that are used to regulate materials and meth- 
ods of construction. Chapter 47 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part 
of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with 
this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance 
with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to 
the code official, contractor, designer and owner. 


X 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



Chapter 47 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alpha- 
betically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency’s standards are then listed in either alphabetical or 
numeric order based upon the standard identi fication. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard. 

Appendix A Board of Appeals. This appendix contains optional criteria that, when adopted, provides jurisdictions with detailed 
appeals, board member qualifications and administrative procedures to supplement the basic requirements found in Section 108 of 
the code. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordi- 
nance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix B Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings. This appendix provides a tool for the use of jurisdictions in establishing a pol- 
icy for determining fire-flow requirements in accordance with IFC Section 507.3. The determination of required fire flow is notan 
exact science, but having some level of information provides a consistent way of choosing the appropriate fire flow for buildings 
throughout a jurisdiction. The primary tool used in this appendix is a table which presents fire flows based on construction type and 
building area based on the correlation of the Insurance Services Office (ISO) method and the construction types used in the Interna- 
tional Building Code. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the 
adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution. This appendix focuses on the location and spacing of fire hydrants which 
are important to the success of fire-fighting operations. The difficulty with determining the spacing of fire hydrants is that every situ- 
ation is unique and has unique challenges. Finding one methodology for determining hydrant spacing is difficult. This particular 
appendix gives one methodology based on the required fire flow that fire departments can work with to set a policy for hydrant dis- 
tribution around new buildings and facilities in conjunction with IFC Section 507.5. Note that the provisions contained in this 
appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads. This appendix contains more detailed elements for use with the basic access require- 
ments found in IFC Section 503 which gives some minimum criteria, such as a maximum length of 150 feet and a minimum width of 
20 feet, but in many cases does not state specific criteria. This appendix, like Appendices B and C, is a tool for jurisdictions looking 
for guidance in establishing access requirements and includes criteria for multiple-family residential developments, large one- and 
two-family subdivisions, specific examples for various types of turnarounds for fire department apparatus and parking regulatory 
signage. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordi- 
nance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix E Hazard Categories. This appendix contains guidance for designers, engineers, architects, code officials, plans 
reviewers and inspectors in the classifying of hazardous materials so that proposed designs can be evaluated intelligently and accu- 
rately. The descriptive materials and explanations of hazardous materials and how to report and evaluate them on a Material Safety 
Data Sheet that are contained in this appendix are intended to be instructional as well as informative. Note that this appendix is for 
information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 

Appendix F Hazard Ranking. The information in this appendix is intended to be a companion to the specific requirements of 
Chapters 28 through 44 which regulate the storage, handling and use of all hazardous materials classified as either physical or health 
hazards. These materials pose diverse hazards, including instability, reactivity, flammability, oxidizing potential or toxicity; there- 
fore, identifying them by hazard ranking is essential. This appendix lists the various hazardous materials categories that are defined 
in the code, along with the NFPA 704 hazard ranking for each. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory 
unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids — Weight and Volume Equivalents. This appendix gives the fire code official and design profes- 
sional a ready reference tool for the conversion of the liquid weight and volume of cryogenic fluid to their corresponding volume of 
gas and vice versa and is a companion to the provisions of Chapter 32 of the code. Note that this appendix is for information pur- 
poses and is not intended for adoption. 

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) 
Instructions. This new IFC appendix is intended to assist businesses in establishing a Hazardous Materials Management Plan 
(HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) based on the classification and quantities of materials that would 
be found on site in storage and/or use. The sample forms and available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provide the basis for the 
evaluations. It is also a companion to IFC Sections 407.5 and 407.6 which provide the requirement that the HMIS and HMMP be 
submitted when required by the fire code official. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless spe- 
cifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems — Unsafe Conditions. The purpose of this new IFC appendix, which was developed by the 
ICC Hazard Abatement in Existing Buildings Committee, is to provide the fire code official with a list of conditions that are readily 
identifiable by the inspector during the course of an inspection utilizing the International Fire Code. The specific conditions identi- 
fied in this appendix are primarily derived from applicable NFPA standards and pose a hazard to the proper operation of the respec- 
tive systems. While these do not represent all of the conditions that pose a hazard or otherwise may impair the proper operation of 
fire protection systems, their identification in this adoptable appendix will provide a more direct path for enforcement by the fire 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


xi 



code official. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting 
ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 

Appendix J Emergency Responder Radio Coverage. This new IFC Appendix provides design, installation, testing and mainte- 
nance requirements for the emergency responder communications facilities where required by new IFC Section 510. Included are 
requirements for system performance, primary and secondary power supplies, signal boosters, radio frequencies, installer qualifi- 
cations, acceptance testing and system maintenance. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless 
specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii). 


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TABLE OF CONTENTS 


CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION ... 1 

PART 1— GENERAL PROVISIONS 1 

Section 

101 Scope and General Requirements 1 

102 Applicability I 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 2 

103 Department of Fire Prevention 2 

104 General Authority and Responsibilities 3 

105 Permits 5 

106 Inspections 12 

107 Maintenance 13 

108 Board of Appeals 13 

109 Violations 14 

110 Unsafe Buildings 15 

1 1 1 Stop Work Order 15 

112 Service Utilities 15 

1 1 3 Fees 16 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 17 

Section 

201 General 17 

202 General Definitions 17 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 35 

Section 

301 General 35 

302 Definitions 35 

303 Asphalt Kettles 35 

304 Combustible Waste Material 36 

305 Ignition Sources 36 

306 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 

and Motion Picture and Television 
Production Studio Soundstages and 
Approved Production Facilities and Film .... 37 

307 Open Burning, Recreational Fires and 

Portable Outdoor Fireplaces 37 

308 Open Flames 37 

309 Powered Industrial Trucks and Equipment 39 

310 Smoking 39 

31 1 Vacant Premises 40 

312 Vehicle Impact Protection 41 

313 Fueled Equipment 41 

314 Indoor Displays 41 

2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


315 Miscellaneous Combustible Materials Storage . . 42 

316 Hazards to Fire Fighters 42 

317 Laundry Carts 43 

3 1 8 Collection and Storage of 

Combustible Recyclable Materials 43 

CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PLANNING 

AND PREPAREDNESS 45 

Section 

401 General 45 

402 Definitions 45 

403 Public Assemblages and Events 45 

404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans 46 

405 Emergency Evacuation Drills 47 

406 Employee Training and Response Procedures. . . 48 

407 Hazard Communication 48 

408 Use and Occupancy-related Requirements 49 

CHAPTER 5 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 53 

Section 

501 General 53 

502 Definitions 53 

503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 53 

504 Access to Building Openings and Roofs 54 

505 Premises Identification 55 

506 Key Boxes 55 

507 Fire Protection Water Supplies 55 

508 Fire Command Center 56 

509 Fire Protection Equipment 

Identification and Access 56 

510 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 57 

CHAPTER 6 BUILDING SERVICES 

AND SYSTEMS 59 

Section 

601 General 59 

602 Definitions 59 

603 Fuel-fired Appliances 60 

604 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 62 

605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 64 

606 Mechanical Refrigeration 65 

607 Elevator Recall and Maintenance 67 

608 Stationary Storage Battery Systems 68 

609 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 69 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 


CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 71 

Section 

701 General 71 

702 Definitions 71 

703 Fire-resistance-rated Construction 71 

704 Floor Openings and Shafts 72 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISH, 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS 

AND FURNISHINGS 73 

Section 

801 General 73 

802 Definitions 73 

803 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish and 

Trim in Existing Buildings 73 

804 Interior Wall and Ceiling Trim in 

New and Existing Buildings 75 

805 Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses in 

New and Exisiting Buildings 76 

806 Decorative Vegetation in New and 

Existing Buildings 78 

807 Decorative Materials Other Than Decorative 

Vegetation in New and Existing Buildings ... 78 

808 Furnishings Other than Upholstered 

Furniture and Mattresses or Decorative 
Materials in New and Existing Buildings .... 80 


CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS .... 81 


Section 

901 General 81 

902 Definitions 82 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 85 

904 Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing 

Systems 90 

905 Standpipe Systems .• 93 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 95 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 97 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 107 

909 Smoke Control Systems 107 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 113 

911 Explosion Control 114 

912 Fire Department Connections 115 

913 Fire Pumps 116 

914 Fire Protection Based on Special Detailed 

Requirements of Use and Occupancy 117 


CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 121 

Section 

1001 Administration 121 

1002 Definitions 121 

1003 General Means of Egress 123 

1004 Occupant Load 124 

1005 Egress Width 125 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 125 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 126 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 128 

1009 Stairways 134 

1010 Ramps 137 

101 1 Exit Signs 138 

1012 Handrails 139 

1013 Guards 140 

1014 Exit Access 141 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 143 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 144 

1017 Aisles 145 

1018 Corridors 145 

1019 Egress Balconies 146 

1020 Exits 147 

1021 Number of Exits and Continuity 147 

1022 Exit Enclosures 148 

1023 Exit Passageways 150 

1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 150 

1025 Horizontal Exits 152 

1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 152 

1027 Exit Discharge 153 

1028 Assembly 154 

1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 158 

1030 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 159 

CHAPTER 11 AVIATION FACILITIES 161 

Section 

1 101 General 161 

1 102 Definitions 161 

1103 General Precautions 161 

1104 Aircraft Maintenance 161 

1105 Portable Fire Extinguishers 162 

1106 Aircraft Fueling 162 

1107 Helistops and Heliports 167 


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CHAPTER 12 DRY CLEANING 169 

Section 

1201 General 169 

1202 Definitions 169 

1203 Classifications 169 

1204 General Requirements 169 

1205 Operating Requirements 170 

1206 Spotting and Pretreating 170 

1207 Dry Cleaning Systems 171 

1208 Fire Protection 171 

CHAPTER 13 COMBUSTIBLE DUST- 

PRODUCING OPERATIONS 173 

Section 

1301 General 173 

1302 Definitions 173 

1303 Precautions 173 

1304 Explosion Protection 173 

1305 Dust Collection 173 

CHAPTER 14 FIRE SAFETY DURING 
CONSTRUCTION AND 
DEMOLITION 175 

Section 

1401 General 175 

1402 Definitions 175 

1403 Temporary Heating Equipment 175 

1404 Precautions Against Fire 175 

1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 175 

1406 Flammable Gases 176 

1407 Explosive Materials 176 

1408 Owner’s Responsibility for Fire Protection .... 176 

1409 Fire Reporting 176 

1410 Access for Fire Fighting 176 

1411 Means of Egress 176 

1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection 176 

1413 Standpipes 176 

1414 Automatic Sprinkler System 177 

1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers 177 

1416 Motorized Equipment 177 

1417 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 177 

1418 Combustible Trash Chutes 177 

CHAPTER 15 FLAMMABLE FINISHES 179 

Section 

1501 General 179 


1502 Definitions 179 

1503 Protection of Operations 180 

1504 Spray Finishing 181 

1505 Dipping Operations 185 

1506 Powder Coating 186 

1507 Electrostatic Apparatus 187 

1508 Organic Peroxides and 

Dual-component Coatings 188 

1509 Indoor Manufacturing of 

Reinforced Plastics 188 

1510 Floor Surfacing and Finishing Operations 189 


CHAPTER 16 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING ... 191 


Section 

1601 General 191 

1602 Definitions 191 

1603 Ethylene Gas 191 

1604 Sources of Ignition 191 

1605 Combustible Waste 191 

1606 Ethylene Generators 191 

1607 Warning Signs 191 

CHAPTER 17 FUMIGATION AND THERMAL 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 193 

Section 

1701 General 193 

1702 Definitions 193 

1703 Fire Safety Requirements 193 

CHAPTER 18 SEMICONDUCTOR 

FABRICATION FACILITIES 195 

Section 

1801 General 195 

1802 Definitions 195 

1803 General Safety Provisions 195 

1 804 Storage 199 

1805 Use and Handling 200 


CHAPTER 19 LUMBER YARDS AND 

WOODWORKING FACILITIES. . . 205 


Section 

1901 General 205 

1902 Definitions 205 

1903 General Requirements 205 

1904 Fire Protection 205 

1905 Ply wood, Veneer and Composite Board Mills ...206 

1906 Log Storage Areas 206 


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1907 Storage of Wood Chips and Hogged Material 


Associated with Timber and Lumber 
Production Facilities 206 

1908 Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, 

Hogged Material, Fines, Compost and 

Raw Product Associated with Yard 

Waste and Recycling Facilities 206 

1909 Exterior Storage of Finished 

Lumber Products 207 

CHAPTER 20 MANUFACTURE OF 

ORGANIC COATINGS 209 

Section 

2001 General 209 

2002 Definitions 209 

2003 General Precautions 209 

2004 Electrical Equipment and Protection 209 

2005 Process Structures 210 

2006 Process Mills and Kettles 210 

2007 Process Piping 210 

2008 Raw Materials in Process Areas 211 

2009 Raw Materials and Finished Products 211 

CHAPTER 21 INDUSTRIAL OVENS 213 

Section 

2101 General 213 

2102 Definitions 213 

2103 Location 213 

2104 Fuel Piping 213 

2105 Interlocks 213 

2106 Fire Protection 214 

2107 Operation and Maintenance 214 

CHAPTER 22 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES AND REPAIR 
GARAGES 215 

Section 

2201 General 215 

2202 Definitions 215 

2203 Location of Dispensing Devices 215 

2204 Dispensing Operations 216 

2205 Operational Requirements 217 

2206 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 218 

2207 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 222 

2208 Compressed Natural Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 223 


2209 Hydrogen Motor Fuel-dispensing 

and Generation Facilities 224 

2210 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 228 

221 1 Repair Garages 230 

CHAPTER 23 HIGH-PILED 

COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 233 

Section 

2301 General 233 

2302 Definitions 233 

2303 Commodity Classification 234 

2304 Designation of High-piled Storage Areas 236 

2305 Housekeeping and Maintenance 236 

2306 General Fire Protection and 

Life Safety Features 238 

2307 Solid-piled and Shelf Storage 240 

2308 Rack Storage 240 

2309 Automated Storage 241 

2310 Specialty Storage 241 

CHAPTER 24 TENTS AND OTHER 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 243 

Section 

2401 General 243 

2402 Definitions 243 

2403 Temporary Tents and Membrane 

Structures 243 

2404 Temporary and Permanent Tents 

and Membrane Structures 245 

CHAPTER 25 TIRE REBUILDING 

AND TIRE STORAGE 249 

Section 

2501 General 249 

2502 Definitions 249 

2503 Tire Rebuilding 249 

2504 Precautions Against Fire 249 

2505 Outdoor Storage 249 

2506 Fire Department Access 250 

2507 Fencing 250 

2508 Fire Protection 250 

2509 Indoor Storage Arrangement 250 

CHAPTER 26 WELDING AND 

OTHER HOT WORK 251 

Section 

2601 General 251 

2602 Definitions 251 


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2603 General Requirements 251 

2604 Fire Safety Requirements 252 

2605 Gas Welding and Cutting 253 

2606 Electric Arc Hot Work 253 

2607 Calcium Carbide Systems 253 

2608 Acetylene Generators 253 

2609 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for 

Fuel Gases and Oxygen 254 

CHAPTER 27 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 255 

Section 

2701 General 255 

2702 Definitions 257 

2703 General Requirements 266 

2704 Storage 274 

2705 Use, Dispensing and Handling 277 

CHAPTER 28 AEROSOLS 283 

Section 

2801 General 283 

2802 Definitions 283 

2803 Classification of Aerosol Products 283 

2804 Inside Storage of Aerosol Products 283 

2805 Outside Storage 285 

2806 Retail Display 286 

2807 Manufacturing Facilities 287 

CHAPTER 29 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 289 

Section 

2901 General 289 

2902 Definitions 289 

2903 General Precautions 289 

2904 Loose Fiber Storage 289 

2905 Baled Storage 290 

CHAPTER 30 COMPRESSED GASES 291 

Section 

3001 General 291 

3002 Definitions 291 

3003 General Requirements 291 

3004 Storage of Compressed Gases 295 

3005 Use and Handling of Compressed Gases 295 

3006 Medical Gas Systems 296 

3007 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated . . . 296 


CHAPTER 31 CORROSIVE MATERIALS 297 

Section 

3101 General 297 

3102 Definitions 297 

3103 General Requirements 297 

3 1 04 Storage 297 

3105 Use 297 

CHAPTER 32 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 299 

Section 

3201 General 299 

3202 Definitions 299 

3203 General Requirements 299 

3204 Storage 301 

3205 Use and Handling 302 

CHAPTER 33 EXPLOSIVES 

AND FIREWORKS 305 

Section 

3301 General 305 

3302 Definitions 308 

3303 Record Keeping and Reporting 311 

3304 Explosive Materials Storage and Handling .... 31 1 

3305 Manufacture, Assembly and Testing of 

Explosives, Explosive Materials and 
Fireworks 318 

3306 Small Arms Ammunition 321 

3307 Blasting 322 

3308 Fireworks Display 323 

3309 Temporary Storage of Consumer Fireworks . . . 324 

CHAPTER 34 FLAMMABLE AND 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 325 

Section 

3401 General 325 

3402 Definitions 325 

3403 General Requirements 326 

3404 Storage 330 

3405 Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling 350 

3406 Special Operations 355 


CHAPTER 35 FLAMMABLE GASES 
AND FLAMMABLE 
CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 365 


Section 

3501 General 365 

3502 Definitions 365 


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3503 General Requirements 365 

3504 Storage 366 

3505 Use 366 

3506 Flammable Cryogenic Fluids 366 

3507 Metal Hydride Storage Systems 368 

CHAPTER 36 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 371 

Section 

3601 General 371 

3602 Definitions 371 

3603 General Requirements 371 

3604 Storage 371 

3605 Use 371 

3606 Magnesium 371 

CHAPTER 37 HIGHLY TOXIC AND 

TOXIC MATERIALS 375 

Section 

3701 General 375 

3702 Definitions 375 

3703 Highly Toxic and Toxic 

Solids and Liquids 376 

3704 Highly Toxic and Toxic 

Compressed Gases 377 

3705 Ozone Gas Generators 381 

CHAPTER 38 LIQUEFIED 

PETROLEUM GASES 383 

Section 

3801 General 383 

3802 Definitions 383 

3803 Installation of Equipment 383 

3804 Location of LP-gas Containers 384 

3805 Prohibited Use of LP-gas 384 

3806 Dispensing and Overfilling 384 

3807 Safety Precautions and Devices 384 

3808 Fire Protection 385 

3809 Storage of Portable LP-gas Containers 

Awaiting Use or Resale 385 

3810 LP-gas Containers Not in Service 386 

381 1 Parking and Garaging 387 

CHAPTER 39 ORGANIC PEROXIDES 389 

Section 

3901 General 389 

3902 Definitions 389 

3903 General Requirements 389 


xviii 


3904 Storage 389 

3905 Use 391 

CHAPTER 40 OXIDIZERS, OXIDIZING 
GASES AND OXIDIZING 
CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 393 

Section 

4001 General 393 

4002 Definitions 393 

4003 General Requirements 393 

4004 Storage 394 

4005 Use 396 

4006 Liquid Oxygen in Home Health Care 396 

CHAPTER 41 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 399 

Section 

4101 General 399 

4102 Definitions 399 

4103 General Requirements 399 

4104 Storage 399 

4105 Use 400 

CHAPTER 42 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE 

NITRATE) PLASTICS 401 

Section 

4201 General 401 

4202 Definitions 401 

4203 General Requirements 401 

4204 Storage and Handling 401 

CHAPTER 43 UNSTABLE 

(REACTIVE) MATERIALS 403 

Section 

4301 General 403 

4302 Definitions 403 

4303 General Requirements 403 

4304 Storage 404 

4305 Use 404 

CHAPTER 44 WATER-REACTIVE 

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 405 

Section 

4401 General 405 

4402 Definitions , . . 405 

4403 General Requirements 405 

4404 Storage 405 

4405 Use 406 


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TABLE OF CONTENTS 


CHAPTER 45 MARINAS 407 

Section 

4501 Scope 407 

4502 Definitions 407 

4503 General Precautions 407 

4504 Fire Protection Equipment 407 

4505 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 408 

CHAPTER 46 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 
REQUIREMENTS FOR 


EXISTING BUILDINGS 409 


Section 

4601 General 409 

4602 Definitions 409 

4603 Fire Safety Requirements 

for Existing Buildings 409 

4604 Means of Egress for Existing Buildings 413 

CHAPTER 47 REFERENCED STANDARDS 419 

APPENDIX A BOARD OF APPEALS 429 

Section 

AlOl General 429 

APPENDIX B FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS 

FOR BUILDINGS 431 

Section 

BlOl General 431 

BI02 Definitions 431 

B 1 03 Modifications 431 

B 1 04 Fire-flow Calculation Area 431 

BI05 Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 

in Protected Areas with Adequate and 
Reliable Water Systems 431 

B106 Limiting Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 
in Protected Areas with Adequate and 
Reliable Water Systems 432 

B107 Fire-tlow Requirements for Buildings in 
Protected Areas without Adequate and 
Reliable Water Systems 432 

BIOS Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 

in Unprotected Areas 434 

B109 Referenced Standards 434 

APPENDIX C FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS 

AND DISTRIBUTION 435 

Section 

Cl 01 General 435 

Cl 02 Location 435 

C103 Number of Fire Hydrants 435 


CI04 Consideration of Existing 

Fire Hydrants 435 

C105 Distribution of Fire Hydrants 435 

APPENDIX D FIRE APPARATUS 

ACCESS ROADS 437 

Section 

DIO I General 437 

DI02 Required Access 437 

D103 Minimum Specifications 437 

DI04 Commercial and Industrial Developments 438 

DI05 Aerial Fire Apparatus Access Roads 438 

D106 Multiple-family Residential Developments .... 439 

D107 One- or Two-family Residential 

Developments 439 

DI08 Referenced Standards 439 

APPENDIX E HAZARD CATEGORIES 441 

Section 

ElOl General 441 

El 02 Hazard Categories 441 

El 03 Evaluation of Hazards 445 

El 04 Referenced Standards 446 


APPENDIX F HAZARD RANKING 447 


Section 

FIOI General 447 

FI 02 Referenced Standards 447 

APPENDIX G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS— 

WEIGHT AND VOLUME 
EQUIVALENTS 449 

Section 

GIOl General . 449 


APPENDIX H HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

MANAGEMENT PLAN (HMMP) 
AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 
INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS) 


INSTRUCTIONS 451 

Section 

HIOI HMMP 451 


H102 HMIS 451 

H 1 03 Emergency Plan 452 

HI 04 Referenced Standards 452 

xix 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


APPENDIX I FIRE PROTECTION 

SYSTEMS— NONCOMPLIANT 


CONDITIONS 459 

Section 

1101 Noncompliant Conditions 459 

1102 Referenced Standards 460 

APPENDIX J EMERGENCY RESPONDER 

RADIO COVERAGE 461 

Section 

JlOl General 461 

J102 Definitions 461 

J103 Technical Requirements 461 

J104 Referenced Standards 462 


APPENDIX K FIRE PREVENTION GUIDELINES 
FOR HAUNTED HOUSES AND 


SIMILAR TEMPORARY 
INSTALLATIONS 463 

Section 

KlOl General 463 

K102 Permits 463 

K103 General Requirements 463 

APPENDIX L ADULT FOSTER HOMES 465 

LI 01 General 465 

L102 Definitions 465 

L103 Construction 465 

L104 Exits and Emergency Egress 465 

L105 Flame Spread and Smoke Density 466 

L106 Smoke Alarms 466 

L107 Portable Fire Extinguishers 466 

L108 Heating Equipment 466 

LI 09 Electrical Equipment and Wiring 466 

LI 10 Emergency Procedures 466 

LI 1 1 Special Hazards 467 

APPENDIX M TANK VEHICLE TO TANK 
VEHICLE FUEL TRANSFER 
AT AIRPORTS 469 

MlOl General 469 

Ml 02 Definitions 469 

Ml 03 Site Requirements 469 

M104 Personnel Requirements 469 

M105 Vehicle and Equipment Requirements 469 


APPENDIX N FIRE WATCH 471 

NIOI General 471 

NI02 Definitions 471 

NI03 Requirements 471 

NI04 Documentation 471 

APPENDIX SR GROUP SR-SPECIAL 

(ASSISTED SELF-PRESERVATION) 
OCCUPANCIES 475 

SR 101 General 475 

SR 102 Definitions 475 

SR103 Classification 476 

SR 104 Special Detailed Occupancy Requirements .... 476 

SRI05 Building Height Requirements 477 

SR 1 06 Fire-resistive-rated Construction 477 

SR 107 Fire Protection Systems 477 

SR 1 08 Means of Egress 478 

SR 1 09 Occupancy Classification Guide 479 

INDEX 481 


XX 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


PART 1— GENERAL PROVISIONS 
SECTION 101 

SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Oregon 
Fire Code, hereinafter referred to as “this code.” 

101 .2 Scope. This code establishes regulations affecting or relat- 
ing to structures, processes, premises and safeguards regarding: 

I , The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the stor- 
age, handling or use of structures, materials or devices; 

2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare 
in the occupancy of structures or premises; 

3. Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from 
occupancy or operation; 

4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, 
alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm sys- 
tems; and 

5. Conditions affecting the safety of fire fighters and emer- 
gency responders during emergency operations. 

The following governmental subdivisions may have other 
regulations as long as such regulations are consistent with OAR 
Chapter 837, Division 39. A water district under ORS 264.342 
or a city or county, subject to consent as required by ORS 
478.924, or a rural fire protection district under ORS 478.9 1 0. 

ORS 264.342, 478.9 1 0, 478.924 and OAR 837, Division 39 
are not a part olThis code hut are reproduced or paraphrased 
here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 264.342 allows a domestic water district to adopt a fire 
prevention code. 

ORS 478.9 1 0 allows a rural fire protection distr ict to adopt a 
fire prevention code. 

ORS 478.924 states that the provisions of a fire prevention 
code adopted by a district after October 4, 1 977 shall not ap- 
ply unless approved by the governing body of the city or 
county in which the district exists. 

OAR Chapter 837, Division 39 regulates the administration 
of fire prevention programs. 


101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. The provisions of the fol- 
lowing appendices are adopted as part of this ctxle; B, C, D, 
J, K, L and M. 

101.3 Intent. Tire purpose of this code is to establish tire mini- 
mum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good 
practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety and property 
protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous condi- 
tions in new and existing buildings, structures and premises as 
authorized by ORS 476.030 and to provide safety to fire fighters 
and emergency respondeis during emergency operations. 


ORS 476.030 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476.030 defines the duties and powers of the State Fire 
Marshal to adopt a state fire code. 


101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clau.se or 
phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 

101.5 Validity. In the event any part or provision of this code is 
held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making 
void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions hereof, which 
are detennined to be legal; and it shall be presumed that this 
code would have been adopted without such illegal or invalid 
parts or provisions. 

SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 Construction and design provisions. The construction 
and design provisions of this code shall apply to; 

1. Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the 
adoption of this code. 

2. Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally 
in existence at the time of adoption of this code. 

3. Existing structures, facilities and conditions when 
required in Chapter 46. 

4. Existing structures, facilities and conditions which, in 
the opinion of the fire code official, constitute a distinct 
hazard to life or property. 

102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions. The administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sirsns of this code shall apply to: 

1 . Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of 
this code. 

2. Existing conditions and operations. 

Also see .Section 1 10. 1 .1, ORS 476.030(c) and OAR Chap- 
ter 837, Division 41 . 


ORS 476.030(c) is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476.030(c) defines the rules for maintenance and regu- 
lations of structural fire safety features in occupied struc- 
tures and overseeing the safety and directing the means and 
adequacy of exits in case of fire except that structural 
changes shall not be required in buildings built, occupied 
and maintained in conformity with the state building code 
regulations applicable at the time of construction. 

OAR Chapter 837, Division 41 defines the fire protection 
regulations relating to existing facilities. 


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102.3 Change of use or occupancy. No change shall be made 
in the use or occupancy of any structure that would place the 
structure in a different division of the same group or occupancy 
or in a different group of occupancies, unless such structure is 
made to comply with the requirements of this code and the 
International Building Code. Subject to the approval of the 

I I building code official, the use or occupancy of an existing 
structure shall be allowed to be changed and the structure is 
allowed to be occupied for purposes in other groups without 
conforming to all the requirements of this code and the Interna- 
tional Building Code for those groups, provided the new or 
proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than 
the existing use. 

102.4 Application of building code. The design and construc- 
tion of new structures shall comply with the International 
Building Code, and any alterations, additions, changes in use 
or changes in structures required by this code, which are within 
the scope of the International Building Code, shall be made in 
accordance therewith. 

102.5 Application of residential code. Where structures are 
designed and constructed in accordance with the International 
Residential Code, the provisions of this code shall apply as fol- 
lows: 

1. Construction and design provisions: Provisions of this 
code pertaining to the exterior of the structure shall apply 
including, but not limited to, premises identification, fire 
apparatus access and water supplies. Where interior or 
exterior systems or devices are installed, construction 
permits required by Section 105.7 of this code shall also 
apply. 

2. Administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions: All such provisions of this code shall apply. 

102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating 
to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, 

' relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be 
mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and 
classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings 
when such buildings or structures do not constitute a distinct 
hazard to life or property. Fire protection in designated historic 
buildings and structures shall be provided in accordance with 
an approved fire protection plan. 

102.7 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in 
Chapter 45 and such codes and standards shall be considered 
part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of 
each such reference. Where differences occur between the pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the provi- 
sions of this code shall apply. 

102.8 Subjects not regulated by tbis code. Where no applica- 
ble standards or requirements are set forth in this code, or are 

I I contained within statutes or administrative rules adopted by the 
jurisdiction, compliance with applicable standards of the 
National Fire Protection Association or other nationally recog- 
nized fire safety standards, as approved, shall be deemed as 
prima facie evidence of compliance with the intent of this code. 
Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of the^re 
code official to determine compliance with codes or standards 


for those activities or installations within the fire code official’s 
jurisdiction or responsibility. 

102.9 Matters not provided for. Requirements that are essen- 
tial for the public safety of an existing or proposed activity, 
building or structure, or for the safety of the occupants thereof, 
which are not specifically provided for by this code shall be 
determined by the fire code official. 

102.10 Conflicting provisions. Where there is a conflict 
between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the 
specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in a specific 
case, different sections of this code specify different materials, 
methods of construction or other requirements, the most 
restrictive shall govern. 

102.11 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions oflocal, state or federal law. 

102.12 Application of references. References to chapter or 
section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS I 


SECTION 103 

DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 

103.1 (Not adopted) General. The department offire preven- 
tion is established within the jurisdiction under the direction of 
the fire code official. The function of the department shall be 
the implementation, administration and enforcement of the 
provisions of this code. 

103.2 (Not adopted) Appointment. The fire code official shall 
be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the Jurisdic- 
tion; and the fire code official shall not be removed front office 
except for cause and after full opportunity to be heard on spe- 
cific and relevant charges by and before the appointing author- 
ity. 

103.3 (Not adopted) Deputies. In accordance with the pre- 
scribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concur- 
rence of the appointing authority, the fire code official shall 
have the authority to appoint a deputy fire code official, other 
related technical officers, inspectors and other employees. 

103.4 (Not adopted) Liability. The fire code official, member 
of the board of appeals, officer or employee charged with the 
enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction, in 
good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties 
required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall 
not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is hereby 
relieved from all personal liability for any damage accruing to 
persons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an act 
or omission in the discharge of official duties. See ORS 30.265. 


ORS 30.265 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 30.265 defines the scope of liability of public body of- 
ficers, employees and agents. 


2 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


103.4.1 (Not adopted) Legal defense. Any suit instituted 
against any officer or employee because of an act performed 
by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties 
and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by 
the legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final ter- 
mination of the proceedings. The fire code official or any 
subordinate shall not be liable for costs in an action, suit or 
proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions 
of this code; and any officer of the department of fire preven- 
tion, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be free 
from liability for acts performed under any of its provisions 
or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of 
official duties in connection therewith. See ORS 30.285 or 
ORS 30.287. 


ORS 30.285 or ORS 30.287 are not a part of this code but are 
reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 30.285 Public body shall indemnify public officers; 
procedures for requesting counsel; extent of duty of state; 
obligation for judgment and attorney fees. 

ORS 30.287 Counsel for public officer; when public funds 
not to be paid in settlement; effect on liability limit; defen.se 
by insurer. 


103.5 Cooperation with other agencies. For regulations 
regarding interagency cooperation, see ORS 455.150(8), ORS 
479.165, OAR 918-020-0010, OAR 918-020-0020 and OAR 
837-039-0110. 


ORS 455. 1 50(8), ORS 479. 1 65, OAR 9 1 8-020-00 1 0, OAR 
9 1 8-020-0020 and OAR 837-039-0 1 1 0 are not a part of this 
code but are reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s 
convenience. 

ORS 455.150(8) requires municipalities to create a written 
plan that specifies how cooperation with the State Fire Mar- 
shal or designee of the State Fire Marshal will be achieved 
and how a uniform fire code will be considered in the review 
process of the design and construction phases of buildings or 
structures. 

ORS 479.165 requires the State Fire Marshal to develop 
rules establishing certification of fire officials who review 
plans, new construction, alterations and specifications from 
a uniform fire code. 

OAR 918-020-0010 and 918-020-0020 establish a mini- 
mum standard for procedures of cooperation between local 
municipalities and the State Fire Marshal or a designee of the 
State Fire Marshal. 

OAR 837-039-0110 establishes standards for certification 
of fire officials who review plans, new construction, alter- 
ations and specifications from a fire code. 


SECTION 104 

GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

104.1 General. The fire code official is hereby authorized to 
enforce the provisions of this code as directed in ORS 476.060 
and OAR Chapter 837, Division 39 and shal 1 have the authority 
to adopt policies, procedures, rules and regulations in order to 


clarify the application of its provisions. Modifications to this 
code shall not be less stringent than the minimum fire code 
adopted by the State Fire Marshal. Such policies, procedures, 
rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and 
purpose of this code and shall not have the effect of waiving 
requirements specifically provided for in this code. 


ORS 476.060 and OAR Chapter 837, Division 39 are not a 
part of this code but are reproduced or paraphrased here for 
the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476.060 designates local fire marshals, local fire chiefs 
and chief of police as assistants to the State Fire Marshal by 
virtue of office held. 

OAR Chapter 837, Division 39 regulates the administration 
of fire prevention programs. 

OAR 837-039-001 5(2)(b) allows a governmental subdivi- 
sion to adopt a code that is consistent with state fire protec- 
tion statutes and, is equal to or more stringent than, the fire 
code promulgated by the State Fire Marshal. 


104.2 Applications and permits. The fire code official is 
authorized to receive applications, review construction docu- 
ments and issue permits for construction regulated by this code, 
issue permits for operations regulated by this code, inspect the 
premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce 
compliance with the provisions of this code. 

104.3 (Not adopted) Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary 
to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or 
whenever the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe 
that there exi.sls in a building or upon any premises any condi- 
tions or violations of this code which make the building or pre- 
mises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the fire code official 
shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all 
reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed 
upon the fire code official by this code. If such building or pre- 
mises is occupied, the fire code official shall present creden- 
tials to the occupant and request entry’. If such building or 
premises is unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make a 
reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having 
charge or control of the building or premises and request entry. 
If entry’ is refused, the fire code official has recourse to every 
remedy provided by law to secure entry. 

104.3.1 Right to entry. The State Fire Marshal, Deputy 
State Fire Marshal or assistants to the State Fire Marshal 
may at all reasonable hours, enter into all buildings and 
upon all premises, except private residences, for the pur- 
po.se of inspection to ascertain if fire hazards exist therein or 
thereon as authorized by ORS 476.150(1). 


ORS 476.150(1) is not a part of this code but is reproduced 
or paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476. 1 50( I ) grants permission to the State Fire Marshal 
and deputies, at all reasonable hours, to enter into all build- 
ings and upon all premises, except private residences, for the 
purpose of inspection to ascertain if fire hazards exist therein 
or thereon. 


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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


104.3.2 Warrant. When the fire code official has first 
obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy pro- 
vided by law to secure entry, an owner or occupant or person 
having charge, care or control of the building or premises 
shall not fail or neglect, after proper request is made as 
herein provided, to permit entry therein by the fire code offi- 
cial for the purpose of inspection and examination pursuant 
to this code. (See ORS 476.155, 476.160, 476.165 and 
476.170.) 

ORS 476. 1 55, 476. 1 60, 476. 1 65 and 476. 1 70 are not a part 
of this code but are reproduced or paraphrased here for the 
reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476. 1 55 defines when judges are authorized to issue in- 
spection warrants. 

ORS 476. 1 60 defines circumstances under which a warrant 
may be issued. 

ORS 476. 1 65 defines established cause to issue a warrant. 
ORS 476.170 defines execution of a warrant. 


104.4 Identification. The fire code official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.5 Notices and orders. The fire code official is authorized 
to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect compli- 
ance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 and 
109.2. 

104.6 Official records. The fire code official shall keep official 
records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 104.6.4. Such 
official records shall be retained for not less than five years or 
for as long as the structure or activity to which such records 
relate remains in existence, unless otherwise provided by other 
regulations in accordance with Oregon Revised Statute 192, 
Public and Private Records; Public Reports and Meetings. 

104.6.1 Approvals. A record of approvals shall be main- 
tained by the fire code official and shall be available for pub- 
lie inspeetion during business hours in accordance with 
applicable laws. 

104.6.2 Inspections. The fire code official shall keep a 
record of each inspection made, including notices and 
orders issued, showing the findings and disposition of each. 

104.6.3 (Not adopted) Fire records. The fire department 
shall keep a record of fires occurring within its jurisdiction 
and of facts concerning the same, including statistics as to 
the extent of such fires and the damage caused thereby, 
together with other information as required by the fire code 
official. 

104.6.3.1 Fire records and reports. Fire records shall 
be kept by the State Fire Marshal in accordance with 
ORS 476.090. 

Fire reports shall be provided to the State Fire Marshal 
in accordance with ORS 476.210(2), ORS 476.220 and 
ORS 476.270. 


ORS 476.090, ORS 476.210(2), ORS 476.220 and ORS 
476.270 are not a part of this code but are reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476.090 requires the State Fire Marshal to keep records 
of all fires occurring within the state and all facts concerning 
the fires. 

ORS 476.2 10(2) requires the fire chief of every city or rural 
fire protection district to provide the State Fire Marshal with 
a report of every fire occurring within the jurisdiction of the 
fire chief 

ORS 476.220 requires the officer making an investigation of 
a fire to notify the State Fire Marshal and within one week of 
the occurrence, shall forward the State Fire Marshal a writ- 
ten statement of all facts as requested by the forms provided 
by the State Fire Marshal. 

ORS 476.270 requires an insurance company to immedi- 
ately make a report to the State Fire Marshal if the insurance 
company has reason to believe that a fire loss to its insured 
was caused by incendiary means. 


104.6.4 Administrative. Application for modification, 
alternative methods or materials and the final decision of the 
fire code official shall be in writing and shall be officially 
recorded in the permanent records of the fire code official. 

104.7 Approved materials and equipment. All materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the fire code official shall 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.7.1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled unless 
such elements have been reconditioned, tested and placed in 
good and proper working condition and approved. 

104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptabil- 
ity of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials 
and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building 
or premises subject to inspection by the fire code official, the 
fire code official is authorized to require the owner or agent 
to provide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a technical 
opinion and report. The opinion and report shall be prepared 
by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire safety 
specialty organization acceptable to the fire code official 
and shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, 
operation or use of the building or premises and the facilities 
and appurtenances situated thereon, to recommend neces- 
sary changes. The fire code official is authorized to require 
design submittals to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of a 
registered design professional. 

104.8 Modifications. Whenever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the fire 
code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for 
individual cases, provided the fire code official shall first find 
that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details 


4 


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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered 
in the files of the department of fire prevention. The State Fire 
Marshal may make adjustments and variances to this code 
under ORS 476.035. 


ORS 476.035 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476.035 gives the State Fire Marshal the power to 
make adjustments, variances or exceptions to specific re- 
quirements of this code on a statewide, regional, jurisdic- 
tional or geographical use basis when the State Fire 
Marshal determines that application of the requirements 
are impossible, impractical, create unnecessary bardshipor 
create consequences inconsistent with the general purpose 
of the code. 


104.9 Alternative materials and methods. The provisions of 
this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any 
material or to prohibit any method of construction not specifi- 
cally prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative 
has been approved. The fire code official is authorized to 
approve an alternative material or method of construction 
where the^ire code official finds that the proposed design is .sat- 
isfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this 
code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the 
purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in 
this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, 
durability and safety. 

104.9.1 Research reports. Supporting data, when neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

104.9.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence 
that a material or method does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternative materials or methods, the^re code official shall 
have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance 
to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods 
shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized lest 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test 
methods, the fire code official shall approve the testing pro- 
cedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. 
Reports of such tests shall be retained by thtfire code offi- 
cial for the period required for retention of public records. 

104.10 (Not adopted) Fire investigations. The fire code offi- 
cial, the fire department or other responsible authority shall 
have the authority to investigate the cause, origin and circum- 
stances of any fire, explosion or other hazardous condition. 
Information that could be related to trade secrets or processes 
shall not be made part of the public record except as directed by 
a court of law. 

104.10.1 Fire investigations. Fire investigations shall be in 
accordance with ORS 476.030(4) and ORS 476.210(1). 

104.10.2 Assistance from other agencies. Police and other 
enforcement agencies shall have authority to render neces- 
sary assistance in the investigation of fires when requested 
to do so. 


ORS 476.030(4) and 476.2 10(1) are not a part of this code 
but are reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s con- 
venience. 

ORS 476.030(4) gives the State Fire Marshal the authority to 
investigate or cause an investigation to determine the proba- 
ble cause, origin and circumstances of any fire. 

ORS 476.210(1) requires the municipal fire marshal, fire de- 
partment chief, constables and other officers referred to in 
ORS 476.060 to investigate the cause, origin and circum- 
stances of each fire occurring in their respective jurisdictions. 


104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The fire 
chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of a 
fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or prop- 
erty or any part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such 
operation as necessary to extinguish or control any fire, per- 
form any rescue operation, investigate the existence of sus- 
pected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazardous 
conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in 
the reasonable performance of duty. In tbe exercise of such 
power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any person, vehi- 
cle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene and is autho- 
rized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the 
scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing which could impede or inter- 
fere with the operations of the fire department and, in the judg- 
ment of the fire chief, any person not actually and usefully 
employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in the preserva- 
tion of property in the vicinity thereof 

104.11.1 Barricades. The fire chief or officer of the fire 
department in charge at the scene of an emergency is autho- 
rized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions 
across any street, alley, place or private property in the vicin- 
ity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or interfer- 
ence with the lawful efforts of the fire department to manage 
and control the situation and to handle fire apparatus. 

104.11.2 Obstructing operations. No person shall 
obstruct the operations of the fire department in connection 
with extinguishment or control of any fire, or actions rela- 
tive to other emergencies, or disobey any lawful command 
of the fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge of 
the emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a 
police officer assisting the fire department. 

104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render a 
system or device inoperative during an emergency unless by 
direction of the fire chief or fire department official in 
charge of the incident. 


SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 General. Permits shall be in accordance with Sections 

105.1.1 through 105.7.14. 

105.1.1 Permits required. Permits required by this code 
shall be obtained from the fire code official. Permit fees, if 
any, shall be paid prior to issuance of the permit. When oth- 
erwise required by law, or rule, a permit, license or certifica- 
tion shall also be obtained from the State Fire Marshal. 


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Issued permits shall be kept on the premises designated 
therein at all times and shall be readily available for inspec- 
tion by ihcfire code official. 

105.1.2 Types of permits. There shall be two types of per- 
mits as follows: 

1. Operational permit. An operational permit allows the 
applicant to conduct an operation or a business for 
which a permit is required by Section 1 05.6 for either: 

1 . 1 . A prescribed period. 

1.2. Until renewed or revoked. 

2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows 
the applicant to install or modify systems and equip- 
ment for which a permit is required by Section 105.7. 

105.1.3 Permits for the same location. When more than 
one permit is required for the same location, the fire code 
ofiicial is authorized to consolidate such permits into a sin- 
gle permit-provided that each provision is listed in the per- 
mit. 

105.2 Application. When a permit is required by Section 1 05.6 
or 105.7, the application shall be made to the fire code official 
in such form and detail as prescribed by the fire code official. 
Applications for permits shall be accompanied by such plans as 
prescribed by the fire code official. 

105.2.1 Refusal to issue permit. If the application for a per- 
mit describes a use that does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances, 
the fire code official shall not issue a permit, but shall return 
the application to the applicant with the refusal to issue such 
permit. Such refusal shall, when requested, be in writing 
and shall contain the reasons for refusal. 

105.2.2 Inspection authorized. Before a new operational 
permit is approved, the fire code official is authorized to 
inspect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, devices, pre- 
mises, storage spaces or areas to be used to determine com- 
pliance with this code or any operational constraints 
required. 

105.2.3 Time limitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work or operation shall be 
deemed to have been abandoned 1 80 days after the date of 
filing, unless such application has been diligently prose- 
cuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the fire 
code official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of 
time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The 
extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause 
demonstrated. 

105.2.4 Action on application. The fire code official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the. fire code 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the fire code official is satisfied that the 
proposed work or operation conforms to the requirements 
of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the 
fire code official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as 
practicable. 


105.3 Conditions of a permit. A permit shall constitute per- 
mission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to conduct 
processes which produce conditions hazardous to life or prop- 
erty; or to install equipment utilized in connection with such 
activities; or to install or modify any fire protection system or 
equipment or any other construction, equipment installation or 
modification in accordance with the provisions of this code 
where a permit is required by Section 105.6or 105.7. Such per- 
mission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or 
set aside any of the provisions of this code or other applicable 
regulations or laws of the jurisdiction. 

105.3.1 Expiration. An operational permit shall remain in 
effect until reissued, renewed, or revoked or for such a 
period of time as specified in the permit. Construction per- 
mits shall automatically become invalid unless the work 
authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days 
after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is 
suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the 
time the work is commenced. Before such work recom- 
mences, a new permit shall be first obtained and the fee to 
recommence work, if any, shall be one-half the amount 
required for a new permit for such work, provided no 
changes have been made or will be made in the original con- 
struction documents for such work, and provided further 
that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one 
year. Permits are not transferable and any change in occu- 
pancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall require that a 
new permit be issued. 

105.3.2 Extensions. A permittee holding an unexpired per- 
mit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time 
within which the permittee will commence work under that 
permit when work is unable to be commenced within the 
time required by this seetion for good and satisfactory rea- 
sons. The fire code official is authorized to grant, in writing, 
one or more extensions of the time period of a permit for 
periods of not more than 180 days each. Such extensions 
shall be requested by the permit holder in writing and justifi- 
able cause demonstrated. 

105.3.3 Occupancy prohibited before approval. The 

building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire 
code official issuing a permit and conducting associated 
inspections indicating the applicable provisions of this code 
have been met. 

105.3.4 Conditional permits. Where permits are required 
and upon the request of a permit applicant, the fire code offi- 
cial is authorized to issue a conditional permit to occupy the 
premises or portion thereof before the entire work or opera- 
tions on the premises is completed, provided that such por- 
tion or portions will be occupied safely prior to full 
completion or installation of equipment and operations 
without endangering life or public welfare. The fire code 
official shall notify the permit applicant in writing of any 
limitations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit area 
safe. The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed only 
to the point for which approval has been given, at the permit 
holder’s own risk and without assurance that approval for 
the occupancy or the utilization of the entire premises, 
equipment or operations will be granted. 


6 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


105.3.5 Posting the permit. Issued permits shall be kept on 
the premises designated therein at all times and shall be 
readily available for inspection by Ibe fire code ojficial. 

105.3.6 Compliance with code. The issuance or granting of 
a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the Jurisdiction 
shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on con- 
struction documents and other data shall not prevent the fire 
code official from requiring the correction of errors in the 
construction documents and other data. Any addition to or 
alteration of approved construction documents shall be 
approved in advance by the fire code official, as evidenced 
by the issuance of a new or amended permit. 

105.3.7 Information on the permit. The /ire code ojficial 
shall issue all permits required by this code on an approved 
form furnished for that purpose. The permit shall contain a 
general description of the operation or occupancy and its 
location and any other information required by the/ire code 
official. Issued permits shall bear the signature of the fire 
code official or other approved legal authorization. 

105.3.8 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a 
permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction 
shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on con- 
struction documents, operational documents and other data 
shall not prevent the fire code official from requiring correc- 
tion of errors in the documents or other data. 

105.4 Construction documents. Construction documents 
shall be in accordance with this section. 

105.4.1 Submittals. Construction documents and support- 
ing data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each 
application for a permit and in such form and detail as 
required by the fire code official. The construction docu- 
ments shall be prepared by a registered design professional 
where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to waive 
the submission of construction documents and support- 
ing data not required to be prepared by a registered 
design professional if it is found that the nature of the 
work applied for is such that review of construction doc- 
uments is not necessary to obtain compliance with this 
code. 

105.4.1.1 Examination of documents. The fire code 
official shall examine or cause to be examined the 
accompanying construction documents and shall ascer- 
tain by such examinations whether the work indicated 
and described is in accordance with the requirements of 
this code. 


105.4.2 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable 
material. Electronic media documents are allowed to be 
submitted when approved by the fire code official. Con- 
struction documents shaW be of sufficient clarity to indicate 
the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this 
code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as 
determined by the fire code official. 

105.4.2.1 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop 
drawings for the fire protections system(s) shall be sub- 
mitted to indicate compliance with this code and the con- 
struction documents and shall be approved prior to the 
start of installation. Shop drawings shall contain all 
information as required by the referenced installation 
standards in Chapter 9. 

105.4.3 Applicant responsibility. It shall be the responsi- 
bility of the applicant to ensure that the construction docu- 
ments include all of the fire protection requirements and the 
shop drawings are complete and in compliance with the 
applicable codes and standards. 

105.4.4 Approved documents. Construction documents 
approved by the fire code official are approved with the 
intent that such construction documents comply in all 
respects with this code. Review and approval by the fire 
code official shall not relieve the applicant of the responsi- 
bility of compliance with this code. 

105.4.4.1 Phased approval. The fire code official is 
authorized to issue a permit for the construction of part of 
a structure, system or operation before the construction 
documents for the whole structure, system or operation 
have been submitted, provided that adequate information 
and detailed statements have been filed complying with 
pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such 
permit for parts of a structure, system or operation shall 
proceed at the holder’s own risk with the building opera- 
tion and without assurance that a permit for the entire 
structure, system or operation will be granted. 

105.4.5 Corrected documents. Where field conditions 
necessitate any substantial change from the approved con- 
struction documents, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require the corrected construction documents to 
be submitted for approval. 

105.4.6 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

construction documents shall be retained by the fire code 
official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of 
completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or 
local laws. One set of approved construction documents 
shall be returned to the applicant, and said set shall be kept 
on the site of the building or work at all times during whieh 
the work authorized thereby is in progress. 

105.5 Revocation. The/tre code official is authorized to revoke 
a permit issued under the provisions of this code when it is 
found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a false 
statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in the 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


7 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


application or construction documents on which the permit or 
approval was based including, but not limited to, any one of the 
following: 

1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other 
than that for which it was issued. 

2. The permit is used for a condition or activity other than 
that listed in the permit. 

3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have 
been violated. 

4. There have been any false statements or misrepresenta- 
tions as to the material fact in the application for permit 
or plans submitted or a condition of the permit. 

5. The permit is used by a different person or firm than the 
name for which it was issued. 

6. The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply 
with orders or notices duly served in accordance with the 
provisions of this code within the time provided therein. 

7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of an ordi- 
nance, regulation or this code. 

105.6 Required operational permits. An operational permit 
as authorized by law or regulation shall be obtained from the 
State Fire Marshal for the operations set forth in Sections 
105.6A through 105. 6E. When a governmental subdivision has 
enacted regulations, the local fire code official may issue oper- 
ational permits for the operations set forth in Sections 105. 6A 
through 105.6.46. 

105,6A Fireworks, agricultural. An operational Agricul- 
tural Fireworks Permit is required to use or explode fire- 
works to scare or repel birds or animals under ORS 480. 1 22. 

105.6B Fireworks, public display of. An operational Pub- 
lic Display of Fireworks Permit is required to hold a display 
of fireworks under ORS 480.130. 

105.6C Fireworks, retail sales. An operational Retail Sales 
of Fireworks Permit is required to sell fireworks at retail to 
individual members of the general public as described in 
ORS 480.127. 

105.6D Fireworks, wholesale. An operational Wholesale 
Fireworks Permit is required to sell fireworks to agricul- 
tural, public display and retail sales permit holders under 
ORS 480.130. It does not authorize the sale of fireworks to 
the general public. 

10S.6E Institutions. A temporary operational permit may 
be issued in lieu of inspection approval by the State Fire 
Marshal or governmental subdivision having authority in an 
area exempted for licensed institutions inspected under 
ORS 479.2 15. 

105.6.1 Aerosol products. An operational permit is 
required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quan- 
tity of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 500 
pounds (227 kg) net weight. 

105.6.2 Amusement buildings. An operational permit is 
required to operate a special amusement building. 


105.6.3 Aviation facilities. An operational permit is 
required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft 
servicing or repair and aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. 
Additional permits required by other sections of this code 
include, but are not limited to, bot work, hazardous materi- 
als and flammable or combustible finishes. 

105.6.4 Carnivals and fairs. An operational permit is 
required to conduct a carnival or fair. 

105.6.5 Cellulose nitrate film. An operational permit is 
required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a 
Group A occupancy. 

105.6.6 Combustible dust-producing operations. An 

operational permit is required to operate a grain elevator, 
flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, 
coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations 
producing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2. 

105.6.7 Combustible fibers. An operational permit is 
required for the storage and handling of combustible fibers 
in quantities greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m^). 

Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural stor- 
age. 

105.6.8 Compressed gases. An operational permit is 
required for the storage, use or handling atnormal tempera- 
ture and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess of 
the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8. 

Exception: Vehicles equipped for and using compressed 
gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle. 

TABLE 105.6.8 


PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES 


TYPE OF GAS 

AMOUNT 
(cubic feet at NTP) 

Corrosive 

200 

Flammable (except cryogenic fluids 
and liquefied petroleum gases) 

200 

Highly toxic 

Any Amount 

Inert and simple asphyxiant 

6,000 

Oxidizing (including oxygen) 

504 

Pyrophoric 

Any Amount 

Toxic 

Any Amount 


For SI: I cubic foot = 0.02832 m’. 

105.6.9 Covered mall buildings. An operational permit is 
required for: 


1 . The placement of retail fixtures and displays, conces- 
sion equipment, displays of highly combustible 
goods and similar items in the mall. 

2. The display of liquid- orgas-fired equipment in the mall. 

3. The use of open-flame or flame-producing equipment 
in the mall. 

105.6.10 Cryogenic fluids. An operational permit is 
required to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or 


8 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


dispense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in 
Table 105.6.10. 

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles 
equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for 
propelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading. 

TABLE 105.6.10 


PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 


TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID 

INSIDE BUILDING 
(gallons) 

OUTSIDE BUILDING 
(gallons) 

Flammable 

More than 1 

60 

Inert 

60 

500 

Oxidizing (includes oxygen) 

10 

50 

Physical or health hazard not 
indicated above 

Any Amount 

Any Amount 


For SI: I gallon = 3.785 L. 

105.6.11 Cutting and welding. An operational permit is 
required to conduct cutting or welding operations within the 
jurisdiction. 

105.6.12 Dry cleaning plants. An operational permit is 
required to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to 
change to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in exist- 
ing dry cleaning equipment. 

105.6.13 Exhibits and trade shows. An operational permit 
is required to operate exhibits and trade shows. 

105.6.14 Explosives. An operational permit is required for 
the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any quan- 
tity of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks or pyro- 
technic special effects within the scope of Chapter 33. 

Exception: Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of 
smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms 
pri mers for personal use, not for resale and i n accordance 
with Section 3306. 

105.6.15 Fire hydrants and valves. An operational permit 
is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves intended 
for fire suppression purposes which are installed on water 
systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access road that is 
open to or generally used by the public. 

Exception: A permit is not required for authorized 
employees of the watercompany that supplies the system 
or the fire department to use or operate ftre hydrants or 
valves. 

105.6.16 Flammable and combustible liquids. An opera- 
tional permit is required: 

1. To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation 
within facilities of flammable or combustible liq- 
uids. This requirement shall not apply to the off-site 
transportation in pipelines regulated by the Depart- 
ment of Transportation (DOTn) nor does it apply to 
piping systems, 

2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 5 
gallons (1 9 L) in a building or in excess of 1 0 gallons 
(37.9 L) outside of a building, except that a permit is 
not required for the following; 


2. 1 . The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel 
tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, 
mobile power plant or mobile heating plant, 
unless such storage, in the opinion of the code 
official, would cause an unsafe condition. 

2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or 
similar flammable mixtures when such liquids 
are stored for maintenance, painting or similar 
purposes for a period of not more than 30 day s. 

3. To store, handle or use Class II or Class IIIA liquids 
in excess of 25 gallons (95 L) in a building or in 
excess of 60 gallons (227 L) outside a building, 
except for fuel oil used in connection with oil-burn- 
ing equipment. 

4. To store, handle or use Class IIIB liquids in tanks or 
portable tanks for fueling motor vehicles at motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities or where connected to 
fuel-burning equipment. 

Exception: Fuel oil and used motor oil used for 
space heating or water heating. 

5. To remove Class I or II liquids from an underground 
storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles by any 
means other than the approved, stationary on-site 
pumps normally used for dispensing purposes. 

6. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, 
terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refiner- 
ies, distilleries and similar facilities where flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids are produced, 
processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used. 

7. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 
90 days) an underground, protected above-ground 
or above-ground flammable or combustible liquid 
tank. 

8. To change the type of contents stored in a flammable 
or combustible liquid tank to a material that poses a 
greater hazard than that for which the tank was 
designed and constructed. 

9. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable 
or combustible liquids. 

10. To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the 
fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, indus- 
trial, governmental or manufacturing establish- 
ments. 

11. To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels 
from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehi- 
cles, marine craft and other special equipment at 
commercial, industrial, governmental or manufac- 
turing establishments. 

105.6.17 Floor finishing. An operational permit is required 
for lloor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 350 
square feet (33 m^) using Class I or Class II liquids. 

105.6.18 Fruit and crop ripening. An operational permit is 
required to operate a fruit- or crop-ripening facility or con- 
duct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


9 




SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


105.6.19 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging. 

An operational permit is required to operate a business of 
fumigation or themial insecticidal fogging and to maintain a 
room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumi- 
gant is used. 

105.6.20 Hazardous materials. An operational permit is 
required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle 
hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 
105.6,20. 

105.6.21 HPM facilities. An operational permit is required 
to store, handle or use hazardous production materials. 

105.6.22 High-piled storage. An operational permit is 
required to use a building or portion thereof as a high-piled 
storage area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m^). 

105.6.23 Hot work operations. An operational permit is 
required for hot work including, but not limited to: 

1. Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot 
work is conducted. 

2. Use of portable hot work equipment inside a structure. 

Exception: Work that is conducted under a con- 
struction permit. 

3. Fixed-site hot work equipment such as welding booths. 

I 4, Hot work conducted within a wildfire risk area. 

5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an 
open-flame device. 

6. When approved, the fire code official shall issue a per- 
mit to carry out a hot work program. This program 
allows approved personnel to regulate their facility's 
hot work operations. The approved persontiel shall be 
trained in the fire safety aspects denoted in this chapter 
and shall be responsible for issuing permits requiring 
compliance with the requirements found in Chapter 26. 
These permits shall be issued only to their employees 
or hot work operations under their supervision. 

105.6.24 Industrial ovens. An operational permit is 
required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by 
Chapter 2 1 . 

105.6.25 Lumber yards and woodworking plants. An 

operational permit is required for the storage or processing of 
lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8333 ff) (236 nf). 

105.6.26 Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in 
assembly buildings. An operational permit is required to 
display, operate or demonstrate liquid- or gas-fueled vehi- 
cles or equipment in assembly buildings. 

105.6.27 LP-gas. An operational permit is required for: 

1 . Storage and use of LP-gas. 

Exception: A permit is not required for individual 
containers with a 500-gallon (1893 L) water 
capacity or less serving occupancies in Group R-3. 

2. Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP-gas. 

105.6.28 Magnesium. An operational permit is required to 
melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) 
of magnesium. 


TABLE 105.6.20 

PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 


TYPE OF MATERIAL 

AMOUNT 

Combustible liuuid.s 

See Section 105.6.16 

Corrosive materials 


Gases 

See Section 105.6.8 

Liquids 

55 gallons 

Solids 

1000 pounds 

Explosive nialcrial.s 

See Section 105.6.14 

flammable materials 


Gases 

See Section 105.6.8 

Liquids 

See .Section 10.5.6.16 

Soiid.s 

ItX) pounds 

Mighly toxic materials 


Ga.ses 

See Section 105.6.8 

Liquids 

Any Amount 

Solids 

Any Amount 

Oxidizing materials 


Gases 

See Section 105.6.8 

Liquids 


Class 4 

Any Amount 

Cla.'iS .r 

1 gallon‘‘ 

Class 2 

10 gallons 

Cla.ss 1 

55 gallons 

Solids 


Class 4 

Any Amount 

Class 3 

10 pounds^ 

Class 2 

100 pounds 

Class 1 

500 pounds 

Organic peroxides 


Liquids 


Class 1 

Any Amount 

Class II 

Any Amount 

Class III 

1 gallon 

Class IV 

2 gallons 

Class V 

No Permit Required 

Solids 


Class 1 

Any Amount 

Class II 

Any Amount 

Clas.s III 

10 pounds 

Class IV 

20 pounds 

Class V 

No Permit Required 

Pyrophoric materials 


Gases 

Any Amount 

1. (quids 

Any Amount 

Solids 

Anv Amount 

Toxic materials 


Gases 

See Section 105.6.8 

Liquids 

10 gallons 

Solids 

100 pounds 

Unstable (reactive) materials 


Liquids 


Class 4 

Any Amount 

Class 3 

Any Amount 

Class 2 

5 gallons 

Class 1 

10 gallons 

Solids 


Class 4 

Anv Ajnounl 

Class 3 

Any Amount 

Class 2 

50 pounds 

Class 1 

100 pounds 

Water-reactive materials 


Liquids 


Class 3 

Any Amount 

Class 2 

5 gallons 

Class 1 

55 gallons 

Solids 


Class 3 

Any Amount 

Class 2 

50 pourid.s 

Class 1 

500 pounds 


I'br SI: I gallon = 3.785 L, I pound = 0.4.54 kg. 

a. 20 gallons when Table 2703.1.1(1) Nole k applies and hazard idenfificafion .signs in 
accordance wiih Section 2703.5 are provided for quanlitie.s of 2() gallons or les.s. 

b. 200 pounds when Table 2703. 1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification sign.s in 
accordance with Section 2703.5 are provided for quantities of 2(K) pounds or less. 


10 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


105.6.29 Miscellaneous combustible storage. An opera- 
tional permit is required to store in any building or upon any 
premises in excess of 2,500 cubic feet (7 1 m^) gross volume 
of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or simi- 
lar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or similar combus- 
tible material. 

105.6.30 Open burning. An operational permit is required 
for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or a fire on 
any public street, alley, road, or other public or private 
ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit shall be 
adhered to. 

Exception; Recreational fires. 

105.6.31 Open flames and torches. An operational permit 
is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or 
open-flame device in a wildfire risk area. 

105.6.32 Open flames and candles. An operational permit 
is required to use open flames or candles in connection with 
assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking 
establishments. 

105.6.33 Organic coatings. An operational permit is 
required for any organic-coating manufacturing operation 
producing more than I gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in 
one day. 

105.6.34 Places of assembly. An operational permit is 
required to operate a place of assembly. 

105.6.35 Private fire hydrants. An operational permit is 
required for the removal from service, use or operation of 
private fire hydrants. 

Exception: A permit is not required for private industry 
with trained maintenance personnel, private fire brigade 
or fire departments to maintain, test and use private 
hydrants. 

105.6.36 Pyrotechnic special effects material. An opera- 
tional permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic 
special effects material. 

105.6.37 Pyroxylin plastics. An operational permit is 
required for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds (1 1 
kg) of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics and for the 
assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin 
plastics. 

105.6.38 Refrigeration equipment. An operational permit 
is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or sys- 
tem regulated by Chapter 6. 

105.6.39 Repair garages and motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities. An operational permit is required for operation of 
repair garages and automotive, marine and fleet motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities. 

105.6.40 Rooftop heliports. An operational permit is 
required for the operation of a rooftop heliport. 

105.6.41 Spraying or dipping. An operational permit is 
required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utiliz- 
ing flammable or combustible liquids or the application of 
combustible powders regulated by Chapter 15. 


105.6.42 Storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts. An 

operational permit is required to establish, conductor main- 
tain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 
2,500 cubic feet (7 1 m') of total volume of scrap tires and for 
indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts. 

105.6.43 Temporary membrane structures and tents. An 

operational permit is required to operate an air-supported 
temporary membrane structure or a tent having an area in 
excess of 400 square feet (37 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Tents open on all sides, which comply with all of 
the following: 

2. 1 . Individual tents having a maximum size of 
700 square feet (65 m^). 

2.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed 
side by side without a fire break clearance 
of not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) shall not 
exceed 700 square feet (65 m^) total. 

2.3. A minimum clearance of 1 2 feet (3658 mm) 
to structures and other tents .shall be pro- 
vided. 

105.6.44 Tire-rebuilding plants. An operational permit is 
required for the operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuild- 
ing plant. 

105.6.45 Waste handling. An operational permit is 
required for the operation of wrecking yards, junk yards and 
waste material-handling facilities. 

105.6.46 Wood products. An operational permit is 
required to store chips, hogged material, lumber or plywood 
in excess of 200 cubic feet (6 m-’). 

105.7 Required construction permits. The fire code official 
as authorized by law or regulation may issue construction per- | | 
mits for work as set forth in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.14. 

105.7.1 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. A construc- 
tion permit is required for installation of or modification to an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. Maintenance per- 
formed in accordance with this code is not considered a mod- 
ification and does not require a permit. 

105.7.2 Battery systems. A permit is required to install sta- 
tionary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of 
more than 50 gallons (189 L). 

105.7.3 Compressed gases. When the compressed gases in 
use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8, a 
construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, 
abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close 
or substantially modify a compressed gas system. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an emer- 
gency basis, application for permit shall be made 
within two working days of commencement of 
work. 


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105.7.4 Cryogenic fluids. A construction permit is required 
for installation of or alteration to outdoor stationary cryo- 
genic fluid storage systems where the system capacity 
exceeds the amounts listed in Table 105.6.10. Maintenance 
performed in accordance with this code is not considered an 
alteration and does not require a construction permit. 

105.7.5 Fire alarm and detection systems and related 
equipment. A construction permit is required for installa- 
tion of or modification to fire alarm and detection systems 
and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accor- 
dance with this code is not considered a modification and 
does not require a permit. 

105.7.6 Fire pumps and related equipment. A construc- 
tion permit is required for installation of or modification to 
fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, controllers 
and generators. Maintenance performed in accordance with 
this code is not considered a modification and does not 
require a permit. 

105.7.7 Flammable and combustible liquids. A construc- 
tion permit is required: 

1 . To install, repair or modify a pipeline for the transpor- 
tation of flammable or combustible liquids. 

2. To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equipment, 
tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing sta- 
tions, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities 
where flammable and combustible liquids are pro- 
duced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or 
used. 

3. To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dis- 
pose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank. 

105.7.8 Hazardous materials. A construction permit is 
required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, 
place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially 
modify a storage facility or other area regulated by Chapter 
27 when the hazardous materials in use or storage exceed 
the amounts listed in Table 105.6.20. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an emer- 
gency basis, application for permit shall be made 
within two working days of commencement of 
work. 

105.7.9 Industrial ovens. A construction permit is required 
for installation of industrial ovens covered by Chapter 21 . 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For repair work performed on an emergency basis, 
application for permit shall be made within two 
working days of commencement of work. 

105.7.10 LP-gas. A construction permit is required for 
installation of or modification to an LP-gas system. 

105.7.11 Private fire hydrants. A construction permit is 
required for the installation or modification of private fire 
hydrants. 


105.7.12 Spraying or dipping. A construction permit is 
required to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or booth. 

105.7.13 Standpipe systems. A construction permit is 
required for the installation, modification or removal from 
service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

105.7.14 Temporary membrane structures and tents. A 

construction permit is required to erect an air-supported 
temporary membrane structure or a tent having an area in 
excess of 400 square feet (37 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Funeral tents and curtains or extensions attached 
thereto, when used for funeral services. 

3. Tents and awnings open on all sides which comply 
with all of the following: 

3.1. Individual tents shall have a maximum size 
of 700 square feet (65 m^). 

3.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed 
side by side without a fire break clearance 
of not less than 1 2 feet (3658 mm) shall not 
exceed 700 square feet (65 m^) total. 

3.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
maintained. 


SECTION 106 
INSPECTIONS 

106,1 (Not adopted) Inspection authority. The fire code offi- 
cial is authorized to enter and examine any building, structure, 
marine vessel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 
104.3 for the purpose of enforcing this code. 

106.1.1 Inspection authority. The State Fire Marshal, 
Deputy State Fire Marshal or assistants to the State Fire 
Marshal may, at all reasonable hours, enter into all buildings 
and upon all premises, except for private residences, for the 
purpose of inspection to ascertain if fire hazards exist 
therein or thereon as authorized by ORS 476.150(1). 


ORS 476. 1 50( 1 ) is not a part of this code but is reproduced 
or paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 476.150(1 ) grants permission to the State Fire Marshal 
and deputies, at all reasonable hours, to enter into all build- 
ings and upon all premises, except private residences, for the 
purpose of inspection to a.scertain if fire hazards exist therein 
or thereon. 


106.1.2 Interference. No person shall interfere with or pre- 
vent an inspection by officers as authorized by ORS 
476.150(2). When any person interferes with or prevents the 
State Fire Marshal, deputies or assistants to the State Fire 
Marshal from making an inspection, the officer shall apply 


12 


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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


to the district attorney of the county, wherein the inspection 
was made or attempted to be made, for a warrant for the 
arrest of the offending person, and it shall be the duty of 
such district attorney forthwith to prosecute such offending 
person as authorized by ORS 476.150(3). 

106.2 Inspections. Tbe^re code official is authorized to con- 
duct such i nspections as are deemed necessary to determine the 
extent of compliance with the provisions of this code and to 
approve reports of inspection by approved agencies or individ- 
uals. All reports of such inspections shall be prepared and sub- 
mitted in writing for review and approval. Inspection reports 
shall be certified by a responsible officer of such approved 
agency or by the responsible individual. The fire code official is 
authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary 
to report upon unusual, detailed or complex technical issues 
subject to tbe approval of the governing body. 

106.2.1 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the 
I holder of the permit, owner, occupant or their duly autho- 
rized agent to notify the fire code official when work is ready 
for inspection. It shall be tbe duty of the permit holder to 
provide access to and means for inspections of such work, 
that are required by this code. 

106.2.2 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond 
the point indicated in each successive inspection without 
first obtaining the approval of Iheftre code official. The fire 
code official, upon notification, shall make the requested 
inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the con- 
struction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the per- 

I mit holder, owner, occupant or his or her agent wherein the 
same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not 
comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be cov- 
ered or concealed until authorized by the fire code official. 

106.3 Concealed work. It shall be the duty of the permit appli- 
I cant, owner or duly authorized agent to cause the work to 

remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. When- 
ever any installation subject to inspection prior to use is cov- 
ered or concealed without having first been inspected, the fire 
code official shall have the authority to require that such work 
be exposed for inspection. Neither the fire code official nor the 
jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal 
or replacement of any material required to allow inspection. 

106.4 Approvals. Approval as the result of an inspection shall 
not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provi- 
sions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. 
Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel 
provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction 
shall not be valid. 


SECTION 107 
MAINTENANCE 

107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Whenever or wherever 
any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level 
of protection, or any other feature is required for compliance 
with the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such 
device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of 
protection, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously 


maintained in accordance with this code and applicable refer- 
enced standards. 

107.2 Testing and operation. Equipment requiring periodic 
testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be tested or 
operated as specified in this code. 

107.2.1 Test and inspection records. Required test and 
inspection records shall be available to the fire code official 
at all times or such records as the designates shall be filed 
with the fire code official. 

107.2.2 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compli- 
ance with this code. The work or installation shall then be 
resubmitted to the fire code official for inspection and test- 
ing. 

107.3 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be under the 
supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that such 
maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in 
accordance with this code. 

107.4 Rendering equipment inoperable. Portable or fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems or devices and fire-warning sys- 
tems shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible except as 
necessary during emergencies, maintenance, repairs, alter- 
ations, drills or prescribed testing. 

107.5 Owner/occupant responsibility. Correction and abate- 
ment of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the 
owner. If an occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazard- 
ous conditions in violation of this code, the occupant shall be 
held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous condi- 
tions. 

107.6 Overcrowding. Overcrowding or admittance of any per- 
son beyond the approved capacity of a building or a portion 
thereof shall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon finding 
any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in aisles, pas- 
sageways or other means of egress, or upon finding any condi- 
tion which constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be authorized 
to cause the event to be stopped until such condition or obstruc- 
tion is corrected. 


SECTION 108 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

108.1 (Not adopted) Board of appeals established. In order 
to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determina- 
tions made by the fire code official relative to the application 
and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby cre- 
ated a board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be 
appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its 
pleasure. The fire code official shall be an ex officio member of 
said board but shall have no vote on any matter before the 
board. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting 
its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writ- 
ing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the fire code offi- 
cial. 

108.1.1 Appeals. The State Fire Marshal may convene a 
regional appeals advisory board to make recommendations 


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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


concerning appeals or hear the appeal him or herself. For 
appeals procedure, see ORS 479. 1 80. 


ORS 479.180 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479.180 defines the procedure for appeal from orders 
to comply with fire prevention statutes. 


108.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or the rules 
legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, 
the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equivalent 
method of protection or safety is proposed. The board shall 
have no authority to waive requirements of this code. 

108.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous 
conditions or fire protection systems and are not employees of 
the jurisdiction. At least one member shall be a qualified archi- 
tect who has practiced the profession for at least two years. 

SECTION 109 
VIOLATIONS 

109.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for a person, firm or 
corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish 
or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system regulated 
by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in vio- 
lation of any of the provisions of this code. 

109.2 Notice of violation. When the ft re code official finds a 
building, premises, vehicle, storage facility or outdoor area that 
is in violation of this code, the fire code official is authorized to 
prepare a written notice of violation describing the conditions 
deemed unsafe and, when compliance is not immediate, speci- 
fying a time for reinspection. Orders and notices shall be in 
accordance with ORS 479. 170. 


ORS 479.170 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479.170 provides the State Fire Marshal and Deputy 
State Fire Marshal authority to order the repair or removal of 
hazards and the ability to close the building or premises if 
compliance is not made in accordance with the order. 


109.2.1 Service. A notice of violation issued pursuant to 
this code shall be served upon the owner, operator, occupant 
or other person responsible for the condition or violation, 
either by personal service, mail or by delivering the same to, 
and leaving it with, some person of responsibility upon the 
premises. For unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of 
sucb notice of violation shall be posted on the premises in a 
conspicuous place at or near the entrance to such premises 
and the notice of violation shall be mailed by certified mail 
with return receipt requested or a certificate of mailing, to 
the last known address of the owner, occupant or both. 

109.2.2 Compliance with orders and notices. A notice of 
violation issued or served as provided by this code shall be 


complied with by tbe owner, operator, occupant or other 
person responsible for the condition or violation to which 
the notice of violation pertains. Notices shall be in accor- 
dance with ORS 479.170. 


ORS 479.170 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479.170 provides the State Fire Marshal and Deputy 
State Fire Marshal authority to order the repair or removal of 
hazards and the ability to close the building or premises if 
compliance is not made in accordance with the order. 


109.2.3 (Not adopted) Prosecution of violations. If the 

notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the fire 
code official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the 
jurisdiction to institute the appropriate legal proceedings at 
law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation 
or to require removal or termination of the unlawful occu- 
pancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code or of the order or direction made pursuant hereto. 

109.2.4 Unauthorized tampering. Signs, tags or seals 
posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be muti- 
lated, destroyed or tampered with or removed without 
authorization from the fire code official. 

109.3 (Not adopted) Violation penalties. Persons who shall 
violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any 
of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, 
repair or do work in violation of the approved construction 
documents or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or 
certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of 
a [SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than 
[amount] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER 
OF days], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a 
violation continues after due notice has been served shall be 
deemed a separate offense. 

109.3.1 Violation penalties. Any owner or occupant of any 
building or premises who fails to comply with an order to 
correct any fire safety deficiency or violation of this code 
not appealed from, shall be punished by a fine as provided 
by ORS 479.990. 

Exception; Where other penalties for specific violations 
are provided for by law, they shall prevail. See ORS 
476.990 and ORS 480.990. 


ORS 476.990, 479.990 and 480.990 are not a part of this 
code but are reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s 
convenience. 

ORS 479.990 defines the penalties for failure, neglect or re- 
fusal to comply with the provisions of this code. 

ORS 476.990 and 480.990 define additional penalties for 
failure to comply with specific Oregon Revised Statutes. 


109.3.2 Abatement of violation. In addition to the imposi- 
tion of the penalties herein described, the fire code official is 
authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlaw- 
ful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation; or 


14 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 






SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to 
stop an illegal act, conduct of business or occupancy of a 
structure on or about any premises. 

SECTION 110 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS 

110.1 General. If during the inspection of a premises, a build- 
ing or structure or any building system, in whole or in part, con- 
stitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, safety or 
health, the fire code official shall issue such notice or orders to 
remove or remedy the conditions as shall be deemed necessary 
in accordance with this section and shall refer the building to 
the building department for any repairs, alterations, remodel- 
ing, removing or demolition required. 

110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing equip- 
ment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient 
because of inadequate means of egress or which constitute a 
fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the 
public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occu- 
pancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an 
unsafe condition. A vacant structure which is not secured 
against unauthorized entry as required by Section 31 1 shall 
be deemed unsafe. Actions to correct hazards and other 
deficiencies shall be according to ORS 479.160, 479.170 
and 479.195. See the procedures specified in OAR 
837-041-0050. 


ORS 479.160, 479.170, 479.195 and OAR 8.37-041-0050 
are not a part of this code but are reproduced or paraphrased 
here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479. 1 60 defines the provisions for granting a permit for 
continued use or occupancy of existing nonconforming 
buildings. 

ORS 479. 1 70 provides authority to the State Fire Marshal or 
deputies to order repair or removal of materials from build- 
ings or premises. 

ORS 479. 1 95 provides authority to the State Fire Marshal or 
deputies to close buildings when the occupant load is ex- 
ceeded. 

OAR 837-041-0050 defines the rules for the abatement, re- 
pair or discontinuance of use or occupancy of unsafe build- 
ings and specifies tbe parameters that are used to determine 
the degree of fire and life hazard. 


110.1.2 Structural hazards. When an apparent structural 
hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation or mal- 
function of any of the items or devices governed by this 
code, the fire code official shall immediately notify the 
building code official in accordance with Section 1 10.1. 

110.2 Evacuation. The fire code official or the fire department 
official in charge of an incident shall be authorized to order the 
immediate evacuation of any occupied building deemed unsafe 
when such building has hazardous conditions that present 
imminent danger to building occupants. Persons so notified 
shall immediately leave the structure or premises and shall not 


enter or re-enter until authorized to do so by the fire code offi- 
cial or the fire department official in charge of the incident. 

110.3 Summary abatement. Where conditions exist that are 
deemed hazardous to life and property, the. fire code official or 
fire department official in charge of the incident is authorized 
to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that are in viola- 
tion of this code. 

110.4 Abatement. The owner, operator or occupant of a build- 
ing or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official shall 
abate or cause to be abated or corrected sucb unsafe conditions 
either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other approved 
corrective action. 


SECTION 111 
STOP WORK ORDER 

111.1 (Not adopted) Order. Whenever the fire code official 
finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a 
manner contrary to the provisions of this code or in a danger- 
ous or unsafe manner, the fire code official is authorized to 
issue a slop work order. ' 

111.1.1 Order. Stop orders shall be administered through 
the provisions of ORS 479.170. 


ORS 479.170 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479.170 provides the State Fire Marshal and Deputy 
State Fire Marshal authority to order the repair or removal of 
hazards and the ability to close the building or premises if 
compliance is not made in accordance with the order. 


111.2 (Not adopted) Issuance. A stop work order shall be in 
writing and shall be given to the owner of the property, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance 
of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. 
The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work is authorized to resume. 

111.3 (Not adopted) Emergencies. Where an emergency 
exists, the fire code official shall not be required to give a writ- 
ten notice prior to stopping the work. 

111.4 (Not adopted) Failure to comply. 4/iy person who shall 
continue any work after having been served with a stop work 
order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall he liable to a fine 
of not less than [amount] dollars or more than [amount] dol- 
lars. 


SECTION 112 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

112.1 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The fire code 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 
utility service to the building, structure or system in order to 
safely execute emergency operations or to eliminate an imme- 
diate hazard. The fire code official shall notify the serving util- 
ity and, whenever possible, the owner and occupant of the 
building, structure or service system of the decision to discon- 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


15 





SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 


nect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to discon- 
nection. The owner or occupant of the building, structure or 
service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical 
thereafter. 


SECTION 113 
FEES 

113.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees have been 
paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the 
additional fee, if any, has been paid. 

113.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be 
paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established 
by the applicable governing authority. 

113.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any per- 
son who commences any work, activity or operation regulated 
by this code before obtaining the necessary permits shall be 
subject to an additional fee established by the applicable gov- 
erning authority, which shall be in addition to the required per- 
mit fees. 

113.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connec- 
tion to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a 
permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit 
from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law. 

113.5 Refunds. The applicable governing authority is autho- 
rized to establish a refund policy. 


16 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 


SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter, 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International Build- 
ing Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International 
Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms 
shall have the rneanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1 1th Edi- 
tion, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted 
meanings. 


SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ASME A17.1. For purposes of tbe Oregon Fire Code shall 
mean the Oregon Elevator Specialty Code (OESC) as adopted 
by OAR 91 8-400-0455. 

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 

1002 . 1 . 



[B] AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1 . 

AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202,1 , 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). See Section 

1 102 . 1 . 

AIRPORT. See Section 1 102.1 . 

[B] AISLE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002. 1 . 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 

902. 1 . 

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1 . 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1 . 

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Seetion 3402.1. 

ALCOHOL BLENDED FUELS. See Section 2202. 1 . I 

[EB] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an 
existing structure other than a repair or addition. 

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1 002. 1 . 

[B] AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. Build- 
ings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psy- 
chiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to 
individuals who are rendered incapable of self-preservation. 

AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302. 1 . 

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902. 1 . 


[B] ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path 
that complies with Chapter 1 1 of the International Building 
Code. 

1 I [B] ADULT FOSTER HOME. See ORS 443.705 and 443.725. 
AEROSOL. See Section 2802. 1 . 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 2802. 1 . 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 2802. 1 . 
AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1. 


AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of 
any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, 
executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of 
the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual 
owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this 


code to the same extent as if that person was the 


[B] AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. See ORS 455.315 and 
Appendix C of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 


APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official. 

[B] AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surround- 
ing exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of 
vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with 
surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor above. 

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

ARRAY. See Section 2302.1. 

ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, 
plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, 
which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as 
used in this definition, do not include balconies within assem- 
bly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505 of the 
International Building Code. 

[B] ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of tbe top 
story and the roof rafters. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


17 



DEFINITIONS 


AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 

Section 902.1. 

I AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. See Section 2302. 1 . 
AUTOMATIC. See Section 902. 1 . 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See Sec- 
tion 902.1 . 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202.1. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] AWNING. An architectural projection that provides 
weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly sup- 
ported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is 
comprised of a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which 
a covering is attached. 

BARRICADE. See Section 3302.1. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1. 

Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1. 

BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See 
Section 602.1. 

BATTERY TYPES. See Section 602. 1 . 

Lithium-ion battery. See Section 602.1 . 

Lithium metal polymer battery. See Section 602. 1 . 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. See Section 602. 1 . 

Nonrecombinant battery. See Section 602. 1 . 

Recombinant battery. See Section 602. 1 . 

Stationary storage battery. See Section 602. 1 . 

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. See Section 
602.1. 

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1. 

BIN BOX. See Section 2302. 1 . 

BLAST AREA. See Section 3302. 1 . 

BLAST SITE. See Section 3302. 1 . 

BLASTER. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302. 1 . 

[B] BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for 
lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not 
occupied as a single-family unit. 

BOILING POINT, See Section 2702.1. 

BONFIRE. See Section 302.1. 


BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to 
raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by TF 
(0.5565°C). 

[B] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

[B] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the International Building Code, or a duly authorized represen- 
tative. 

BULK HYDROGEN COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See 
Section 3502. 1 . 

BULK LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM. See 
Section 3502. 1 . 

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002. 1 . 

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1. 
BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid con- 
struction over which a covering is attached that provides 
weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structur- 
ally independent or supported by attachment to a building on 
one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902. 1 . 

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. 

CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1. 

[EB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose 
or level of activity within a building that involves a change in 
application of the requirements of this code. 

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702. 1 . 

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702. 1 . 

[B] CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care 
on a 24-hour basis to more than five children, 2'!^ years of age 
or less. 

[B] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one 
or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the outside 
atmosphere. 

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] CLINIC-OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof 
used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to 
individuals who are not rendered incapable of self-preserva- 
tion by the services provided. 

CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702. 1 . 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 


18 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


COLD DECK, See Section 1902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302. 1 . 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402. 1 . 

Class 11. See Section 3402.1 . 

Class IIIA. See Section 3402. 1 . 

Class IIIB. See Section .3402. 1 . 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Sec- 
tion 602. 1 . 

COMMODITY, See Section 2302. 1 . 

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 

1002 . 1 . 

COMPRESSED GAS, See Section 3002. 1 . 

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1. 

[B] CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or 
part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share 
bathroom and/or kitchen facilities. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 

902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic 
and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing 
the design, location and physical characteristics of the ele- 
ments of the project necessary for obtaining a permit. 

CONTAINER, See Section 2702.1 . 

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1 . 

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1 . 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 

1802.1. 

CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702. 1 . 

[B] CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSIVE. See Section 3102.1. 

COTTON. See Section 2902. 1 . 

Baled cotton. See Section 2902.1. 

Baled cotton, densely packed. See Section 2902.1. 

Seed cotton. See Section 2902. 1 . 

[B] COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the 
sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls 
or other enclosing devices. 

[B] COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building 
enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail 
stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and 
amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, 
offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants 
have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of 
this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part 


of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” 
shall include open mall buildings as defined below. 

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more 
tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each 
other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined 
below. 

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a 
number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at 
levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exte- 
rior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade. 

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of 
tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establish- 
ments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and 
other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main 
entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of 
Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor build- 
ings are not considered as a part of the open mall building. 

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202. 1 . 
CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202. 1 . 

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. See Section 3202.1. 

CYLINDER. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] DAMPER. See “Fire damper” and “Smoke damper.” 
DAY BOX. See Section 2702. 1 . 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over 
the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other 
effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and sur- 
face coverings) and all other materials utilized for decorative 
effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, 
leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics 
and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials 
do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, inte- 
rior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thick- 
ness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate. 

DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1 . 

DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1. 

DETEARING. See Section 1502.1. 

DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 

DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1, 

DETONATION. See Section 3302. 1 . 

DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that serve 
patients who are provided treatment for substance abuse on a 
24-hour basis and who are incapable of self-preservation or 
who are harmful to themselves or others. 

DIP TANK. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


19 



DEFINITIONS 


DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 

2202 . 1 . 

DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1 . 

[B] DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleep- 
ing accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702. 1 . 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec 
tion 902. 1 . 

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Sectionl202.1. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1. 

[B] DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwell- 
ing units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, 
let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, 
independent living facilities for one or more persons, including 
permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 
ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

I ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902. 1 . 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 
EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. 
See Section 1002.1. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. See Section 402. 1 . 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to 
shut off the flow of gases or liquids. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A fail- 
safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the flow of 
gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated by 
automatic means. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manu- 
ally operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liq- 
uids. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

See Seetion 902. 1. 

[B] EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated 
platform used exelusively for mechanical systems or industrial 
process equipment, including the associated elevated walk- 
ways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to 


access the platform (see Section 505.5 of the International 
Building Code). 

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1. 

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Seetion 2702.1. 
EXISTING. See Section 4602. 1 . I 

[B] EXIT. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[B] EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002. 1 . I 
[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002. 1 . 

EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1. 

EXPLOSION. See Section 2702. 1 . 

EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1 . 

High Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1 . 
UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1 . 

Division 1.1. See Section 3302. 1 . 

Division 1.2. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.3. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.4. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.5. See Section 3302.1. 

Division 1.6. See Section 3302. 1 . 

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3302. 1 . 

[B] EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that 
is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than afire wall, 
and that has a slope of 60 degrees ( 1 .05 rad) or greater with the 
horizontal plane. 

[M] EXTRA-HEAVY-DUTY COOKING APPLIANCE. 

Extra-heavy-duty cooking appliances include appliances uti- 
lizing solid fuel, such as wood, charcoal, briquettes, and mes- 
quite, to provide all or part of the heat source for cooking. 

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See 
Section 2302.1. 

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1. 

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including exte- 
rior storage areas for tlammable and combustible substances and 
hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar uses. 
This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home and man- 
ufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots. 

FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for 
automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possi- 
ble souree of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or 


20 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automati- 
cally for a failure or malfunction. 

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or trans- 
mission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of 
fire when no such danger exists. 

[B] FAMILY CHILD CARE HOME (Licensed by Oregon 
Child Care Division under ORS 657A); includes certified fam- 
ily child care homes (located in homes licensed for 16 or fewer 
children) and registered family child care homes (located in 
homes licensed for 10 or fewer children). 

FINES. See Section 1902.1. 

FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any 
public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee 
thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of 
information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place 
indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such 
information. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902. 1 . 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1 . 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502. 1 . 

FIRE APPLIANCE. See Section 402.1 . 

[B] FIRE AREA. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of 
materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which conti- 
nuity is maintained. 

FIRE CHIEF. The State Fire Marshal, Deputy State Fire Mar- 
shal, the chief officer of the fire department serving the juris- 
diction, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the code, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502. 1 . 

[B] FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detec- 
tion of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are 
classified for use in either static systems that will automatically 
shutdown in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that con- 
tinue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested 
and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly. 

[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire 
door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together pro- 
vide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

FIRE HAZARD. Is any thing or act that increases or could 
cause an increase of the hazard or menace of fire to a greater 


degree than that customarily recognized as normal by persons 
in the public service regularly engaged in preventing, suppress- 
ing or extinguishing fire or any thing or act that could obstruct, 
delay, hinder or interfere with the operation of the fire depart- 
ment or the egress of occupants in the event of fire. 

FIRE LANE. See Section 502. 1 . - 

[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE POINT. See Section 3402.1 . 

[B] FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that 
an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to 
confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 7 1 5 
of the International Building Code. Ratings are stated in hours 
or minutes. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

[B] FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a 
building element, component or assembly maintains the ability 
to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural func- 
tion, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based 
on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

[B] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702. 1 . 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance mea- 
.sured from the building face to one of the following: 

1 . The closest interior lot line\ 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way, or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the prop- 
erty. 

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face 
of the wall. 

[B] FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having pro- 
tected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends 
continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with 
sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow col- 
lapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure con- 
tinuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion 
thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of 
identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs 
of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire 
department. 

[B] FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1. 

FIREWORKS. See Section 3302. 1 . 

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302. 1 . 

Fireworks, I.3G. See Section 3302.1 . 

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1 . 

[B] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 902. 1 . 1 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


21 



DEFINITIONS 


FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202. 1 . 
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1. 
FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502. 1 . 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class lA. See Section 3402. 1 . 

Class IB. See Section 3402.1 . 

Class IC. See Section 3402. 1 . 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600”F (316”C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1 . 
FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502. 1 . 
FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702. 1 . 
[B] FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1. 

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802. 1 . 

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402. 1 . 

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

[B] FLIGHT. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOAT. See Section 4502.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1 . 

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1. 
FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH, See Section 3402.1. 

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1. 

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1. 

FURNACE CLASS A. See Section 2102. 1. 

FURNACE CLASS B. See Seetion 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS C. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS D. See Section 2102.1. 

GAS CABINET, See Section 2702.1. 

GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, CONTINUOUS. See “Con- 
tinuous gas detection system.” 

GAS ROOM. See Seetion 2702.1. 

[B] GRADE FLOOR OPENING, A window or other open- 
ing located such that the sill height of the opening is not more 
than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground 
level adjacent to the opening. 

[B] GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the 
average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exte- 
rior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from 
the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by 
the lowest points within the area between the building and the 


lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet ( 1829 mm) from 
the building, between the building and a point 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) 
from the building. 

[B] GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] GUARD. See Seetion 1002.1 . 

[B] GYPSUM BOARD, Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheath- 
ing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum 
soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant 
gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in 
Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of the International 
Building Code. 

[B] HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, 
sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, 
halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not consid- 
ered habitable spaces. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Sec 
tion 902. 1 . 

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See 
Section 1802.1. 

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702. 1 . 

[M] HEAVY-DUTY COOKING APPLIANCE. Heavy-duty 
cooking appliances include electric under-fired broilers, elec- 
tric chain (conveyor) broilers, gas under-fired broilers, gas 
chain (conveyor) broilers, gas open-burner ranges (with or 
without oven), electric and gas wok ranges, and electric and gas 
over-fired (upright) broilers and salamanders. 

[B] HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HELIPORT. See Section 1 102.1. 

HELISTOP. See Section 1 102.1. 

HI-BOY.See Section 302.1. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Seetion 

2302.1. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1. 

HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE, See Section 

302.1. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 3702.1 . 

HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas 
with a boiling point of less than 68“F (20°C). 

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1 . 

[B] HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or 
eligible for listing in the National Register of Historie Places, 
or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1. 

[B] HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated 
floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the 
spread of fire in which continuity is maintained. 


22 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


[M] HOOD. See Section 602.1 . 

Type I. See Section 602. 1 . 

[B] HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Buildings 
or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, 
psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatients who 
are incapable of self-preservation. 

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1 . 

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1 . 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602. 1 . 

HOT WORK PERMITS. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1 . 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Sec Section 1 802. 1 . 

HPM ROOM. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 2702. 1 . 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1 . 

IMPORTANT BUILDING. See Section 3402. 1 . 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1. 

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other mate- 
rials only under abnormal conditions such as high tempera- 
tures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within 
the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physi- 
cal or health /fazard properties as defined (other than acting as a 
simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a 
compressed gas. Some ofthe more common inert gases include 
argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon. 

INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302. 1 . 

INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

[B] INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall 
and ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 

INTERIOR FLOOR- WALL BASE. See Section 802.1. 

[B] INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The 

exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not lim- 
ited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room pri- 
vacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, 
paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, 
acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resis- 
tance or similar purposes, but not including trim. 

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE. For the purposes of 
the Oregon Fire Code shall mean the Oregon Structural Spe- 
cialty Code (OSSC) as adopted by OAR 918-460-0010. 

INTERNATIONAL EXISTING BUILDING CODE. For 

the purposes ofthe Oregon Fire Code shall mean the Oregon 
Structural Specialty Code (OSSC) as adopted by OAR 918- 
460-0010. 

INTERNATIONAL FUEL GAS CODE. For the purposes of 
the Oregon Fire Code shall mean the Oregon Mechanical Spe- 
cialty Code (OMSC) as adopted by OAR 918-440-0010. 

INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL CODE. For the pur- 
poses ofthe Oregon Fire Code shall mean the Oregon Mechan- 


ical Specialty Code (OMSC) as adopted by OAR 
918-440-0010. 

INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE. For the purposes 
of the Oregon Fire Code shall mean the Oregon Plumbing Spe- 
cialty Code (OPSC) as adopted by OAR 918-750-01 10. 

INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE. For the pur- 
poses of the Oregon Fire Code shall mean the Oregon Residen- 
tial Specialty Code (ORSC) as adopted by OAR 918-480- 
0005. 

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which 
causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chem- 
ical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irritant if, 
when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the methods of 
CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four or more 
hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empiri- 
cal score of 5 or more. A chemical is class! tied as an eye irritant if 
so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 16CFR Part 
1 500.42 or other approved techniques. 

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1. 

[B] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a 
nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or 
other organization concerned with product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of the production of the 
above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that 
the equipment, material or product meets identified standards 
or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

[M] LIGHT-DUTY COOKING APPLIANCE. Light-duty 
cooking appliances include gas and electric ovens (including 
standard, bake, roasting, revolving, retherm, convection, com- 
bination convection/steamer, countertop conveyorized bak- 
ing/fimishing, deck and pastry), electric and gas steam-jacketed 
kettles, electric and gas pasta cookers, electric and gas com- 
partment steamers (both pressure and atmospheric) and elec- 
tric and gas cheesemelters. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1 502.1 . 
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202. 1 . 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). See Section 

3802. 1 . 

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1. 

LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. Sec- 
tion 4002. 1 . 

LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. Section 

4002. 1 . 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402. 1 . 

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. See Section 3402.1. 

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included 
in a list published by an organization acceptable to the fire code 
official and concerned with evaluation of products or services 
that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed 
equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and 
whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


23 



DEFINITIONS 


or service meets identified standards or has been tested and 
found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LOCKDOWN. See Section 402.1 . 

[B] LODGING HOUSE. Any building or portion thereof, 
containing not more than five guest rooms where rent is paid in 
money, goods, labor or otherwise. The total number of guests 
shall not exceed 16. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302. 1 . 

[B] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

[B] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. See Section 3202.1. 

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 

2702.1. 

I LP-GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3802.1. 

MAGAZINE. See Section 3302.1. 

Indoor. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 1 . See Section 3302.1. 

Type 2 . See Section 3302. 1 . 

Type 3 . See Section 3302.1. 

Type 4 . See Section 3302.1. 

Type 5. See Section 3302.1. 

MAGNESIUM. See Section 3602.1. 

[B] MALL. See “Covered mall building.” 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1 . 
MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1. 

I MARINA. See Section 4502.1. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See 
Section 2202.1. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 

2702.1. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 

2302.1. 

[M] MEDIUM-DUTY COOKING APPLIANCE. Vledium- 
duty cooking appliances include electric discrete element 
ranges (with or without oven), electric and gas hot-top ranges, 
electric and gas griddles, electric and gas double-sided grid- 
dles, electric and gas fryers (including open deep fat fryers, 
donut fryers, kettle fryers and pressure fryers), electric and gas 
conveyor pizza ovens, electric and gas tilting skillets (braising 
pans) and electric and gas rotisseries. 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

[B] MENTAL HOSPITALS. See “Hospitals and Mental Hos- 
pitals.” 


[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002. 1 . 

METAL HYDRIDE. See Section 3502.1 . 

METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. See Section 

3502.1. 

[B] MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between 
the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Sec- 
tion 505 of the International Building Code. 

MOBILE FUELING. See Section 3402.1 . 

MORTAR. See Section 3302.1 . 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 

902.1. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 

902.1. 

NFPA 70. For the purpose of the Oregon Fire Code shall mean 
the Oregon Electrical Specialty Code (OESC) as adopted by 
OAR 9 1 8-305-0 1 00. 

NESTING. See Section 3002. 1 . 

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 

3302.1. 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). 
See Section 2702. 1 . 

[B] NOSING. See Section 1 002. 1 . 

NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

[B] NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care 
facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate care 
facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more than five 
persons and any of the persons are incapable of self-preserva- 
tion. 

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this 
code, certain occupancies are defined as follows: 

[B] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes 
such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food 
or drink consumption; or awaiting transportation. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A building or tenant space used for assembly pur- 
poses with an occupant load of less than 50 per- 
sons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with 
an occupant load of less than 50 persons and 
accessory to another occupancy shall be classified 
as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occu- 
pancy. 

3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that 
is less than 750 square feet (70 m^) in area and 
accessory to another occupancy shall be classi- 
fied as a Group B occupancy or as part of that 
occupancy. 

4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occu- 
pancies are not considered separate occupancies 
except when applying the assembly occupancy 


24 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


requirements of Chapter 1 1 of the International 
Building Code. 

5. Accessory religious educational rooms and reli- 
gious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 
100 are not considered separate occupancies. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended 
for the production and viewing of performing arts or 
motion pictures including, but not limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Televison and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A, including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 
Art galleries 
Bowling alleys 
Community halls 
Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not ineluding food or drink 
consumption) 

Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 

Lecture halls 

Libraries 

Museums 

Places of religious worship 

Pool and billiard parlors 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sport- 
ing events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or view- 
ing outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 


[B] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type 
transactions, including storage of records and accounts. 
Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 
Ambulatory heallh-care facilities 
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 
Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 
Car wash 

Civic administration 
Clinic-outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery 
stations and self-service 
Educational occupancies for students above the 
12th grade 

Electronic data processing 
Laboratories: testing and research 
Lockup facility. See definition in ORS 169.005(4) and 
Section 304.2 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code 
Motor vehicle showrooms 
Post offices 
Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 
physicians, engineers, etc.) 

Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 

Training and skill development not within a school or 
academic program 

ORS 441 .060 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 441 .060 authorizes rules for the certification of health 
care facilities from the “Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 
Services” (CMS). These rules, in part, require plan reviews 
and inspections by Facilities, Planning and Safety Unit of 
Oregon Health Services and by the Health Care Facilities 
Unit of the Office of State Fire Marshal in accordance with 
the 2000 edition of the NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. 

New ambulatory health care centers (outpatient clinics), as 
well as other health care facilities receiving federal funding 
are required to meet these rules, in addition to state and local 
codes. 


[B] Educational Group E. Educational Group E occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one 
time for educational purposes through the 1 2th grade. Reli- 
gious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which 
are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance 
with Section 508.3.1 of the International Building Code and 
have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as 
Group A-3 occupancies. 

Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 

thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


25 




DEFINITIONS 


services for more than five children older than Z'/j years 
of age shall be classified as an E occupancy. 

[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassem- 
bling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, 
repair or processing operations that are not classified as a 
Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy. 

Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Fac- 
tory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 
Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 
Bakeries 

Beverages; over 16-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes eleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 
Furniture 
Hemp products 
Jute products 
Laundries 
Leather produets 
Machinery 
Metals 

Millwork (sash and door) 

Motion pictures and television filming (without 
spectators) 

Musical instruments 
Optical goods 
Paper mills or products 
Photographic film 
Plastic products 
Printing or publishing 
Refuse incineration 
Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 


[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard occupancy. Fac- 
tory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which, during finishing, 
packaging or processing do not involve a significant fire 
hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 occupancies and 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Beverages; up to and including 16-percent 
alcohol content 
Brick and masonry 
Ceramic products 
Foundries 
Glass products 
Gypsum 
Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

Wood barrel and bottled wine aging facilities in 
wineries 

High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, process- 
ing, generation or storage of materials that eonstitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those 
allowed in control areas complying with Section 2103.E3, 
based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control 
areaj set forth in Tables 2703.1 .1(1) and 2703.1 . 1(2). Haz- 
ardous occupancies are classified in Groups H- 1 , H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this code and 
the requirements of Section 415 of the International Build- 
ing Code. Hazardous materials stored or used on top of 
roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or 
use and shall comply with this code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as 
Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that 
they most nearly resemble. 

1 . Buildings and structures occupied for the appli- 
cation of flammable finishes, provided that such 
buildings or areas conform to the requirements of 
Chapter 15 of this code and Section 416 of the 
International Building Code. 

2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flam- 
mable and combustible liquids in mercantile 
occupancies conforming to Chapter 34. 

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utilized for the oper- 
ation of machinery or equipment. 

4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a. flash point of 140°F 
(60°C) or higher in closed systems employing 
equipment listed by an approved testing agency, 
provided that this occupancy is separated from 
all other areas of the building by 1 -hour fire bar- 
riers in accordance with Section 707 of the Inter- 
national Building Code or 1-hour horizontal 
assemblies in accordance with Section 71 2 of the 
International Building Code, or both. 


26 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid sol- 
vent having a flash point at or above 200°F 
(93°C). 

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk stor- 
age. 

7. Refrigeration systems. 

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emer- 
gency power, uninterrupted power supply or 
telecommunication facilities, provided that the 
batteries are equipped with safety venting caps 
and ventilation is provided in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

10. Corrosives shall not include personal or house- 
hold products in their original packaging used in 
retail display or commonly used building materi- 
als. 

11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol 
storage shall be classified as Group S- 1 , provided 
that such buildings conform to the requirements 
of Chapter 28. 

12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and 
nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazard- 
ous materials in quantities not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity’ per control area in 
Group M or S occupancies complying with Sec- 
tion 2703.8.3.5. 

13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propel- 
lant and small arms primers in Groups IVI and R-3 
and special industrial explosive devices in Groups 
B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to 
the quantity limits and requirements of this code. 

High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H- 1 . Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

Explosives; 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and main- 
tained in a form where either confinement or 
eonfiguration will not elevate the hazard from a 
mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be 
allowed in Group H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1 .4 

Exception: Articles, including articles pack- 
aged for shipment, that are not regulated as an 
explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and 
Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles 
used in process operations that do not propagate 


a detonation or deflagration between articles 
shall be allowed in Group H-3 oeeupancies. 

Division 1 .5 
Division 1 .6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 
Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3 detonable, and 
Class 4 

High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose, a deflagration hazard ora haz- 
ard from aceelerated burning shall be classified as Group 
H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
which are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or 
systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 
Combustible dusts 
Cryogenic fluids, flammable 
Flammable gases 
Organic peroxides, Class I 
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open eontainers or systems, or in closed containers 
or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 
Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 
Water-reactive materials. Class 3 

High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. 
Sucb materials shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Class 1, 11 or IllA flammable or combustible liquids 
that are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds 
per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less 
Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled 
cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1 .4G (Class C, Common). See 
Oregon Structural Specialty Code, Section 307.1 .2 
for temporary storage. 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 
Flammable solids 
Organic peroxides, Class II and III 
Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in 

normally elosed containers or systems pressurized 
at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or 
less 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 
Water-reaetive materials. Class 2 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


27 



DEFINITIONS 


High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be 
classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 
Toxic materials 

High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development 
areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in 
excess of those listed in Tables 270.^, 1.1(1) and 
2703. 1.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facili- 
ties and areas shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 415.8 of the International Building 
Code. 

[B] Institutional Group 1. Institutional Group 1 occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a 
supervised environment, having physical limitations 
because of health or age, are harbored for medical treat- 
I I ment, healthcare, personal care or other care or treatment in 
which people are detained for penal or correctional pur- 
poses or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. 
Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I- 1, 
1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 

Group I-I. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 1 6 persons, 
on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability 
or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environ- 
ment that provides personal care services. The occupants 
are capable of responding to an emergency situation 
without physical assistance from staff and are capable of 
self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 
Assisted living facilities 
I I Congregate care residences 

Convalescent facilities 
Group homes 
Half-way houses 

Residential board and care facilities 
Social rehabilitation facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons 
shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the 
International Residential Code in accordance with Sec- 
tion 101.2 of the International Building Code. A facility 
such as above, housing at least six and not more than 1 6 
persons, shall be classified as Group R-4. 

A residential facility, or portion thereof, subject to 
licensure by the state, where personal care is adminis- 
tered for more than 16 persons, whose occupants may 
require assisted self-preservation, shall be classified as 
Group SR- 1 occupancy and shall comply with Appendix 
SR of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 


Note: The information within this box is not a part of this 
code but is provided for the reader’s convenience. Designers 
and owners of ambulatory health care facilities that are in- 
tended to be certified for federal funding shall also meet the 
standards adopted by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 
Services (CMS) which are regulated and enforced by the 
Oregon Department of Health Services and the Office of 
State Fire Marshal. For more information regarding certifi- 
cation requirements, see the Construction Project Guide 
which is produced by Facilities Planning and Safety Unit of 
the Oregon Department of Health Services. 





Note: Adult foster homes are not regulated by the requirements 
of Section 308 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. See 
Section 3 10 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 




[B] Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings I 
and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, 
nursing, health or custodial care for persons who are not | 
capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, 
but not be limited to, the following: 

Child care facilities 
Detoxification facilities 
Hospitals 
Mental hospitals 
Nursing homes 

A residential facility or portion thereof, subject to 
licensure by the state, where personal care is adminis- 
tered for more than five persons, whose occupants may 
require assisted self-preservation (impractical), shall be 
classified as a Group SR-2 occupancy and shall comply 
with Appendix SR of the Oregon Structural Specialty 
Code. 

Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures which are inhabited by more than five persons 
who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is 
occupied by persons who are generally incapable of 
self-preservation due to security measures not under the 
occupants’ control. This group shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Correctional centers 
Detention centers 
Jails 

Prerelease centers 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated below: 

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occu- 
pancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress 
without restraint. A Condition I facility is permitted 
to be constructed as Group R. 

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 


28 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




DEFINITIONS 


sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke com- 
partment to one or more other smoke compartments. 
Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a resi- 
dential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and 
group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by 
remote-controlled release of means of egress from such 
smoke compartment to another smoke compartment. 

Condition 4, This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activ- 
ity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke 
compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is 
provided to permit movement from sleeping units, 
activity spaces and other occupied areas within the 
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments. 

[B] Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall 
include buildings and structures occupied by persons of 
any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours 
by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives 
by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than 
the home of the person cared for. A facility such as the 
above with six or fewer persons, or family child care 
homes (located in a private residence) as defined in Sec- 
tion 3 1 0.2 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code, shall 
be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the Inter- 
national Residential Code in accordance with Section 
1 0 1 .2 of the International Building Code. Places of wor- 
ship during religious functions are not included. 

Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five 
unrelated adults and provides supervision and per- 
sonal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: Where the occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without 
physical assistance from the staff, the facility shall 
be classified as Group R-3. 

Child care facility. Child care facilities that provide 
supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour 
basis for more than five children I'f years of age or 
less shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility that provides 
care for more than five but no more than 100 chil- 
dren 2 V 2 years or less of age, where the rooms in 
which the children are cared for are located on a 
level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each 
of these child care rooms has an exit door directly 
to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E. 


[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or 
a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, 
and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise inci- 
dental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mer- 
cantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following. 

Department stores i 
Drug stores 
Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
Retail or wholesale stores 
Sales rooms 

Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among 
others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, 
for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional 
Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential 
Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International 
Building Code. Residential occupancies shall include the fol- 
lowing: 

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units 
where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, 
including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 

Hotels (transient) 

Motels (transient) 

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer 
occupants are permitted to comply with the construction 
requirements for Group R-3. 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or 
more than two dwelling units where the occupants are pri- 
marily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 
Boarding houses (nontransient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 
Hotels (nontransient) 

Live/work units 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants 
are permitted to comply with the construction requirements 
for Group R-3. 

Group R-2 occupancies providing 21 or more housing 
units for low income elderly, which are financed in whole or 
part by the federal or state fund, shall contain a multiservice 
room adequate in size to seat all the tenants (ORS 455.425). 
The multiservice room shall include adjacent toilet facilities 
for both sexes; a service area with a kitchen sink, counter top 
and upper and lower cabinets; and a storage room sized to 
store tables, cbairs or benches and janitorial supplies and 
tools. The multiservice room and accessory rooms shall be 
accessible to disabled persons. (See Chapter 11.) 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


29 



DEFINITIONS 


R-3 Residential oceupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R- 1 , 
R-2, R-4 or I, including; 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling 
units. 

Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for 
I six or kwcT persons of any age for less than 24 hours. 

Child care facilities that provide accommodations for 
I six or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours. 

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons. 

Adult foster homes as defined in ORS Chapter 443, or 
family child care homes (located in a private 
residence) as defined in Section 310.2 of the Oregon 
Structural Specialty Code. 

Adult foster homes and family child care homes that 
are within a single-family dwelling are permitted to 
comply with the Oregon Residential Specialty Code in 
accordance with Section 101.2. 

A Group R-3 residential occupancy, subject to licensure 
by the state, where personal care is administered for 
five or fewer persons, whose occupants may require 
assisted self-preservation shall be classified as a 
Group SR-3 occupancy and shall comply with the 
provisions of Appendix SR. 

Lodging houses as defined Chapter 2 are permitted to 
comply with the International Residential Code in 
accordance with Section 101.2. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings 
arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living 
facilities including more than five but not more than 16 
occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for 
construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise 
provided for in this code or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code, provided the building is protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.2.8. 

A Group R-4 residential occupancy shall include build- 
ings, structures, or parts thereof, housing more than five, but 
not more than 1 6 persons, on a 24-hour basis because of age, 
mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised resi- 
dential environment that provides personal care. 

A Group R-4 residential occupancy, or portion thereof, 
subject to licensure by the state, where personal care is 
administered for more than five, but not more than 16 per- 
sons, whose occupants may require assisted self-preserva- 
tion shall be classified as a Group SR-4 occupancy and shall 
comply with the provisions of Appendix SR of the Oregon 
Structural Specialty Code. 

[B] Special Residence Group SR. Special residences for 
assisted self-preservation (See Oregon Structural Specialty 
Code, Appendix SR): Groups SR- 1 , SR-2, SR-3 and SR-4. 

[B] Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a haz- 
ardous occupancy. 


Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings occu- 
pied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 
Aircraft hangar (storage and repair) 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 
Bamboos and rattan 
Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 
Books and paper in rolls or packs 
Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 
Cardboard and cardboard boxes 
Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 
Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 
Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the 
maximum allowable quantities of hazardous 
materials listed in Table 2703.1.1(1) (see Section 
406.6 of the International Building Code) 

Photo engravings 

Resilient flooring 

Silks 

Soaps 

Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible 
materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper 
cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in 
paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a 
negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles 
or film wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be 
limited to, storage of the following: 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in 
wooden barrels, metal, glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 

Dry cell batteries 

Electrical coils 

Electrical motors 

Empty cans 

Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or 
containers 


30 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible 
liquids 

Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 

Metal parts 

Metals 

Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages, open or enclosed 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 

[B] Mausoleums and columbariums, Group S-3. The 

design life of structures in this occupancy are longer than 
other occupancies in the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 
Except where specifie provisions are made in Chapter 4 of 
the Oregon Structural Specialty Code, other requirements 
of that code shall apply. 

[B] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an 
aecessory eharacter and miseellancous struetures not classi- 
fied in any speeific oecupaney shall be constructed, 
equipped and maintained to eonform to the requirements of 
I I the /«fernaf(ona/6M<W(rtgCoJc commensurate with the fire 
and life hazard ineidental to their oceupancy. Group U shall 
include, but not be limited to, the following: 

1 I Nonexempt agricultural buildings (see ORS 455.315) 

Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family 
residenee (see Section 412.3 of the International 
Building Code) 

Barns 

Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 

Greenhouses 

Livestock shelters 

Private garages 

Retaining walls 

Sheds 

Stables 

Tanks 

Towers 

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1 . 

OPEN BURNING. See Section 302. 1 . 

[B] OPEN MALL. See “Covered mall building.” 

[B] OPEN MALL BUILDING. See “Covered mal I building.” 

[B] OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a 
structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3. 1 of 
the. International Building Code on two or more sides that is used 
for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described 
in Section 406.3.4 of the International Building Code. 


OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is eontinuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the produet is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Seetion 3302.1. 

OPERATING LINE. See Section 3302.1 . 

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 

ORGANIC COATING. See Section 2002.1. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1. 

Class I. See Section 3902. 1 . 

Class II. See Section 3902. 1 . 

Class III. See Section 3902. 1 . 

Class IV. See Section 3902. 1 . 

Class V. See Section 3902.1 . 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902. 1 . 

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Seetion 2702.1. 

[B] OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See “Clinie, outpatient.” I 

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either there 
are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof than 
have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or when 
the^ire code official determines that a threat exists to the safety of 
the oecupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in locations 
that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, passages, corri- 
dors, stairways, exits or other components of the means of 
egress. 

OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, assoeiation, orga- 
nization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person who 
has legal title to any structure or premises with or without 
accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall include the 
duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fidu- 
ciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in 
the premises in question. 

OXIDIZER. See Section 4002. 1 . 

Class 4. See Section 4002. 1 . 

Class 3. See Section 4002. 1 . 

Class 2. See Section 4002. 1 . 

Class I. See Section 4002. 1 . 

OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Seetion 4002. 1 . I 

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1 . 

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. See Seetion 3702.1. 

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. See Seetion 1002.1. 

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

[B] PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied structure above 
the roof of a building, other than a tank, tower, spire, dome 
cupola or bulkhead. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


31 



DEFINITIONS 


PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 
2702. 1 . 

[B] PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of 
a specified activity. 

[B] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators 
or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, 
its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the 
aforesaid. 

I ( [B] PERSONAL CARE. See Appendix SR, Section 102. 
PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1 . 

I [B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1 002. 1 . 
PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. See Sec- 
tion 3702.1. 

I PIER. See Section 4502. 1 . 

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302. 1. 
PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. See Section 1902.1. 

I PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. See Section 302. 1 . 
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1. 
PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702. 1 . 

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of contain- 
ment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which 
comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the 
material being contained. 

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 
PROPELLANT. See Section 2802. 1 . 

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1. 

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). See Section 3302. 1 . 
[B] PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

PYROPHORIC. See Section 4102.1. 

I PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. See Section 3302. 1 . 
PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 3302.1 . 
PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. See 
Section 3302.1. 

I PYROTECHNICS. See Section 3302. 1 . 
QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). See Section 3302.1. 
Inhabited building distance (IBD). See Section 3302. 1 . 
Intermagazine distance (IMD). See Section 3302. 1 . 

Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). 

See Section 3302.1. 

Minimum separation distance (D^). See Section 3302.1 . 
RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAW PRODUCT. See Section 1902. 1 . 

READY BOX. See Section 3302. 1. 


RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 
RECREATIONAL FIRE. See Section 302.1 . 

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 
REFINERY. See Section 3402. 1 . 

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602. 1 . 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. See Section 602.1. 

[B] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An archi- 
tect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional 
architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory require- 
ments of the professional registration laws of the state in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

[B] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF, A building or por- 
tion thereof intended for the performance of religious services. 

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3402.1. 

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402. 1 . 

REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED 
SHUTDOWN CONTROL, A control system that is designed 
to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manu- 
ally activated from a point located some distance from the deliv- 
ery system. 

REPAIR GARAGE, See Section 2202. 1 . 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502. 1 . 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1. 

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA, See Section 2802.1. 

ROLL COATING. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible waste 
materials, including residue from the burning of coal, wood, 
coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, tin cans, 
metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and discarded refrig- 
erators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type appliances. 

SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702. 1 . 

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702. 1 . 

SEGREGATED. See Section 2702. 1 . 

[B] SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other open- 
ing, means equipped with an approved device that will ensure 
closing after having been opened. 

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1 002. 1 . I 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202. 1 . 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See 
Section 1 802. 1 . 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1. 

SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302. 1 . 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a designated 
portion of a public right-of-way. 


32 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 


SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section 

802.1. 

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. See Section 902. 1 . 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. Sec Section 3302.1. 

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. See Section 3302.1 . 

SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either verti- 
cal or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

[B] SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 

[B] SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and 
air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. 
The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a 
smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being 
positioned from afire command center. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902. 1 . 

[B] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802. 1 . 

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See 
Section 1002.1. 

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302. 1 . 

[B] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway 
designed and constructed so that the movement of the products 
of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the 
building into the enclosure is limited. 

SOLID. See Section 2702.1 . 

SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302. 1 . 

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402.1. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. See Section 

1202 . 1 . 

Class I solvents. See Section 1 202. 1 . 

Class II solvents. See Section 1 202. 1 . 

Class IIIA solvents. See Section 1202. 1 . 

Class IIIB solvents. See Section 1 202. 1 . 

Class IV solvents. See Section 1 202. 1 . 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is 
temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or sys- 
tem that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, 
around or over a course in any direction as a form of amuse- 
ment arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent 
due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally con- 
founded egress path, or is not readily available because of the 
mode of conveyance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3302.1. 

SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1 502. 1 . 


[B] STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 902.1 . 
Class I system. See Section 902. 1 . 

Class II system. See Section 902. 1 . 

Class III system. See Section 902.1 . 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1 . 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1. 

Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 

Manual wet. See Section 902.1 . 

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1 . 

STATIC PILES. See Section 1 902. 1 . 

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the International 
Building Code. 

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 

2702.1. 

[B] STORY. That portion of a building included between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above (also see “Mezzanine” and Section 502. 1 of the 
International Building Code). It is measured as the vertical dis- 
tance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or fin- 
ished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of 
the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is 
not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters. 

[B] STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its 
finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which 
the finished surface of the floor next above is: 

1 . More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 1 2 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

SUBSTANTIAL ALTERATION. See Section 902.1. 
SUBSTANTAIL DAMAGE. See Section 902.1 . 

[B] SUITE. See Section 1 002. 1 . I 

SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 
SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1 . 
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902. 1 . 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 

Section 902.1 . 

SYSTEM. See Section 2702. 1 . 

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L). 
TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1 . 

TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402. 1 . 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


33 



DEFINITIONS 


TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in 
accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank pro- 
vided with protection from physical damage and fire-resistive 
protection from a high-intensity liquid pool fire exposure. The 
tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be an 
assembly of components, or a combination thereof. 

TANK, STATIONARY. See Seetion 2702. 1 . 

TANK VEHICLE. See Section 2702. 1 . 

TENT. See Section 2402.1. 

THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 
1702.1. 

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 

See Section 1902.1. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902. 1 . 

TOOL. See Section 1802.1. 

TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602. 1 . 

[B] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit con- 
structed in a group of three or more attached units in which 
each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open 
space on at least two sides. 

TOXIC. See Seetion 3702.1. 

[B] TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit for not more than 30 days. 

I [B] TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 902. 1 . 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302. 1 . 

TRASH. See “Rubbish.” 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902. 1 . 

I TUBE TRAILER. See Section 3002. 1 . 

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. See Section 2702.1. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Seetion 4302. 1 . 

Class 4. See Section 4302. 1 . 

Class 3. See Section 4302. 1 . 

Class 2. See Section 4302. 1 . 

Class 1. See Section 4302. 1 . 

UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or 
recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal opera- 
tions of the property. 

USE (MATERIAL). See Section 2702. 1 . 

VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702. 1 . 

[B] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of 
supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing 
such air from, any space. 

I VESSEL. See Section 1002.1. 


VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 

Section 902. 1 . 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402. 1 . 
Class 3. See Section 4402. 1 . 

Class 2. See Section 4402. 1 . 

Class 1. See Section 4402. 1 . 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

WHARF. See Section 4502. 1 . 

WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, 
grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, 
which is so situated or is of such inaccessible location that a fire 
originating upon it would present an abnormally difficult job of 
suppression or would result in great or unusual damage 
through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official. 

[B] WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] WINERY. A facility used for the primary commercial pur- 
pose of processing grapes or other fruit products to produce 
wine or cider, including all areas used for the production, stor- 
age, distribution and sale of such wine or cider, including 
crushing, fermenting in wood or steel barrels, blending, aging, 
bottling, warehousing, shipping, tasting rooms with an occu- 
pant load of 299 or less and retailing of wine, cider, and inci- 
dental items relating to wine and cider and all associated 
administrative functions. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 
WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1. 

[B] YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed 
from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided 
by the International Building Code, on the lot on which a build- 
ing is situated. 

ZONE. See Section 902. 1 . 

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902. 1 . I 


34 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for 
precautions against fire and the spread of tire and general 
requirements of fire safety. 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 

105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306, 307, 
308 and 3 1 5. 


ORS 476.380 and ORS 478.960 are not a part of this code but 
are reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s conve- 
nience. 

ORS 476.380 defines the parameters for obtaining a fire per- 
mit, limitations on burning and record keeping. 

ORS 478.960 defines certain materials that are permitted to 
be burned only with the permission of the lire chief and burn- 
ing schedules and restrictions. 


SECTION 302 
DEFINITIONS 

302.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. 

HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a 
roof. 

HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An electrical 
power transmission line operating at or above 66 kilovolts. 

OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein prod- 
ucts of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air 
without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed 
chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, 
smudgepots and similar devices associated with safety or occu- 
pational uses typically considered open flames, recreational 
fires or use of portable outdoor fireplaces. For the purpose of 
this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, 
during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, 
stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air 
and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open. 

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. A portable, out 
door, solid-fuel-burning fireplace that may be constructed of 
steel, concrete, clay or other noncombustible material. A porta- 
ble outdoor fireplace may be open in design, or may be 
equipped with a small hearth opening and a short chimney or 
chimney opening in the top. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK, A forklift, tractor, 
platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an elec- 
trical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial 


trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for 
highway use. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials 
other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained 
in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, portable outdoor fireplace, 
barbeque grill or barbeque pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet 
(914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in 
height for pleasure, religious, ceremonial, cooking, warmth or 
similar purposes. 

SECTION 303 
ASPHALT KETTLES 

303.1 Transporting. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be trans- 
ported over any highway, road or street when the heat source 
for the kettle is operating. 

Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching 
road surfaces. 

303.2 Location. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located 
within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, com- 
bustible building surface or any building opening and within a 
controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or 
other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not 
be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roof- 
ing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block 
means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances. 

303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be 
located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner. 

Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or 
flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (6 1 0 mm) of the burner. 

303.4 Attendant. An operating kettle shall be attended by a 
minimum of one employee knowledgeable of the operations 
and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or 
similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the 
attendant and the kettle. 

303.5 Fire extinguishers. There shall be a portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 
40-B;C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) 
kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Addition- 
ally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with a mini- 
mum 3-A;40-B:C rating on the roof being covered. 

303.6 Lids. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with tight- 
fitting lids. 

303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of noncombusti- 
ble materials. Hi- boys shall be limited to a capacity of 55 gal- 
lons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall not be 
allowed as part of a hi-boy. 

303.8 Roofing kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


35 




GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. Fuel containers 
that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 
L) in capacity and shall be approved. 

SECTION 304 

COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 

304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste 
material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumu- 
late in buildings or structures or upon premises. 

304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, 
wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable 
waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain 
on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, 

> open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf 
or other similar structure. 

304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth 
that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, 
shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of 
the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in 
urban-wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with 
the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. 

304.1.3 Space underneath seats. Spaces underneath 
grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from com- 
bustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed 
in not less than 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construction in 
accordance with the International Building Code, spaces 
underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be 
occupied or utilized for purposes other than means of 
egress. 

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not pro- 
duce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the 
publie health, safety or welfare. 

304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material 
kept within or near a structure shall be stored in accordance 
with Sections 304.3.1 through 304.3.4. 

304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to 
spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a 
listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall 
be removed and disposed of daily. 

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5,33 cubic feet. Containers 
with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) 
(0.15 m^) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of 
combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 300 kW/m^ when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m^ in the 
horizontal orientation. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Wastebaskets in Group 1-3 occupancies shall com- 
ply with Section 808. 1 . 

2. Dumpsters or containers in areas as approved by 
the authority having jurisdiction shall be protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed throughout in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 


3. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where 
the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other 
buildings and used exclusively for dumpsters or 
container storage. 

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters 
and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic 
yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m^)] or more shall not be stored 
in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combusti- 
ble walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 

903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where 
the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other 
buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or 
container storage. 

304.3.4 Capacity of 1 cubic yard or more. Dumpsters with 
an individual capacity of 1 .0 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 
m-’)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 
5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or com- 
bustible roof eave lines unless the dumpsters are constructed 
of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials 
with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m^ 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 354 at an incident 
heat flux of 50 kW/m^ in the horizontal orientation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 
903.3.1.3. 

2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where 
the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other 
buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or 
container storage. 


SECTION 305 
IGNITION SOURCES 

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between 
ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing 
devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an 
approved manner. 

305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot 

ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials 
subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a com- 
bustible receptacle, within 1 0 feet (3048 mm) of other combus- 
tible material including combustible walls and partitions or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings. 

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to 
other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where 
the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible 


36 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground sur- 
face or stand. 


305.3 Open-flame warning devices. Open-flame warning 
devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any 
place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the 
device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing 
combustible material. 


305,4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to 
deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burn- 
ing of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the 
safety of persons or property. 


SECTION 306 

MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS AND 
MOTION PICTURE AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION 
STUDIO SOUNDSTAGES AND APPROVED 
PRODUCTION FACILITIES AND FILM 


306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon 
or other light source projection equipment which develops haz- 
ardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of rib- 
bon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source 
used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture 
projection room complying with Section 409 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 


306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose 
nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40. 

306.3 Motion picture and television production studio 
soundstages and approved production facilities. Motion 
picture and television production soundstages and approved 
production facilities shall comply with NFPA 140. 


SECTION 307 

OPEN BURNING, RECREATIONAL FIRES 
AND PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACES 

307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or autho- 
rize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless con- 
ducted and approved in accordance with this section. 

307.1.1 Prohibited open burning. Open burning when 
> atmospheric conditions or local circumstances make such 
fires hazardous shall be prohibited. 

307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to 
kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife 
management practices, prevention or control of disease or 
pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only be 
presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon 
which the fire is to be kindled. 


307.2.1 Authorization. Where required by state or local 
law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted 
with prior approval from the state or local air and water 
quality management authority, provided that all conditions 
specified in the authorization are followed. 


307.3 Extinguishment authority. The fire code official is 
> authorized to order the extinguishment of open burning that 
creates or adds to a hazardous situation. 


307.4 Location. The location for open burning shall not be less 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions 
shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 
feet (15 240 mm) of any structure. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fires in approved containers that are not less than 1 5 
feet (4572 mm) from a structure. 

2. The minimum required distance from a structure shall 
be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 
mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (6 1 0 mm) or less in 
height. 

307.4.1 Bonfires. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material 
unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions 
which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. 

307.4.2 Recreational fires. Recreational fires shall not be 
conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or com- 
bustible material. Conditions which could cause a fire to 
spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be elim- 
inated prior to ignition. 

307.4.3 Portable outdoor fireplaces. Portable outdoor 
fireplaces shall be used in accordance with the manufac- 
turer’s instructions and shall not be operated within 15 feet 
(3048 mm) of a structure or combustible material. 

Exception: Portable outdoor fireplaces used at one- and 

two-family dwellings. 

307.5 Attendance. Open burning, bonfires, recreational fires 
and use of portable outdoor fireplaces shall be constantly 
attended until the fire is extinguished. A minimum of one por- 
table fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 with a mini- 
mum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extinguishing 
equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden hose or 
water truck, shall be available for immediate utilization. 


SECTION 308 
OPEN FLAMES 

308.1 General. Open flame, fire and burning on all premises 
shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.1 through 308.4.1 
and with other applicable sections of this code. 

308.1.1 Where prohibited. A person shall not take or uti- 
lize an open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other 
place where highly flammable, combustible or explosive 
material is utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be 
well-secured in a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a simi- 
lar approved device. 

308.1.2 Throwing or placing sources of ignition. No per- 
son shall throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a 
lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or 
glowing substance or object on any surface or article where 
it can cause an unwanted fire. 

308.1.3 Torches for removing paint. Persons utilizing a 
torch or other flame-producing device for removing paint 
from a structure shall provide a minimum of one portable 
fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


37 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


minimum 4-A rating, two portable fire extinguishers, each 
with a minimum 2- A rating, or a water hose connected to the 
water supply on the premises where such burning is done. 
The person doing the burning shall remain on the premises 1 
hour after the torch or flame-producing device is utilized. 

308.1.4 Open-flame cooking devices. Charcoal burners 
and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be operated 
on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible construction. 


Exceptions: 

1. Private residences as defined in ORS 479. 168(8). 

2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. 


ORS 479.168(8) is not a part of this code but is reproduced 
or paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479. 1 68(8) “Private residence” means that part of a sin- 
gle, double or multiple dwelling house or building occupied 
as living or sleeping quarters by one or more family units, 
exclusive of any portion of such house or building devoted to 
commercial processing or manufacturing use. 


308.1.5 Location near combustibles. Open flames such as 
from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters and gas-fired heat- 
ers shall not be located on or near decorative material or 
similar combustible materials. See Section 603.4 for porta- 
ble unvented heaters. 

308.1.6 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, 
machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be 
operated or used in or upon wildfire risk areas, except by a 
permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the 
fire code official. 

Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated 
campsites which are a minimum of 30 feet (9144 mm) 
from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas. 

308.1.6.1 Signals and markers. Flame-employing 
devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall 
not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or upon 
wildfire risk areas. 

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of 
emergencies or as required by standard railroad oper- 
ating procedures. 

308.1.6.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable 
open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible 
gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a 
manner as to prevent the flame from contacting combus- 
tible material. 

Exceptions: 

1 . LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe 
joints or removing paint in accordance with 
Chapter 38. 


3. Torches or flame-producing devices in accor- 
dance with Section 308.4. 

4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in 
accordance with Section 308.3. 

308.1.7 Religious ceremonies. When, in the opinion of the 
fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, par- 
ticipants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry 
hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed 
from one person to another while lighted. 

308.1.7.1 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited 
in areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit. 

308.1.8 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The 

preparation of flaming foods or beverages in places of 
assembly and drinking or dining establishments shall be in 
accordance with Sections 308.1.8.1 through 308.1.8.5. 

308.1.8.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liq- 
uids used in the preparation of flaming foods or bever- 
ages shall be dispensed from one of the following: 

1 . A 1 -ounce (29.6 ml) container; or 

2. A container not exceeding I -quart (946.5 ml) 
capacity with a controlled pouring device that will 
limit the flow to a I -ounce (29.6 ml) serving. 

308.1.8.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be 
secured to prevent spillage when not in use. 

308.1.8.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flam- 
ing foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and 
shall not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or 
spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 
8 inches (203 mm) above the receiving receptacle. 

308.1.8.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be 
prepared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being 
serviced. They shall not be transported or carried while 
burning. 

308.1.8.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the 
flaming foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel 
immediately available for use in smothering the fiames 
in the event of an emergency. 

308.2 Permits required. Permits shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to 
engaging in the following activities involving open flame, fire 
and burning: 

1 . Use of a torch or flame-producing device to remove paint 
from a structure. 

2. Use of open flame, fire or burning in connection with 
Group A or E occupancies. 

3. Use or operation of torches and other devices, machines 
or processes liable to start or cause fire in or upon wild- 
fire risk areas. 

308.3 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall not be 
used in a Group A occupancy. 

Exceptions: 


2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance 
with Chapter 26. 


1 . Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the fol- 
lowing situations, provided approved precautions are 


38 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



taken to prevent ignition of a combustible material or 
injury to occupants: 

1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or religious 
purposes in accordance with Section 308. 1 .7. 

1 .2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part of 
a performance in accordance with Section 

308.3.2. 

1 .3. Where candles on tables are securely sup- 
ported on substantial noncombustible bases 
and the candle flames are protected. 

2. Heat-producing equipment complying with Chapter 
6 and the international Mechanical Code. 

3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided adequate 
precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are 
taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials. 

308.3.1 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame dec- 
orative devices shall comply with all of the following 
restrictions: 

1 . Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be 
used. 

2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing 
more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extin- 
guish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 
teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped 
over. 

3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent 
the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more 
than 0.25 teaspoon per minute ( 1 .26 ml per minute) 
when the device or holder is not in an upright posi- 
tion. 

4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will 
return to the upright position after being tilted to an 
angle of 45 degrees from vertical. 

Exception; Devices that self-extinguish if 
tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the 
rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute 
(1 .26 ml per minute) if tipped over. 

5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings 
on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) 
diameter or where openings are on the top and the 
distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper 
placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds. 

6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materi- 
als and securely attached to the open-flame device. 

Exception: A chimney is not required to be 
attached to any open-flame device that will 
self-extinguish if the device is tipped over. 

7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 

8. Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 34. 

9. Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombusti- 
ble materials and securely attached to the open- 
flame device holder or chimney. 


10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be 
secured or supported to prevent overturning, and | 
shall be located away from occupants using the area 
and away from possible contact with drapes, cur- 
tains or other combustibles. 

308.3.2 Theatrical performances. Where approved, 
open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical per- 
formances are allowed to be used when adequate safety pre- 
cautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160. 

308.4 Group R occupancies. Open flame, fire and burning in 
Group R occupancies shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 308. 1 through 308. 1 .6.2 and 308.4. 1 . 

308.4.1 Group R-2 dormitories. Candles, incense and 
similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in 
sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies. 


SECTION 309 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT 

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks and similar equip- 
ment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor 
buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
this section. 

309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an 
approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum 
of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging 
shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 

309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an 
approved manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dan- 
gerous accumulation of flammable gases. 

309.4 Fire extinguishers. Battery-charging areas shall be pro- 
vided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 hav- 
ing a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of 
the battery charger. 

309.5 Refueling. Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, 
LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in 
areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel-dis- 
pensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 22. Other fuel-dispensing equip- 
ment and operations, including cylinder exchange for 
LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 
for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 38 for 
LP-gas. 

309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and 
repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in 
approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically 
approved for that purpose. 


SECTION 310 
SMOKING 

310.1 General. The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, 
cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or 
material is prohibited in the areas indicated in Sections 310.2 
through 3 10.8. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


39 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


310.2 Prohibited areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where 
conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces 
where flammable or combustible materials are stored or han- 
dled. 

310.3 “No Smoking” signs. The fire code official is authorized 
to order the posting of “No Smoking” signs in a conspicuous 
location in each structure or location in which smoking is pro- 
hibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of 
required “No Smoking” signs shall be approved. 

310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted “No Smoking” 
sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or 
destroyed. 

310.5 Compliance with “No Smoking” signs. Smoking shall 
not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any 
lighted or smoldering substance in any place where “No Smok- 
ing” signs are posted. 

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable 
noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided 
on each table and at other appropriate locations. 

310.7 Burning objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or 
other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner 
that could cause ignition of other combustible material. 

310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. When the fire 
code official determines that hazardous environmental condi- 
tions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the igni- 
tion or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or 
forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited 
except in approved designated smoking areas. 


SECTION 311 
VACANT PREMISES 

311.1 General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, 
premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be 
safeguarded and maintained in accordance with this section. 

311.1.1 Abandoned premises. Buildings, structures and 
premises for which an ownercannot be identified or located 
by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or 
registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become 
unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by 
unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which pres- 
ent a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent 
properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe 
and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance 

> with the International Building Code. 

311.1.2 Tenant spaces. Storage and lease plans required by 
this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary 
or partial vacancies. 

311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccu- 
pied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be 
secured and protected in accordance with this section. 

311,2.1 Security. Exterior and interior openings accessible 
to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be boarded, 
locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by 
unauthorized individuals. The fire code official is autho- 


rized to placard, post signs, erect barrier tape or take similar 
measures as necessary to secure public safety. 

311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and stand- 
pipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condition at 
all times. 

Exceptions: 

1 . When the premises have been cleared of all com- 
bustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of 
the fire code official, the type of construction, /i/e 
separation distance and security of the premises 
do not create a fire hazard. 

2. Where approved by the fire chief, buildings that 
will not be heated and where fire protection sys- 
tems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, fire 
alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be 
placed out of service and standpipes are permitted 
to be maintained as dry systems (without an auto- 
matic water supply), provided the building has no 
contents or storage, and windows, doors and other 
openings are secured to prohibit entry by unautho- 
rized persons. 

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, 
fire barriers and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces 
from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. 
Openings, joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7. 

311.3 Removal of combustibles. Persons owning, or in charge 
or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove 
therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flam- 
mable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock 
or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to pre- 
vent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be 
maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing addi- 
tions, alterations, repairs or change of occupancy in 
accordance with the International Building Code, 
where waste is controlled and removed as required by 
Section 304. 

2. Seasonally occupied buildings. 

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or 
having charge or control of a vacant building containing haz- 
ardous materials regulated by Chapter 27 shall comply with the 
facility closure requirements of Section 2701 .6. 

311.5 Placards. Any vacant or abandoned buildings or struc- 
tures determined to be unsafe pursuant to Section 1 10 of this 
code relating to structural or interior hazards shall be marked as 
required by Sections 3 1 1 .5. 1 through 3 1 1 .5.5. 

311.5.1 Placard location. Placards shall be applied on the 
front of the structure and be visible from the street. Addi- 
tional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance 
to the structure and on penthouses. 

311.5.2 Placard size and color. Placards shall be 24 inches 
by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) minimum in size with a 
red background, white reflective stripes and a white reflec- 


40 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


tive border. The stripes and border shall have a 2-inch (51 
mm) minimum stroke. 

311.5.3 Placard date. Placards shall bear the date of (heir 
application to the building and the date of the most recent 
inspection. 

311.5.4 Placard symbols. The design of the placards shall 
use the following symbols: 

1. CD This symbol shall mean that the structure had nor- 
mal structural conditions at the time of marking. 

2. [\] This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue oper- 
ations should be conducted with extreme caution. 

3. [X] This .symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be 
given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, 
with entry only occurring for known life hazards. 

4. Vacant marker hazard identification symbols: The 
following symbols shall be used to designate known 
hazards on the vacant building marker. They shall be 
placed directly above the symbol. 

4.1. RJO — Roof open 

4.2. S/M — Stairs, steps and landing missing 

4.3. F/E — Avoid fire escapes 

4.4. H/F — Holes in floor 

311.5.5 Informational use. The use of these symbols shall 
be informational only and shall not in any way limit the dis- 
cretion of the on-scene incident commander. 


SECTION 312 

VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this 
code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 3 12.2 
or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Sec- 
tion 312.3. 

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter and concrete filled. 

2. Spaced not more than 4 feet (1 2 1 9 mm) between posts on 
center. 

3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete foot- 
ing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter. 

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
above ground. 

5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected 
object. 

312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum of 
36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 12,000 
pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adja- 
cent ground surface. 


SECTION 313 
FUELED EQUIPMENT 

313.1 General. Fueled equipment including, but not limited to, 
motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable genera- 
tors and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, oper- 
ated or repaired within a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code. 

2. Where allowed by Section 314. 

3. Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance pur- 
poses is allowed in approved locations when the 
aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does 
not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

313.1.1 Removal. The fire code ojficial is authorized to 
require removal of fueled equipment from locations where 
the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire 
code ojficial to be hazardous. 

313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flammable 
liquids. Class 11 combustible liquids or compressed flammable 
gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R 
buildings. 


SECTION 314 
INDOOR DISPLAYS 

314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4. 

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods 
for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, 
immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by 
Chapter 10. 

314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly com- 
bustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, 
oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, 
in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is 
prohibited when a fire involving such goods would rapidly pre- 
vent or obstruct egress. 

314.4 Vehicles. Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other 
motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows: 

1 . Batteries are disconnected. 

2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 
gallons (19 L) (whichever is least). 

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to pre- 
vent tampering. 

4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not 
fueled or defueled within the building. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


41 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


SECTION 315 

MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE 
MATERIALS STORAGE 

315.1 General. Storage, use and handling of miscellaneous 
combustible materials shall be in accordance with this section. 
A permit shall be obtained in accordance with Section 105.6. 

315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials 
in buildings shall be orderly. Storage shall be separated from 
heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that igni- 
tion cannot occur. 

315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 
feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered 
areas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) 
below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of 
buildings. 

315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not 
be stored in exits or exit enclosures. 

315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not 
be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electrical 
equipment rooms. 

315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces u,sed for storage of com- 
bustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 
required for 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-clos- 
ing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood 
core not less than P /4 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Stor- 
age shall not be placed on exposed joists. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

315.3 Outside storage. Outside storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a property 
line. 

Exceptions: 

1. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 
feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 
mm) in height. 

2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced 
when the fire code ojficial determines that no hazard 
to the adjoining property exists. 

315.3.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from 
buildings. Where buildings are protected by automatic 
sprinklers, the outdoor storage, display and handling of 
combustible materials under eaves, eanopies or other pro- 
jections or overhangs is prohibited except where automatic 
sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other 
projections or overhangs. 

315.3.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. 

315.4 Storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines. 

Storage located underneath high-voltage transmission lines 
shall be in accordance with Section 316.5.2. 


SECTION 316 

HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 

316.1 Trapdoors to be closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, 
other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically 
operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use. 

316.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified 
as required by this section. 

316.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings 
accessible to the fire department and which open directly on a 
hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more 
floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches ( 1 52 mm) high on 
a while background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as 
to be readily discernible from the outside of the building. 

316.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window 
openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the 
building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high 
on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed 
so as to be readily discernible. 

Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway 
openings which are readily discernible as openings onto 
a shaftway by tbe eonstruction or arrangement. 

316.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of buildings 
to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. No per- 
son shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, 
razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid con- 
tainers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or 
other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively or 
actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly 
enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing 
a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emer- 
gency assistance. 

316.4 Security device. Any security device or system that 
emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any 
building, structure or premise shall be prohibited. 

316.5 Structures and outdoor storage underneath high- 
voltage transmission lines. Structures and outdoor storage 
underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall comply with 
Sections 316.5.1 and 316.5.2, respectively. 

316.5.1 Structures. Structures shall not be constructed 
within the utility easement underneath high-voltage trans- 
mission lines. 

Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommunica- 
tion structures of noncombustible construction less than 
15 feet in height. 

316.5.2 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage within the util- 
ity easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines 
shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of haz- 
ardous materials including, but not limited to, flammable 
and combustible liquids is prohibited. 

Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles and 
fuel storage for backup power equipment serving public 
utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a plan indicat- 
ing the storage eonfiguration is submitted and approved. 


42 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


SECTION 317 
LAUNDRY CARTS 

317.1 Laundry carts with a capacity of 1 cubic yard or 
more. Laundry carts with an individual capacity of 1 cubic 
yard [200 gallons (0.76 m')] or more, used in laundries within 
Group B, F-1, 1 and R-1 occupancies shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials or materials having a peak rate of 
heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m^ at a flux of 50 kW/m^ 
when tested in a horizontal orientation in accordance with 
ASTME 1354. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Laundry carts in areas protected by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed throughout in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Laundry carts in coin-operated laundries. 


SECTION 318 

COLLECTION AND STORAGE 
OF COMBUSTIBLE RECYCLABLE MATERIALS 

318.1 Scope. Buildings containing the collection and storage 
of combustible, recyclable materials shall be in accordance 
with Section 3 1 8 and shall be commensurate to the occupancy 
in which storage or recycling practices are conducted. This sec- 
tion excludes commercial rubbish handling occupancies and 
commercial paper recycling and plastic recycling occupancies. 

318.2 Derinitions. 

318.2.1 General. For definitions of “Approved”; “Listed”; 
“Occupancy classifications” and “Rubbish,” see Chapter 2. 

318.2.2 Limited applications. For the purpose of Section 
318, certain terms are defined as follows: 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE. A material that, in the form in 
which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, does 
not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable 
vapors, when subject to fire or heat. Materials that are 
reported as passing ASTM E 1 36, Standard Test for Behav- 
ior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750 C, are con- 
sidered noncombustible materials. 

RECYCLABLE PAPER AND PLASTIC MATERI- 
ALS. Any paper or plastic that would otherwise be a use- 
less, unwanted or discarded material, except for the fact the 
material still has useful physical or chemical properties after 
serving a specific purpose, and the material has been kept 
separate from rubbish and waste materials. 

318.3 Collection and storage of recyclable material. Recy- 
clable paper collection and storage shall be maintained as fol- 
lows: 

1. Desk side shall not exceed 15 gallons (57 L) total per 
desk [maximum of two 9-inch by 12-inch by 16 inch 
(229 mm by 305 mm by 406 mm) containers, in addition 
to collection and storage totals specified for small, 
medium and large rooms. Containers shall be 
noncombustible or accepted containers. 


2. Small rooms [500 square feet (46.4 m^) or less] shall not 
exceed three 15 gallon (57 L) containers. Containers 
shall be noncombustible or accepted containers. 

3. Medium rooms [over 500 square feet (46.4 m^) but less 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) or copy rooms] shall not 
exceed three 55 gallon (208 L) containers. Containers 
shall be noncombustible or accepted containers. 

4. Large rooms [over 1,000 square feet (93 m^)] shall not 
exceed three 55 gallon (208 L) for every 75 feet (22 860 
mm) of travel. Containers shall be noncombustible or 
accepted containers. 

Note: Areas completely separated by partition walls 
in accordance with the Oregon Structural Specialty 
Code may be reclassified as small or medium rooms 
for the purpose of placing recycling containers. 

5. Full containers shall be removed to an outside location or 
to an approved inside storage room. 

318.4 Accepted containers. For the purpose of Section 318, 
examples of accepted containers include, but are not limited to, 
the following: 

1 . At desk side, fiber or polyethylene barrels or cardboard 
boxes or polypropylene-bag/rack systems may be used. 

2. In small rooms fiber or polyethylene barrels or cardboard 
boxes or polypropylene-bag/rack systems may be used. 

3. In medium rooms polypropylene-bag/rack systems or 
fiber or polyethylene barrels may be used. 

4. In large rooms metal containers or fiber or polyethylene 
barrels may be used. 

Exception: In Group I and SR occupancies, containers used 

for the short-term storage of combustible recyclable materi- 
als shall be of noncombustible or other listed material, not to 

exceed 15 gallon (57 L) capacity. 

318.5 Location of containers in buildings/facilities. Loca- 
tion of containers in buildings and facilities shall be as follows: 

1 . Containers shall not be placed near any exits, in any exit 
corridor, in or under any stairway, or near any possible 
heat source. 

2. Containers shall not be used or stored in any location that 
constitutes a hazard greater than would be expected in a 
normal office or classroom, specifically: furnace rooms, 
mechanical labs, chemistry labs, biology labs, electrical 
rooms, wood shops, machine shops, or other hazardous 
areas as determined by the chief. 

318.6 Central collection and storage area. Central collection 
and storage areas shall be as follows: 

1. Central storage locations are preferred to be located out- 
side buildings/facilities, but approved inside storage 
rooms are permitted. 

2. Inside storage shall be in areas of not less than 1-hour 
construction with openings protected as required for 
occupancy separations or provided with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

3. “Hazardous Area-No Smoking” signs shall be posted 
and good housekeeping shall be maintained. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


43 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 


4. Containers made of metal, fiber, polyethylene or non- 
combustible approved material are required. 

5. Recyclable paper in the central storage area shall be 
removed from the building/facility on a regular basis as 
needed to maintain good housekeeping. In Group I and 
SR occupancies, containers shall be emptied each day. 

6. Allowable quantities of paper stored in rooms, facilities 
or other areas of storage shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 316. 

7. In Group I and SR occupancies, containers for long-term 
storage shall be placed outside and a minimum of 5 feet 
(1524 mm) from the exterior of the building and shall be 
of a metal or other noncombustible and listed material 
with a metal or noncombustible lid in place at all times. 

318.7 Collection and storage of recyclable plastic. Recycla- 
ble plastic collection and storage shall be maintained as fol- 
lows; 

1. Collection. 

1.1. Metal or other approved noncombustible con- 
tainers with tight-fitting lids shall be used at all 
times while within a structure. 

1.2. Full containers shall be removed to an outside 
location or to an approved inside storage room 
complying with Section 318.6. 


44 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 4 

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with 
emergency response forces, emergency plans and procedures 
for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises 
fire-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with 
procedures for fire reporting as approved by the fire code 
official. 

401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety 
plans, emergency procedures and employee training programs 
shall be approved by the^re code ojficial. 

401.3 Emergency responder notification. Notification of 
emergency responders shall be in accordance with Sections 

401.3.1 through 401.3.3. 

401.3.1 Fire events. In the event an unwanted fire occurs on 
a property, the owner or occupant shall immediately report 
such condition to the fire department. 

401.3.2 Alarm activations. Upon activation of a fire alarm 
signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire 
department. 

401.3.3 Delayed notification. A person shall not, by verbal 
or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a 
fire to the fire department. 

401.4 Required plan implementation. In the event an 
unwanted fire is detected in a building or a tire alarm activates, 
the emergency plan shall be implemented. 

401.5 Making false report. A person shall not give, signal or 
transmit a false alarm. See ORS 162.375. 


ORS 1 62.375 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 1 62.375 gives the definition of “The crime of initiating 
a false report” and designates this crime as a Class C misde- 
meanor. 


401.6 Emergency evacuation drills. The sounding of a fire 
alarm signal and the carrying out of an emergency evacuation 
drill in accordance with the provisions of Section 405 shall be 
allowed. 

401.7 Unplanned evacuation. Evacuations made necessary 
by the unplanned activation of a fire alarm system or by any 
other emergency shall not be substituted for a required evacua- 
tion drill. 

401.8 Interference with fire department operations. It shall 

be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, con- 
spire to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of or 
block the path of travel of a fire department emergency vehicle 


in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, con- 
spire to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire department 
operation. Lawful commands of the chief or officer of the fire 
department in charge at such a scene, or any part thereof, or any 
police officer assisting the fire department, shall not be dis- 
obeyed. See ORS 162.235 and ORS 162.255. 


ORS 162.235 and ORS 162.255 are not a part of this code 
but are reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s con- 
venience. 

ORS 162.235 gives the definition of’The crime of obstruct- 
ing governmental or judicial administration” and designates 
this crime a Class A misdemeanor. 

ORS 162.255 gives the definition of “The crime of refusing 
to assist in fire-fighting operations” and designates this 
crime a Class B violation. 


SECTION 402 
DEFINITIONS 

402.1 Definition. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise per- 
formed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their effi- 
ciency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation 
procedures. 

FIRE APPLIANCE. The apparatus or equipment provided or 
installed for use in the event of an emergency. 

LOCKDOWN. An emergency situation, in other than a Group 
1-3 occupancy, requiring that the occupants be sheltered and 
secured in place within a building when normal evacuation 
would put occupants at risk. 

SECTION 403 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 

403.1 Fire watch personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire 
code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of assem- 
bly or any other place where people congregate, because of the 
number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibi- 
tion, display, contest or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall 
provide one or more fire watch personnel, as required and 
approved, to remain on duty during the times such places are 
open to the public, or when such activity is being conducted. 

403.1.1 Duties. Fire watch personnel shall keep diligent 
watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other 
hazards during the time such place is open to the public or 
such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures 
for remediation of hazards, extinguishment of fires that 
occur and assist in the evacuation or relocation of the occu- 
pants. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


45 





EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


403.2 Public safety plan. Where the fire code official deter- 
mines that an indoor or outdoor gathering of persons has an 
adverse impact on public safety through diminished access to 
buildings, structures, fire hydrants and fire apparatus access 
roads or where such gatherings adversely affect public safety 
services of any kind, the fire code official shall have the author- 
ity to order the development of, or prescribe a plan for, the pro- 
vision of an approved level of public safety. 

403.2.1 Contents. The public safety plan, where required 
by Section 403.2, shall address such items as emergency 
vehicle ingress and egress, fire protection, emergency medi- 
cal services, public assembly areas and the directing of both 
attendees and vehicles (including the parking of vehicles), 
vendor and food concession distribution, and the need for 
the presence of law enforcement, and fire and emergency 
medical services personnel at the event. 

403.3 Crowd managers. Trained crowd managers shall be 
provided for facilities or events where more than 1 ,000 persons 
congregate. The minimum number of crowd managers shall be 
established at a ratio of one crowd manager to every 250 per- 
sons. Where approved by the fire code official, the ratio of 
crowd managers shall be permitted to be reduced where the 
facility is equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system or based upon the nature of the event. 


SECTION 404 

FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 

404.1 General. Fire safety, evacuation and lockdown plans and 
associated drills shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tions 404.2 through 404.5.1. 

404.2 Where required. An approved fire safety and evacua- 
tion plan shall be prepared and maintained for the following 
occupancies and buildings. 

1. Group A, other than Group A occupancies used exclu- 
sively for purposes of religious worship that have an 
occupant load less than 2,000. 

2. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

3. Group E. 

4. Group F buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

5. Group H. 

6. Group I. 

7. Group R-1. 

8. Group R-2 college and university buildings. 

9. Group R-4. 

10. Group SR. 

1 1 . Group R occupancies subject to licensure by the state. 

10. High-rise buildings. 


1 1 . Group M buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 1 00 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

12. Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) 
in aggregate floor area. 

13. Underground buildings. 

14. Buildings with an atrium and having an occupancy in 
Group A, E or M. 

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall 
be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2. Where 
health care facilities are federally certified by Centers for 
Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) they are also required 
to meet the applicable NFPA standards. 

404.3.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans shall 

include the following: 

1 . Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evac- 
uation of the building is to be complete or, where 
approved, by selected floors or areas only. 

2. Procedures for employees who must remain to oper- 
ate critical equipment before evacuating. 

3. Procedures for assisted rescue for persons unable to 
use the general means of egress unassisted. 

4. Procedures for accounting for employees and occu- 
pants after evacuation has been completed. 

5. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for rescue or emergency medical aid. 

6. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying 
occupants of a fire or emergency. 

7. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting 
fires and other emergencies to the fire department or 
designated emergency response organization. 

8. Identification and assignment of personnel who can 
be contacted for further information or explanation of 
duties under the plan. 

9. A description of the emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice 
messages, where provided. 

404.3.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include the 

following: 

1 . The procedure for reporting a fire or other emergency. 

2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, 
relocating or evacuating occupants, including occu- 
pants who need assistance. 

3. Site plans indicating the following: 

3. 1 . The occupancy assembly point. 

3.2. The locations of fire hydrants and fire appli- 
ances. 

3.3. The normal routes of fire department vehicle 
access. 

4. Floorplansidentifying the locations of the following: 

4.1. Exits. 


46 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


4.2. Primary evacuation routes. 

4.3. Secondary evacuation routes. 

4.4. Accessible egress routes. 

4.5. Areas of refuge. 

4.6. Exterior areas for assisted rescue. 

4.7. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4.8. Portable fire extinguishers. 

4.9. Occupant-use hose stations. 

4.10. Fire alarm annunciators and controls. 

4.1 1. Area separation fire walls. 

5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal 
use and occupancy of the premises, including mainte- 
nance and housekeeping procedures. 

6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance of systems and equipment 
installed to prevent or control fires. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling 
fuel hazard sources. 

404.3.3 Lockdown plans. Where facilities develop a 
lockdown plan, the lockdown plan shall be in accordance 
with Sections 404.3.3.1 through 404.3.3.3. 

404.3.3.1 Lockdown plan contents. Lockdown plans 
shall be approved by the fire code official and shall 
include the following: 

1. Initiation. The plan shall include instructions for 
reporting an emergency that requires a lockdown. 

2. Accountability. The plan shall include account- 
ability procedures for staff to report the presence 
or absence of occupants. 

3. Recall. The plan shall include a prearranged signal 
for returning to normal activity. 

4. Communication and coordination. The plan shall 
include an approved means of two-way communi- 
cation between a central location and each secured 
area. 

404.3.3.2 Training frequency. The training frequency 
shall be included in the lockdown plan. The lockdown 
drills shall not substitute for any of the fire and evacua- 
tion drills required in Section 405.2. 

404.3.3.3 Lockdown notification. The method of noti- 
fying building occupants of a lockdown shall be included 
in the plan. The method of notification shall be separate 
and distinct from the fire alarm signal. 

404.4 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in 
staff assignments, occupancy or the physical arrangement of 
the building. 

404.5 Availability. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
available in the workplace for reference and review by employ- 
ees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for 
review upon request. 


404.5.1 Distribution. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
shall be distributed to the tenants and building service 
employees by the owneror owner’s agent. Tenants shall dis- 
tribute to their employees applicable parts of the fire safety 
plan affecting the employees’ actions in the event of a fire or 
other emergency. 

SECTION 405 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with 
the provisions of this section shall be conducted at least annu- 
ally in the occupancies listed in Section 404.2 or when required 
by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation 
with the local authorities. 

405.2 Frequency. Required emergency evacuation drills shall 
be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more fre- 
quently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the 
drill procedure. 


TABLE 405.2 

FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL 
FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION 


GROUP OR 
OCCUPANCY 

FREQUENCY 

PARTICIPATION 

Group A 

Quarterly 

Employees 

Group 

Annually 

Employees 

Group E 

Monthly” 

All occupants 

Group F 

Annually 

Employees 

Group I 

Quarterly on each shift 

Employees'’ 

Group R-1 

Quarterly on each shift 

Employees 

Group R-2‘‘ 

Four annually 

All occupants 

Group R-4 

See Section 408.12 

All occupants'’ 

Group SR 

See Section 408.12 

All occupants'’ '’ 

High-rise buildings 

Annually 

Employees 


a. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 
408.3.2. 

b. Fire and evacuation drills in Group 1-1, R-4 and SR facilities shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 408.12. 

c. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more 
than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

d- Applicable to Group R-2 college and university buildings in accordance 
with Section 408.3. 

e. Fire and evacuation drills in Group SR facilities shall include occupant use 
of designated point of safety for the fecility. 

405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
duct of dri I Is shall be assigned to competent persons designated 
to exercise leadership. 

405.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under 
varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that 
occur in case of fire. 

405.5 Record keeping. Records shall be maintained of 
required emergency evacuation drills and include the following 
information: 

1 . Identity of the person conducting the drill. 

2. Date and time of the drill. 

3. Notification method used. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


47 




EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


4. Staff members on duty and participating. 

5. Number of occupants evacuated. 

6. Special conditions simulated. 

7. Problems encountered. 

8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated. 

9. Time required to accomplish complete evacuation. 

405.6 Notification. Where required by the fire code official, 
prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given 
to the fire code official. 

405.7 Initiation. Where a fire alarm system is provided, emer- 
gency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire 
alarm system. For other than fire emergency evacuation drills, 
alternative means of occupant notification shall be used. 

405.8 Accountability. As building occupants arrive at the 
assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occu- 
pants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted 
for. 

405.9 Recall and reentry. An electrically or mechanically 
operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation 
shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the 
evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manu- 
ally operated and under the control of the person in charge of 
the premises or the official in charge of the incident. No one 
shall reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the offi- 
cial in charge. 


SECTION 406 
EMPLOYEE TRAINING 
AND RESPONSE PROCEDURES 

406.1 General. Employees in the occupancies listed in Section 

404.2 shall be trained in the fire emergency procedures 
described in their fire evacuation and fire safety plans. Training 
shall be based on these plans and as described in Section 404.3. 

406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the con- 
tents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part 
of new employee orientation and at least annually thereafter. 
Records shall be kept and made available to the fire code offi- 
cial upon request. 

406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be 
trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accor- 
dance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.4. 

406.3.1 Fire prevention training. Employees shall be 
apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to 
which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed 
in the proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct 
of their assigned duties. 

406.3.2 Evacuation training. Employees shall be familiar- 
ized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their 
assigned duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, evac- 
uation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas and 
procedures for evacuation. 

406.3.3 Emergency lockdown training. Where a facility 
has a lockdown plan, employees shall be trained on their 


assigned duties and procedures in the event of an emergency 
lockdown. 

406.3.4 Fire safety training. Employees assigned fire- 
fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations and 
proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other manual 
fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or 
equipment required for its safe and proper use. 


SECTION 407 

HAZARD COMMUNICATION 

407.1 General. The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 

407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to 
permits under Section 2701.5 are located on the premises or 
where required by the fire code official. 

407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be either 
readily available on the premises as a paper copy, or where 
approved, shall be permitted to be readily retrievable by elec- 
tronic access. 

407.3 Identification. Individual containers of hazardous 
materials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in 
accordance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, 
rooms and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be 
identified by hazard warning signs in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2703.5. 

407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of areas 
in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or 
used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials 
and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of 
a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated 
and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. 
These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning 
emergency responses and identification of the locations where 
hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Mate- 
rial Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emer- 
gency response procedures. 

407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement. Where 
required by the fire code official, a Hazardous Materials Inven- 
tory Statement (HMIS) in accordance with Section 2701.5.2, 
shall be provided when quantities meet or exceed those speci- 
fied in Section 105.6. The fire code official is authorized to 
accept an alternative inventory statement as may be required by 
other local, state or federal regulations. 

407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan, Where 
required by the fire code official, a Hazardous Materials Man- 
agement Plan (HMMP) in accordance with Section 2701 .5.1 , 
shall be provided when quantities met or exceed those speci- 
fied in Section 105.6. The fire code official is authorized to 
accept an alternative plan as may be required by other local, 
state or federal regulations. 

407.7 Facility closure plans. The person responsible for the 
operation of the facility shall submit to the fire code official a 
facility closure plan in accordance with Section 2701 .6.3 to ter- 
minate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous mate- 
rials. 


48 


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EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


SECTION 408 

USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS 


408.1 General. In addition to the other requirements of this 
chapter, the provisions of this section are applicable to specific 
occupancies listed herein. 


408.2 Group A occupancies. Group A occupancies shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 408.2. 1 and 408.2.2 and 
Sections 401 through 406. 

408.2.1 Seating plan. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
for assembly occupancies shall include Ihe information 
required by Section 404. .1 and a detailed seating plan, occu- 
pant load and occupant load limit. Deviations from the 
approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant load 
limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and 
exit accessways remain unobstructed. 

408.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture the- 
aters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in 
Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible 
announcement shall be made not more than 10 minutes prior 
to the start of each program to notify the occupants of the 
location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other 
emergency. 


Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announce- 
ment is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a man- 
ner approved by the fire code official. 


408.3 Group E occupancies and Group R-2 college and uni- 
versity buildings. Group E occupancies shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 408.3. 1 through 408.3.4 and Sections 
401 through 406. Group R-2 college and university buildings 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 and 

408.3.3 and Sections 401 through 406. Fire drills in Group E 
occupancies shall be conducted in accordance with ORS 
479.140. 


ORS 479.140 is not a part of this code but is reproduced or 
paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479.140(1). The Stale Fire Marshal and deputies and 
assistants shall require teachers of publ ic and private schools 
and educational institutions to have one fire drill each month 
and to keep all doors and exits unlocked during school hours. 

Note: See also ORS 3.I6.07I, Fire Drills al School. 


408.3.4 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall be 
designated and shall be located a minimum distance of 50 
feet ( 1 5 240 mm) from the building being evacuated so as to 
avoid interference with fire department operations. The 
assembly areas shall be arranged to keep each class separate 
to provide accountability of all individuals. 

408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall 

comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 

408.4.4 and Sections 401 through 407. 

408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams 
shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the 
approximate plan for each area, the amount and type of 
HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves 
for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and 
locations of exits. 

408.4.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required by 
Section 408.4. 1 shall be maintained up to date and the fire 
code official and fire department shall be informed of all 
major changes. 

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons 
shall be designated the on-site emergency response team 
and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. 
These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning 
emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is 
stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical 
nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel 
for each work shift shall be designated. 

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site 
emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular 
basis but not less than once every three months. Records of 
drills conducted shall be maintained. 

408.5 Group I-l occupancies. Group I-l occupancies shall 

comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 

408.5.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety and 
evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special 
staff actions including fire protection procedures necessary 
for residents and shall be amended or revised upon admission 
of any resident with unusual needs or the change of condition 
of a resident that would change their evacuation capability. 


408.3.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first emer- 
gency evacuation drill of each school year shall be con- 
ducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 

408.3.2 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe 
climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to 
modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified 
in Section 405.2. 


408.3.3 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be 
conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during 
the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, dur- 
ing the recess or gymnastic periods, orduring other times to 
avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. In Group 
R-2 college and university buildings, one required drill shall 
be held during hours after sunset or before sunrise. 


408.5.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. A copy of the plan shall be readily avail- < 
able at all times within the facility. 

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 

in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. < 

408.5.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills may 
be conducted in accordance with the applicable rules of the 
licensing agency as noted in Section 408.12, but not less 
than six times per year, two times per year on each shift. 

Exception: Residents capable of evacuating in 3 minutes 
or less from Group I-l, R-3, R-4 or SR-3 facilities shall 
be subject to the rules of the applicable licensing agency. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


49 




EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


408.5.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point. 

Exception: Residents are not required to take part in 
drills when the staff conduct at least 1 2 drills per year and 
the facility is protected with an automatic and manual 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.6, an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
NFPA 1 3 and the facil ity is constructed of at least 1 -hour 
construction. Facilities for five and fewer residents shall 
provide protection in accordance with the standards for 
one- and two-family dwellings. 

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.6. 1 and 408.6.2 
and Sections 401 through 406. Drills are required to comply 

I with the time requirements of Section 405.4. Where occupants 
are restrained, compliance with Section 408.7 is required. 

408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During emergency 
evacuation drills, the movement of patients to safe areas or 
to the exterior of the building is not required. 

408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When emergency evacuation 
drills are conducted after visiting hours or when patients or 
residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement 
is allowed instead of audible alarms. 

408.7 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 
408.7.4 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.7.1 Employee training. Employees shall be instructed 
in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other 
manual fire suppression equipment. Training of new staff 
shall be provided promptly upon entrance on duty. 

I Refresher training shall be provided at least semi-annually. 

408.7.2 Staffing. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or 
300 feet (9 1 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door 
of each resident housing area. In Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, 
as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that 
the staff involved can start release of locks necessary for 
emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary 
emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm. 

Exception: Staff shall not be required to be within three 
floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) in areas in which all locks 
are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance 
with Section 408.4 of the International Building Code. 

408.7.3 Notification. Provisions shall be made for residents 
in Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to 
readily notify staff of an emergency. 

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by 
both touch and sight. 

408.8 Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8.1 through 

408.8.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 


cent to every required egress door from each hotel, motel or 
dormitory sleeping unit. 


408.8.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or sus- 
pected lire, hotel, motel and dormitory employees shall per- 
form the following duties: 


1. Activate the fire alarm system, where provided. 


2. Notify the public fire department. 

3. Take other action as previously instructed. 


408.8.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions. Informa- 
tion shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan 
required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to 
evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of refuge, remain 
in place, or any combination of the three. 


408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 

408.9.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 


408.9.1 Emergency guide. A fire emergency guide shall be 
provided which describes the location, function and use of 
fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to resi- 
dents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms, and por- 
table fire extinguishers. The guide shall also include an 
emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit. 


408.9.2 Maintenance. Emergency guides shall be reviewed 
and approved in accordance with Section 401 .2. 


408.9.3 Distribution. A copy of the emergency guide shall 
be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy. 


408.10 Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.10.1 through 
408. 1 0.5 and Sections 40 1 through 406. 


408.10.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions, including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of a resident with unusual needs or the 
change of condition of a resident that would change their 
evacuation capacity. 

408.10.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. A copy of the plan shall be readily avail- < 
able at all times within the facility. 


408.10.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. < 


408.10.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills may 
be conducted in accordance with the applicable rules of the 
licensing agency as noted in Section 408. 1 2, but not less than 
six times per year, two times per year on each shift. Twelve 
drills shall be conducted in the first year of operation. 


Exception: Residents capable of evacuating in 3 minutes 
or less from Group I- 1 , R-3, R-4 and SR-3 facilities shall 
be subject to the rules of the applicable licensing agency. 


408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two 408.10.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 

evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adja- drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 


50 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


selected assembly point and shall provide residents with 
experience in exiting through approved required exits. 
Within each year, all required exits shall he used during 
emergency evacuation drills. 

Exceptions; 

1 . Actual exiting from windows shall not he required. 
Opening the window and signaling for help shall 
be an acceptable alternative. 

2, Residents are not required to take part in drills 
when the staff conduct at least 1 2 drills per year 
and the facility is protected with an automatic and 
manual fire alarm system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.6, an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and the 
facility is constructed of a least 1-hour construc- 
tion. Facilities for five and fewer residents shall 
provide protection in accordance with the stan- 
dards for one- and two-family dwellings. 

408.11 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 408.11.1 through 

408.11.3. 

408.11.1 Lease plan. A lease plan shall he prepared for 
each covered mall building. The plan shall include the fol- 
lowing information in addition to that required by Section 
404.3.2: 

1. Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 

2. Exits from each tenant space. 

3. Fire protection features, including the following: 

3. 1 . Fire department connections. 

3.2. Fire command center. 

3.3. Smoke management system controls. 

3.4. Elevators, elevator tnachine rooms and con- 
trols. 

3.-5. Hose valve outlets. 

3.6. Sprinkler and standpipe control valves. 

3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas. 

3.8. Automatic fire detector zones. 

3.9. Fire walls. 

408.11.1.1 Approval. The lease plan shall be submitted 
to the /?/e code official for approval, and shall be main- 
tained on site for immediate reference by responding fire 
service personnel. 

408.11.1.2 Revisions. The lease plans shall be revised 
annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. 
Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall 
not be made without prior approval of the fire code offi- 
cial and building official. 

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant 
space provided with a secondary exit to the exterior or exit 


corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by 
business name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be 
posted on the corridor side of the door, be plainly legible 
and shall contrast with their background. 

Exception: Tenant identification is not required for 

anchor stores. 

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be: 

1 . Kept free from the storage of any materials. 

2. Separated from the remainder of the building by parti- 
tions of at least 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board or an approved equivalent to the underside of 
the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces. 

3. Without doors or other access openings other than 
one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed 
position except during that time when opened for 
inspection. 

4. Kept free from combustible waste and be broom- 
swept elean. 

408.12 Group SR occupancies. Group SR occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 401 through 406 and 
Sections 408. 1 2. 1 through 408. 1 2.5. 


ORS 443.400 to 443.500 and OAR Chapter 309-035, OAR 
Chapter 415-051 and OAR 41 1-325 arc not a part of this 
code but arc reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s 
convenience. 

ORS 443.400 to 443.500 requires rules to be implemented 
by licensing agencies that will provide safety procedures for 
staff and residents in the event of an emergency. 

OAR Chapter 309-035 provides safety procedures for 
“Residential Treatment Homes and Facilities” licensed by 
the Office of Mental Health. 

OAR Chapter 415-051 provides safety procedures for 
“Alcohol and Diug Residential Treatment.” 

OAR Chapter 411-325 provides safety prcicedures for 
“Senior and People with Disabilities.” 


408.12.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions, including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of a resident with unusual needs or the 
change of condition of a resident that would change their 
evacuation capability. 

408.12.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. A copy of the plan shall be readily avail- 
able at all limes within the facility. 

408.12.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


51 




EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 


408.12.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills 
may be conducted in accordance with the applicable rules of 
the licensing agency, as noted in this section, but not less 
than two times per year on each shift. 

Exception: Residents capable of evacuating in three 
minutes or less for Group I-l, R-3, R-4 orSR-3 facilities 
shall be subject to the rules of the applicable licensing 
agency. 

408.12.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point and shall provide residents with 
experience in exiting through approved, required exits. 
Within each year, all required exits shall be used during 
emergency evacuation drills. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Actual exiting from windows shall not be required. 
Opening window and signaling for help shall be an 
acceptable alternative to exiting from the window. 

2. Residents are not required to take part in drills 
when the staff conducts at least 12 drills per year 
and the facility is protected with an automatic and 
manual fire alarm system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.6, an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and the 
facil ity is constructed of at least one hour construc- 
tion. Facilities for five and fewer residents shall 
provide protection in accordance with the stan- 
dards for one- and two-family dwellings. 


52 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 5 

FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 


SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. Fire service features for buildings, structures and 
premises shall comply with this chapter. See also ORS 92.044, 
203, 22 1 , 1 95.065, 368.039, 478.920 and OAR 9 1 8-480-0 1 00. 


ORS Chapters 92.044, 203, 221, 368.039, 195.065 and 
478.920 and OAR Chapter 9 1 8 are not a part of this code but 
are reproduced or paraphrased here for the reader’s conve- 
nience. 

ORS 92.044 is the adoption of standards and procedures 
governing approval of plats and plans; delegation to plan- 
ning commission; fees. 

ORS 203 is the county bodies; county home rule. 

ORS 221 is the organization and government of cities. 

ORS 368.039 allows road standards adopted by local gov- 
ernment to supercede standards in fire codes and requires 
consultation with local fire agency. 

ORS 195.065 requires local governments and special dis- 
tricts that provide urban service to enter into urban service 
agreements. For the purpose of this statute, “urban service” 
means: sanitary sewers, water, fire protection, parks, open 
space, recreation and streets, roads and mass transit. 

ORS 478.920 describes elements that may be included in the 
scope of a fire prevention code adopted by a rural fire protec- 
tion district, including but not limited to: mobile fire appara- 
tus means of approach to buildings and structures, and 
providing fire-fighting water supplies and fire detection and 
suppression apparatus adequate for the protection of build- 
ings and structures. 

OAR 918-480-0100 describes the procedure for approving 
the installation of automatic fire sprinklers where fire appa- 
ratus access or fire-fighting water supply do not meet local 
standards. 

ORS 479.200 regulates water supply requirements for cer- 
tain public buildings erected after July 1, 1967, as defined in 
ORS 479.010(1X1). 


501.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 

501.3 Construction documents. Construction documents for 
proposed fire apparatus access, location offire lanes, security 
gates across fire apparatus access and construction documents 
and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant systems shall be 
submitted to the fire department for review and approval prior 
to construction. 

501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access 
roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be 
installed, such protection shall be installed and made service- 
able prior to and during the time of construction except when 


approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Tem- 
porary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection 
when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehi- 
cles in accordance with Section 505.2. 


SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides 
fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or 
portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other 
terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot 
lane and access roadway. 

Note: Specifications and standards for public streets are 
regulated by county or city governing bodies in accordance 
with ORS 368.039 wherein input from the fire service is 
required during planning for community development pro- 
jects. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER, The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of the detection, alarm 
communications and control systems is displayed, and from 
which the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A limited issue key 
of special or controlled design to be carried by fire department 
officials in command which will open key boxes on specified 
properties. 

FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow 
the pas.sage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily 
intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a 
fire department master key, and containing building entry 
keys and other keys that may be required for access in an 
emergency. 


SECTION 503 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 
through 503. 1 .3. See Appendix D. 

503.1.1 Buildings and facilities. Approved fire apparatus 
access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or 
portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or 
within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall 
comply with the requirements of this section and shall 
extend to within 1 50 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the 
facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


53 




FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 


of the building as measured by an approved route around the 
exterior of the building or facility. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to modify 
Sections 503.1 and 503.2 where any of the following 
applies: 

1. The building is equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 
903.3.1.3. 

2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed 
because of location on property, topography, 
waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar 
conditions, and an approved alternative means of 
fire protection is provided. 

3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group 
U occupancies. 

503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require more than one fire apparatus access road 
based on the potential for impairment of a single road by 
vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions 
or other factors that could limit access. 

503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire department vehicle access 
to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 23. 

503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 
through 503.2.8. 

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have 
an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), 
exclusive of shoulders, except for approved security gates in 
accordance with Section 503.6, and an unobstructed verti- 
cal clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (41 15 mm). 

503.2.2 Authority. The fire code official shall have the 
authority to modify the dimension specified in Section 
503.2.1. 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of 
fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all- 
weather driving capabilities. 

503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a 
fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire 
code official. 

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in 
excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided 
with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus. 

503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or 
an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the 
bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance 
with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall 
be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed 
loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at 
both entrances to bridges when required by the fire code offi- 
cial. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehi- 
cle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not designed for 
such use, approver/ barriers, approved signs or both shall be 


installed and maintained when required by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road 
shall be within the limits established by the fire code official 
based on the fire department’s apparatus. 

503.2.8 Angles of approach and departure. The angles of 
approach and departure for fire apparatus access roads shall 
be within the limits established by the fire code official 
based on the fire department’s apparatus. 

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, 
approved signs or other approved notices or markings that 
include the words NO PARKING— FIRE LANE shall be pro- 
vided for fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or 
prohibit the obstruction thereof. The means by which fire lanes 
are designated shall be maintained in a clean and legible condi- 
tion at all times and be replaced or repaired when necessary to 
provide adequate visibility. 

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire appa- 
ratus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, 
including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and 
clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained 
at all times. 

503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates 
or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access 
roads, trails or other accessways, not including public streets, 
alleys or highways. Electric gate operators, where provided, 
shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for 
automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and 
installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200. 

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, 
gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved man- 
ner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 

503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized 
by the owner and the fire code official. 

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to pub- 
lic officers acting within the scope of duty. 

503.6 Security gates. The installation of security gates across a 
fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. 
Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved 
means of emergency operation. The security gates and the 
emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all 
times. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in 
accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic opera- 
tion shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with 
the requirements of ASTM F 2200. 

SECTION 504 

ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 

504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required 
by this code or the International Building Code shall be main- 
tained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire 
department. An approved access walkway leading from fire 
apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided 
when required by the fire code official. 


54 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 


504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior 
doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior 
approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunc- 
tional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance 
shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the 
words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of let- 
ters having a principal stroke of not less than V 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
wide and at least 6 inches (1 52 mm) high on a contrasting back- 
ground. Required fire department access doors shall not be 
obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall com- 
ply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combustible 
storage shall comply with Section 2306.6.1 . 

504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more 
stories above grade plane, except those with a roof slope 
greater than four units vertical in 1 2 units horizontal (33.3-per- 
cent slope), shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stair- 
way access to the roof shall be in accordance with Section 
1009.12. Such stairway shall be marked at street and floor lev- 
els with a sign indicating that the stairway continues to the roof. 
Where roofs are used for roof gardens or for other purposes, 
stairways shall be provided as required for such occupancy 
classification. 


SECTION 505 

PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 

505.1 Address identification. New and existing buildings 
shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or 
approved building identification placed in a position that is 
plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the 
property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. 
Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical let- 
ters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches ( 101 .6 mm) high 
with a minimum stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Where 
access is by means of a private road and the building cannot be 
viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or 
means shall be used to identify the structure. 

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shal I be identi fied 
with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each 
street intersection when construction of new roadways allows 
passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, 
weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by perma- 
nent signs. 


SECTION 506 
KEY BOXES 

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure 
or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where 
immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting 
purposes, the fire code ojficial is authorized to require a key box 
to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of 
an approved type and shall contain keys to gain necessary 
access as required by the fiire code official. 

Exception: Pharmacies in accordance with OAR 855-041- 
0035. 


506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on gates 
or similar barriers when required by the fire code ojficial. 

506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building 
shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the 
new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such 
lock shall be secured in the key box. 


SECTION 507 

FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

507.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply 
capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection 
shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings 
or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into 
or within the jurisdiction. 

507.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of 
reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other 
fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow. 

507.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service 
mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 24. 

507.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fire protection 
shall be installed in accordanee with NFPA 22. 

507.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or por- 
tions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an 
approved method. See Appendix B. 

507.4 Water supply test. The fire code official shall be notified 
prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be wit- 
nessed by the fire code official or approved documentation of 
the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final 
approval of the water supply system. 

507.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems shall com- 
ply with Sections 507.5. 1 through 507.5.6. See Appendix C. 

507.5.1 Where required. Where a portion of the facility or 
building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the 
jurisdiction is more than 400 feet ( 1 22 m) from a hydrant on 
a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved 
route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site 
fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by 
the fire code official. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the dis- 
tance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

2. For buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, 
the distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

507.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire 
hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required 
by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be main- 
tained in an operative condition at all times and shall be 
repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations 
and servicing shall comply with approved standards. 


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FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 


507.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Pri- 
vate fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 
25 at the following intervals; 

1 . Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspeetion annually 
and after each operation; flow test and maintenance 
annually. 

2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, 
annually; flow test every 5 years. 

3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and 
maintenance after each use. 

507.5.4 Obstruction. Unobstructed access to fire hydrants 
shall be maintained at all times. Tbe fire department shall 
not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access 
to fire protection equipment or fire hydrants. 

507.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A 3-foot (914 mm) 
clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of 
fire hydrants except as otherwise required or approved. 


ORS 81 1.550(16) is not a part of this code but is reproduced 
or paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 811.550(16) prohibits parking within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of a fire hydrant. 


OAR 860-024-0010 is not a part of this eode but is repro- 
dueed or paraphrased here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 860-024-0010 is an Oregon Public Utility Commission 
rule that adopts the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). 
The NESC contains rules that limit the placement of a fire 
hydrant a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) from any support- 
ing structure for electrical equipment, such as transformers 
and poles. 


507.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are sub- 
ject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other 
approved means shall comply with Section 312. 


SECTION 508 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

508.1 General. Where required by other sections of this code 
and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the 
International Building Code, a fire command center for fire 
department operations shall be provided and shall comply with 
Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.5. 

508.1.1 Location and access. The location and accessibil- 
ity of the fire command cenfer shall be approved by the fire 
chief. 

508.1.2 Separation. The fire command center shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1 - 
hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 
707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assem- 
bly constructed in accordance with Section 7 1 2 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, or both. 


508.1.3 Size. The. fire command center shall be a minimum 
of 200 square feet (19 m^) in area with a minimum dimen- 
sion of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

508.1.4 Layout approval. A layout of the fire command 
center and all features required by this section to be eon- 
tained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to instal- 
lation. 

508.1.5 Required features. The fire command center shall 
comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following fea- 
tures: 

1 . The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
control unit. 

2. The fire department communications system. 

3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator. 

4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of 
the elevators and whether they are operational. 

5. Status indicators and controls for air distribution 
systems. 

6. The fire-fighter’s control panel required by Section 
909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the 
building. 

7. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simulta- 
neously. 

8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display 
panels. 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled 
access to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical 
floor plan and detailing the building core, means of 
egress, fire protection systems, fire-figbting equip- 
ment and fire department aceess, and the location of 
fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barri- 
ers and smoke partitions. 

13. Worktable. 

14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and 
transfer features. 

15. Public address system, where specifically required 
by other sections of this code. 

16. Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with 
ASME AI7.1. 

17. Elevator emergency or standby power selector 
switcb(es), where emergency or standby power is 
provided. 

SECTION 509 

FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT 
IDENTIFICATION AND ACCESS 

509,1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be iden- 
tified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for 
air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other 


56 


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FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 


fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identi- 
fied for the use of the fire department. Approved s\gns required 
to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location 
shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently 
installed and readily visible. 

509.2 Equipment access. Approved access shall be provided 
and maintained for all fire protection equipment to permit 
immediate safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. 
Storage, trash and other materials or objects shall not be placed 
or kept in such a manner that would prevent such equipment 
from being readily accessible. 

SECTION 510 

EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE 

510.1 Emergency responder radio coverage in buildings. 

All buildings, as described in Section 510.1.1, shall have 
approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the 
building based upon the existing coverage levels of the public 
safety communication systems of the jurisdiction at the exte- 
rior of the building (see Appendix J). This section shall not 
require improvement of the existing public safety communica- 
tion systems. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where approved by the building official and the fire 
code official, a wired communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 shall be permit- 
ted to be installed or maintained in lieu of an approved 
radio coverage system. 

2. Where it is determined by the fire code official that the 
radio coverage system is not needed. 

510.1.1 Scope. Emergency responder radio coverage must 
be provided in the following buildings and locations; 

1. Any building with one or more basement or below- 
grade building levels. 

2. Any underground building. 

3. Any building more than five stories in height. 

4. Any building 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in size or 
larger. 

5. Any building that, through performance testing, does 
not meet the requirements of Section 510. 

510.2 Radio signal strength. The building shall be considered 
to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when 
signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each 
floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements of 
Sections 510.2. 1 and 510.2.2. 

510.2.1 Minimum signal strength into the building. A 

minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be receivable 
within the building. 


510.2.2 Minimum signal strength out of the building. A 

minimum signal strength of -100 dBm shall be received by 
the agency’s radio system when transmitted from within the 
building. 

510.3 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing 
buildings. Existing buildings that do not have approved radio 
coverage for emergency responders within the building shall be 
equipped with such coverage according to one of the following: 

1 . Wherever existing wired communication system cannot 
be repaired or is being replaced, or where not approved 
in accordance with Section 5 1 0. 1 , Exception 1 . 

2. Within a time frame established by the adopting authority. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


57 



58 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 6 

BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 


SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the 
installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appli- 
ances and heating systems, emergency and standby power sys- 
tems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical 
refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery 
systems and commercial kitchen hoods. 

601.2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration .sys- 
tems and battery systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 
105.7. 


SECTION 602 
DEFINITIONS 

602.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID. A sys- 
tem which consists of three interconnected subsystems: 

1. A lead-acid battery. 

2. A battery charger. 

3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters and asso- 
ciated electrical equipment as required for a particular 
application. 

BATTERY TYPES 

Lithium-ion battery. A storage battery that consists of lith- 
ium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel metal- 
oxide substrate. The electrolyte is a carbonate mixture or a 
gelled polymer. The lithium ions are the charge carriers of 
the battery. 

Lithium metal polymer battery. A storage battery that is 
compri.sed of nonaqueous liquid or polymerized electro- 
lytes, which provide ionic conductivity between lithiated 
positive active material electrically separated from metallic 
lithium or lithiated negative active material. 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage bat- 
tery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the 
negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium 
hydroxide. 

Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, 
under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gas- 
ses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of 
the battery. 

Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under 
conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases cre- 
ated by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the 
battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery. 


Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical 
cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC 
power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for 
service in a permanent location. The number of cells con- 
nected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of 
the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge 
capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be 
restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current 
flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when 
the battery is discharged. 

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid 
battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that 
opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of 
the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In 
VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immo- 
bilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) 
or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled bat- 
teries). 

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery, A lead-acid battery 
consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid 
electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for 
the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a 
flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen 
and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that 
a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not 
ignite the gases inside the cell. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appli- 
ances used in a commercial food service establishment for 
heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, 
steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed 
through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances 
include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; 
steam-jacketed kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers 
(charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appli- 
ances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service estab- 
lishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for 
the preparation and serving of food. 

[M] HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrap- 
ment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and 
similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. 

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease 
vapors and smoke. 

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrig- 
erating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a 
higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a 
change of state. 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed 
refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the 
purpose of extracting heat. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


59 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 


SECTION 603 
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 

603.1 Installation. The installation of nonportable fuel gas 
appliances and systems shall comply the International Fuel 
Gas Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, 
other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable 
devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, 
shall comply with this section and the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

603.1.1 Manufacturer’s instructions. The installation 
shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer’s 
instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules and 
regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify 
or alter a manufacturer’s instructions in any way, written 
approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer. 

603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installa- 
tion of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment used in connection with oil-burning 
equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance 
with Section 605 and NFPA 70. 

603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall 
be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by 
the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not 
be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in 
Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized in equipment 
listed for use with waste oil and when such equipment is 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions 
and the terms of its listing. 

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible 
for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing 
motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regu- 
lators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning 
and lubricating parts. 

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After instal- 
lation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combus- 
tion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that 
the burner is in proper operating condition and that all 
accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function 
properly. 

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial 
oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies 
of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling 
valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burn- 
ing equipment and another at an approved location that 
will be accessible in case of emergency. 

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installa- 
tion, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in 
the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall 
also furnish the owner or operator with the name and 
telephone number of persons to contact for technical 
information or assistance and routine or emergency ser- 
vices. 


603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired 
appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between 
oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 3 1 . 

[B, M, FG] 603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the International Building Code. 
Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211. 

603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping sys- 
tems shall be installed in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603.3.1 Fuel oil storage in outside, above-ground tanks. 

Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum 
amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground 
without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). 
The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 
660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31. 

603.3.1.1 Plan review. Plan review requirements for 
above-ground fuel oil storage tanks, see Section 340 1 .6. 

603.3.2 Fuel oil storage inside buildings. Fuel oil storage 
inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 
through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 34. 

603.3.2.1 Quantity limits. One or more fuel oil storage 
tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall 
be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all 
such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L). 

Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be per- 
mitted to be increased to 3,0(X) gallons (1 1 356 L) of 
Class II or III liquid for storage in protected above- 
ground tanks complying with Section 3404.2.9.6, 
when all of the following conditions are met; 

1 . The entire 3,0(X) gallon ( 1 1 356 L) quantity shall 
be stored in protected above-ground tanks; 

2. The 3,000 gallon (1 1 356 L) capacity shall be 
permitted to be stored in a single tank or multi- 
ple smaller tanks; and 

3. The tanks shall be located in a room protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system complying 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

603.3.2.2 Restricted use and connection. Tanks installed 
in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to 
supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator equipment 
installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connec- 
tions between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks 
shall be made using closed piping systems. 

603.3.2.3 Applicability of maximum allowable quan- 
tity and control area requirements. The quantity of 
combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Sec- 
tion 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum 
allowable quantity set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1), and 
such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control 
area. 


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603.3.2.4 Installation. Tanks and piping systems shall 
be installed and separated from other uses in accordance 
with Section 915 and Chapter 13 both of the 
International Mechanical Code, as applicable. 

Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying 
with Section 3404.2.9.6 shall not be required to be 
separated from surrounding areas. 

603.3.2.5 Tanks in basements. Tanks in basements shall 
be located not more than two stories below grade plane. 

603.3.3 Underground storage of fuel oil. The storage of 
fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with 
NFPA3I. 

603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented fuel- 
fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in 
Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3, R-4 and SR. 

Exceptions: . 

1. Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appli- 
ances, in one- and two-family dwellings. 

2. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be 
allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2. 

603.4.1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating 
equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air 
from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, 
bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 

603.4.2 Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances. Por- 
table gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in 
accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4. 

603.4.2.1 Location. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating 
appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 

603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1 .4. 

603.4.2.1.1 Prohibited locations. The storage or use 
of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is 
prohibited in any of the following locations: 

1. Inside of any occupancy when connected to the 
fuel gas container. 

2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane struc- 
tures. 

3. On exterior balconies. 

Exception: As allowed in Section 6.17 of 
NFPA 58. 

603.4.2.1.2 Clearance to buildings. Portable out- 
door gas-fired heating appliances shall be located at 
least 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings. 

603.4.2.1.3 Clearance to combustible materials. 

Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall 
not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 
mm) to combustible decorations and combustible 
overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combusti- 
ble attachments to buildings. 

603.4.2.1.4 Proximity to exits. Portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges. 


603.4.2.2 Installation and operation. Portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and oper- 
ated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 
603.4.2.2.4. 

603.4.2.2.1 Listing and approval. Only listed and 
approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appli- 
ances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to 
the appliance shall be used. 

603.4.2.2.2 Installation and maintenance. Portable 
outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed 
and maintained in accordance with the manufac- 
turer’s instructions. 

603.4.2.2.3 Tip-over switch. Portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a 
tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the 
flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 
degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical. 

603.4.2.2.4 Guard against contact. The heating ele- 
ment or combustion chamber of portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently 
guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons 
or material. 

603.4.2.3 Gas containers. Fuel gas containers for porta- 
ble outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply 
with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4. 

603.4.2.3.1 Approved containers. Only approved 
DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used. 

603.4.2.3.2 Container replacement. Replacement 
of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired 
heating appliances shall not be conducted while the 
public is present. 

603.4.2.3.3 Container capacity. The maximum indi- 
vidual capacity of gas containers used in connection 
with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances 
shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg). 

603.4.2.3.4 Indoor storage prohibited. Gas contain- 
ers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in 
accordance with Section 3809.9. 

603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed 
and shall comply with this section. 

603.5.1 Guard against contact. The heating element or 
combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to 
prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and maintenance. 

Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, the Inter- 
national Building Code, the International Mechanical 
Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 70. 

603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, 
smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot 
gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boil- 
ers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so 
as not to create a fire hazard. 

603.6,1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon 
inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


61 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 


open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be 
discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be 
dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney 
liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s 
installation instructions or a flue lining system installed in 
accordance with the requirements of the International 
Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of 
chimney service. 

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are cor- 
roded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced, 

603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed 
at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be 
removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled 
for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and 
are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer’s 
installation instructions. 

603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built 
chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly sup- 
ported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors 
that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall 
be repaired or replaced. 

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appli- 
ances. The fire code official is authorized to order that mea- 
sures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, 
oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing 
device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code 
requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this 
effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge 
of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take mea- 
sures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance with- 
out notice when inspection shows the existence of an 
immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The 
defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all 
necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 

603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of 
this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the 
utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of 
which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in 
accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to 
resume operation is given by the fire code official. Remov- 
ing or breaking the means by which operation of the device 
is prevented shall be a violation of this code. 

603.8 Incinerators. Commercial, industrial and residen- 
tial-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in 
accordance with the International Building Code, the Inter- 
national Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

603.8.1 Residential incinerators. Residential incinerators 
shall be of an approved type. 

603.8.2 Spark arrestor. Incinerators shall be equipped with 
an effective means for arresting sparks. 

603.8.3 Restrictions. Where the fire code official deter- 
mines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet 
(152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will 


create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric condi- 
tions, such burning shall be prohibited. 

603.8.4 Time of burning. Burning shall take place only 
during approved hours. 

603.8.5 Discontinuance. The fire code official is authorized 
to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if 
the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are 
offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use 
of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to con- 
stitute a hazardous condition. 

603.9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and 
piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier com- 
plying with Section 3 1 2 or otherwise protected in an approved 
manner. 


SECTION 604 

EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 

604.1 Installation. Emergency and standby power systems 
required by this code or the International Building Code shall 
be installed in accordance with this code, NFPA 1 10 and NFPA 
111. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance 
with the original approval. 

Exception: Fuel supply requirements of NFPA 1 10, Sec- 
tion 5. 1 .2 may be reduced, when approved by the building 
official, based on the operational needs and use of the facil- 
ity served by the emergency or standby power system. 

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and 
standby power generators required by this code shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 2200. 

604.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power sys- 
tems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2. 1 
through 604.2.18.4. 

604.2.1 Group A occupancies. Emergency power shall be 
provided for emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 
907.2.1.1. 

604.2.2 Smoke control systems. Standby power shall be 
provided for smoke control systems in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909. 1 1 . 

604.2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for 
exit signs in accordance with Section 101 1.5.3. 

604.2.4 Means of egress illumination. Emergency power 
shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accor- 
dance with Section 1006.3. 

604.2.5 Accessible means of egress elevators. Standby 
power shall be provided for elevators that are part of an 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 

1 108.3.2 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 

604.2.6 Accessible means of egress platform lifts. 

Standby power in accordance with this section or ASME 
A 1 8.1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of an 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 

1 108.3.3 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 


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604.2.7 Horizontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be 
provided for horizontal sliding doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.4.3. 

604.2.8 Semiconductor fabrication facilities. Emergency 
power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication 
facilities in accordance with Section 1803.15. 

604.2.9 Membrane structures. Emergency power shall be 
provided for exit signs in temporary tents and membrane 
structures in accordance with Section 2403. 1 2.6. 1 . Standby 
power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in 
permanent membrane structures in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 

604.2.10 Hazardous materials. Emergency or standby 
power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous 
materials in accordance with Sections 2704.7 and 2705. 1 .5. 

604.2.11 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Emergency 
power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic 
or toxic materials in accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 
and 3704.3.4.2. 

604.2.12 Organic peroxides. Standby power shall be pro- 
vided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accordance 
with Section 3904.1.1 1. 

604.2.13 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided 
with standby power systems which are capable of operating 
the emergency voice/alarm communication. 

604.2.14 High-rise buildings. Standby power, light and 
emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with 
the requirements of Sections 604.2. 1 4. 1 through 604.2. 1 4.3. 

604.2.14.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
shall be provided. Where the standby system is a generator 
set inside a building, the system shall be located in a sepa- 
rate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 of the International Build- 
ing Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 7 1 2 of the International Building Code, 
or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer 
features shall be provided at the fire command center. 

604.2.14.1.1 Fuel supply. An on-premises fuel sup- 
ply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand 
operation of the system, shall be provided. 

Exception; When approved, the system shall be 
allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines. 

604.2.14.1.2 Capacity. The standby system shall have 
a capacity and rating that supplies all equipment 
required to be operational at the same time. The gener- 
ating capacity is not required to be sized to operate all 
of the connected electrical equipment simultaneously. 

604.2.14.1.3 Connected facilities. Power and lighting 

facilities for the fire command center and elevators 
specified in Sections 403.9 and 403.10 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, as applicable, shall be transfer- 
able to the standby source. Standby power shall be 
provided for at least one elevator to serve all floors and 
be transferable to any elevator. 


604.2.14.2 Separate circuits and luminaires. Separate 
lighting circuits and luminaires shall be required to pro- 
vide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than I 
foot-candle (I I lux) measured at floor level in all means 
of egress corridors, .stairways, smokeproof enclosures, 
elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas that are clearly 
a part of the escape route. 

604.2.14.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying light- 
ing for the fire command center and mechanical equip- 
ment rooms shall be transferable to the standby source. 

604.2.14.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumina- 
tion as required by Chapter 10, electrically powered fire 
pumps required to maintain pressure, and elevator car 
lighting are classified as emergency systems and shall 
operate within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power 
supply and shall be capable of being transferred to tbe 
standby source. 

Exception: Exit sign, exit and means of egress illumi- 
nation are permitted to be powered by a standby 
source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies. 

604.2.15 Underground buildings. Emergency and standby 
power systems in underground buildings covered in Chap- 
ter 4 of the International Building Code shall comply with 
Sections 604.2.15.1 and 604.2.15.2. 

604.2.15.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
complying with this section and NFPA 70 shall be pro- 
vided for standby power loads as specified in Section 
604.2.15.1.1. 

[B] 604.2.15.1.1 Standby power loads. The follow- 
ing loads are classified as standby power loads: 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators 
in accordance with Section 3003 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

[B] 604.2.15.1.2 Pickup time. The standby power 
system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 
seconds of failure of the normal power supply. 

604.2.15.2 Emergency power. An emergency power 
system complying with this code and NFPA 70 shall be 
provided for emergency power loads as specified in Sec- 
tion 604.2.15.2.1. 

604.2.15.2.1 Emergency power loads. The follow- 
ing loads are classified as emergency power loads: 

1 . Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumina- 
tion as required by Chapter 10. 


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604.2.16 Group 1-2 health care facilities. Automatic 
emergency and/or standby power supplies shall be provided 
for all health care facilities, as defined in NFPA 99. The 
approved alternative power supply shall maintain operating 
energy to the facility for a period of not less than 90 minutes. 
Emergeney and standby power supplies shall be installed as 
required in the Oregon Electrical Specialty Code and in 
accordance with NFPA 99. 

604.2.17 Group 1-3 occupancies. Power-operated sliding 
doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mech- 
anism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote 
mechanical operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of 
occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required as set forth in the International Building Code. 

604.2.18 Airport traffic control towers. A standby power 
system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers 
more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be 
provided to the following equipment: 

1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

604.2.19 Elevators. In buildings and structures where 
standby power is required or furnished to operate an eleva- 
tor, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 

I I 604.2. 1 9. 1 through 604.2. 1 9.4. 

604.2.19.1 Manual transfer. Standby power shall be 
manually transferable to all elevators in each bank. 

604.2.19.2 One elevator. Where only one elevator is 
installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to 
standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal 
power. 

604.2.19.3 Two or more elevators. Where two or more 
elevators are controlled by a common operating system, 
all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby 
power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power 
where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity 
to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the 
standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to 
operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall 
transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the des- 
ignated landing and disconnect from the standby power 
source. After all elevators have been returned to the des- 
ignated level, at least one elevator shall remain operable 
from the standby power source. 

604.2.19.4 Venting. Where standby power is connected 
to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air condi- 
tioning shall be connected to the standby power source. 

604.3 Maintenance. Emergency and standby power systems 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 1 10 and NFPA 
1 1 1 such that the system is capable of supplying service within 
the time specified for the type and duration required. 


604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of 
emergency and standby power systems shall be in accor- 
dance with an approved schedule established upon comple- 
tion and approval of the system installation. 

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, 
testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power 
systems shall include the date of service, name of the servic- 
ing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a 
detailed description of any conditions requiring correction 
and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be 
kept on the premises served by the emergency or standby 
power system and be available for inspection by the fire 
code official. 

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby 
power system transfer switches shall be included in the 
inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by 
Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free 
from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include 
examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of 
deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is 
detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with 
the transfer switch manufacturer’s instructions. 

604.4 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency power 
systems, including all appurtenant components shall be 
inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 1 10 
and NFPA 111. 

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for 
standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be 
recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for sched- 
uled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate 
records are maintained. 

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch 
shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch 
from the normal position to the alternate position and then 
return to the normal position. 

604.5 Supervision of maintenance and testing. Routine 
maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over- 
seen by a properly instructed individual. 

SECTION 605 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS 

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical 
hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical condi- 
tions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of 
the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appli- 
ances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and 
constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used. 

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service 
equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical 
panelboards. 

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in 
depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in 
front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical ser- 
vice equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working 
space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No stor- 


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age of any materials shall be located within the designated 
working space. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by 
NFPA 70. 

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas 
which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches 
(559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm). 

605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms 
shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stat- 
ing ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. 
The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch 
circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be 
legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless 
such purpose is clearly evident. 

605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as cube 
adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying 
with NFPA 70 shall be prohibited. 

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be 
of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with 
overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance 
with UL 1363. 

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be 
directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power lap cords shall not 
extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor 
coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical dam- 
age. 

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords 
shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords 
and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended 
through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor cover- 
ings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage 
or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with 
portable appliances. 

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged 
directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug 
adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, 
shall serve only one portable appliance. 

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords 
shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appli- 
ance supplied by the cord. 

605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained 
in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage. 

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded 
when serving grounded portable appliances. 

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and 
open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall 
be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 

605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be 
tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical 
equipment by an approved agency and installed and main- 
tained in accordance with all instructions included as part of 
such listing. 


605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained 
free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and 
debris. 

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical 
power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to 
exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the 
applicable provisions of NFPA 70. 

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations is allowed during periods of construc- 
tion, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, struc- 
tures, equipment or similar activities. 

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring 
attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved man- 
ner. 

605.10 Portable, electric space heaters. Where not prohib- 
ited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heat- 
ers shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and SR and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 
through 605.10.4. 

Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters shall 
be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in 
Groups 1-2 and SR occupancies. 

605.10.1 Listed and labeled. Only listed and labeled porta- 
ble, electric space heaters shall be used. 

605.10.2 Power supply. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle. 

605.10.3 Extension cords. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be plugged into extension cords. 

605.10.4 Prohibited areas. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be operated within 3 feet (9 1 4 mm) of any combus- 
tible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be 
operated only in locations for which they are listed. 

SECTION 606 

MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 

[M] 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered 
and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be 
classified in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type of 
refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

606.5 Access. Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant cir- 
cuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A 1 or 
30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire 
code official. 

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and 
systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 


pounds ( 100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds ( 1 4 kg) of any other 
group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accor- 
dance with Section 606.6.1 . A written record of required test- 
ing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency 
devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted 
by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems. 

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices 
or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with 
the manufacturer’s instructions and as required by the fire 
code official. 

1 . Treatment and flaring systems. 

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation 
of emergency refrigeration control boxes. 

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate 
emergency ventilation systems. 

4. Detection and alarm systems. 

606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems having 
a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds ( 1 00 kg) 
of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refriger- 
ant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts 
and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the 
classification of refrigerants listed therein. 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a 
refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International 
Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector 
shall transmit a signal to an approved location. 

606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical 
equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall 
be provided at an approved location immediately outside the 
machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance. 

606.9.1 Refrigeration system emergency shutoff. A 

clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an 
approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only con- 
trol of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and nor- 
mally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the 
machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be 
automatically shut off whenever the refrigerant vapor con- 
centration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detec- 
tor’s upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, 
whichever is lower. 

Exception; In machinery rooms where only nonflam- 
mable refrigerants are used, only compressors are 
required to be stopped by vapor detection or the cut-off 
switch. 

606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of 
the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the 
machinery room ventilation fans. 

606.10 Emergency pressure control system. Refrigeration 
systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, 
toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided 


with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with 
Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2. 

606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves. Each high- and 
intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall 
be provided with a single automatic valve providing a cross- 
over connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic cross- 
over valves shall comply with Sections 606. 10. 1 . 1 through 
606.10.1.3. 

606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit set point. Automatic 
crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically 
relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone i f 
the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone 
rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency 
pressure relief devices. 

606.10.1.2 Manual operation. When required by the 
fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be 
capable of manual operation. 

606.10.1.3 System design pressure. Refrigeration sys- 
tem zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by 
an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely 
contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by 
interconnection of the two zones. 

606.10.2 Automatic emergency stop. An automatic emer- 
gency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with 
Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2. 

606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover 
valve. Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall 
cause all compressors on the affected system to immedi- 
ately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located 
immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be per- 
mitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. 
To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system pro- 
vides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an 
overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors 
associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis 
for determining operation of a crossover valve. 

606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone. The 

lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be 
provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in 
system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for 
emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the 
overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors 
on the affected system to immediately stop. 

606.11 Storage, use and handling. Flammable and combusti- 
ble materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrig- 
eration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more 
than 220 pounds ( 1 00 kg) of Group A I or 30 pounds (1 4 kg) of 
any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra 
refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 
27, 30, 32 and 34. 

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, 
tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and 
proper operation and maintenance of the system. 

606.12 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, 
fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration systems con- 
taining more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of llammable, toxic or 


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highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an approved 
discharge system as required by Sections 606.12.1, 606.12.2 
and 606.12.3. Discharge piping and devices connected to the 
discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have 
provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event of the fus- 
ible plug or rupture member functions. 

606.12.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater 
than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere only through an approved treatment system in accor- 
dance with Section 606.12.4 or a Haring system in 
accordance with Section 606.12.5. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density less than the den- 
sity of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere provided that the point of discharge is located 
outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 

606.12.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems 
containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge 
vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treat- 
ment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 ora flar- 
ing system in accordance with Section 606.12.5. 

606.12.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing 
ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere through an approved treatment system in accordance 
with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in accordance with 
Section 606.12.5, or through an approved ammonia diffu- 
sion system in accordance with Section 606.12.6, or by 
other approved means. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing 
less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for 
which the ammonia circuit is located entirely out- 
doors. 

2. When the fire code ojficial determines, on review 
of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance 
with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environ- 
mental hazard would not result from discharging 
ammonia directly to the atmosphere. 

606.12.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be 
designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of 
the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH 
at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 37. 

606.12.5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration 
of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the 
entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration 
shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration 
shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be 
designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose struc- 
tures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP 
gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for 
one and one-half the required time for complete incineration 
of refrigerant in the system. 

606.12.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffu- 
sion systems shall include a tank containing I gallon of 


waterfor each pound of ammonia(4Lofwaterfor each 1 kg 
of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest 
relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water 
shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from 
the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the 
bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) 
below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the 
volume of water and ammonia without overflowing. 

606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery 
room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation sys- 
tems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flam- 
mable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, 
capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFT or 50 percent of the 
IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to 
reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower. 

606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code 
official shall be notified immediately when a discharge 
becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in 
accordance with Section 2703.3. 1 . 

606.15 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant 
quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such 
records shall be available to the fire code official. 

606.16 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups 
A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical 
Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform 
to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification 
requirements of NFPA 70. 

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided 
with ventilation in accordance with Section 1 106.3 of the 
International Mechanical Code. 


SECTION 607 

ELEVATOR RECALL AND MAINTENANCE 

607.1 Emergency operation. Existing elevators with a travel 
distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the 
requirements in Chapter 46. New elevators shall be provided 
with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emer- 
gency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A 17.1. 

[B] 607.2 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a 
standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator 
call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit 
.stairways and not to u.se the elevators in case of fire. The sign 
shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVA- 
TOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. The emergency sign shall not be 
required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of 
egress complying with Section 1007.4. 

607.3 Fire service access elevator lobbies. Where fire service 
access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, fire service access elevator lobbies shall 
he maintained free of storage and furniture. 

607.4 Elevator keys. Keys for the elevator car doors and 
fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location 
for immediate u.se by the fire department. 


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SECTION 608 

STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 

608.1 Scope. Stationary storage battery systems having an 
electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (1 89 L) for flooded 
lead-acid, nickel cadmium and VRLA, or 1,000 pounds (454 
kg) for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility 
standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted power sup- 
plies shall comply with this section and Table 608. 1 . 

608.2 Safety caps. Safety caps for stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.2. 1 and 608.2.2. 

608.2.1 Nonrecombinant batteries. Vented lead-acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries 
shall be provided with safety venting caps. 

608.2.2 Recombinant batteries. VRLA batteries shall be 
equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents. 

608.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA and lithium metal polymer 
battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other 
approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal run- 
away. 

608.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of station- 
ary battery systems shall comply with the International Build- 
ing Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same 
room with the equipment they support. 

608.4.1 Separate rooms. When stationary batteries are 
installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to 
authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed 
on an open rack for ease of maintenance. 

608.4.2 Occupied work centers. When a system of VRLA, 
lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is 


situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be 
housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to 
prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 

608.4.3 Cabinets. When stationary batteries are contained 
in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures 
shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment 
that they support. 

608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method 
and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of 
electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing 
liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a “spill” is 
defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte. 

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or 
other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte 
shall not require spill control. 

608.5.1 Nonrecombinant battery neutralization. For bat- 
tery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or other 
types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method 
and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the 
total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 
5.0 and 9.0. 

608.5.2 Recombinant battery neutralization. For VRLA 
or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electro- 
lyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutraliz- 
ing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or 
block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0. 

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer bat- 
teries shall not require neutralization. 


TABLE 608.1 

BATTERY REQUIREMENTS 


REQUIREMENT 

NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES 

RECOMBINANT BATTERIES 

OTHER 

Flooded Lead Acid 
Batteries 

Flooded Nickel-Cadmium 
(Ni-Cd) Batteries 

Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) 
Batteries 

Lithium-Ion 

Batteries 

Lithium Metal 
Polymer 

Safety caps 

Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 

Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 

Self-resealing flame-arresting 
caps (608.2.2) 

No caps 

No caps 

Thermal runaway 
management 

Not required 

Not required 

Required 

(608.3) 

Not required 

Required 

(608.3) 

Spill control 

Required 

(608.5) 

Required 

(608.5) 

Not required 

Not required 

Not required 

Neutralization 

Required 

(608.5.1) 

Required 

(608.5.1) 

Required 

(608.5.2) 

Not required 

Not required 

Ventilation 

Required 

(608.6.1:608.6.2) 

Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 

Required 
(608.6. 1 ; 608.6.2) 

Not required 

Not required 

Signage 

Required 

(608.7) 

Required 

(608.7) 

Required 

(608.7) 

Required 

(608.7) 

Required 

(608.7) 

Seismic protection 

Required 

(608.8) 

Required 

(608.8) 

Required 

(608.8) 

Required 

(608.8) 

Required 

(608.8) 

Smoke detection 

Required 

(608.9) 

Required 

(608.9) 

Required 

(608.9) 

Required 

(608.9) 

Required 

(608.9) 


68 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 






BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 


608.6 Ventilation. Ventilation of stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2. 

608.6.1 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the 
following: 

1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cad and VRLA 
batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to 
limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 
percent of the total volume of the room; or 

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not 
less than I cubic foot per minute per square foot ( 1 ftV 
min/fF) [0.0051 mVs x m^] of floor area of the room. 

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal poly- 
mer batteries shall not require ventilation. 

608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation. When VRLA batteries are 
installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for 
use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or natu- 
rally vented by one of the following methods: 

1 . The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum con- 
centration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total vol- 
ume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of 
simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in 
the cabinet; or 

2. When calculations are not available to substantiate 
the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be 
provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per min- 
ute per square foot [ 1 ftVmin/fF or 0.005 1 m V(s • m^)] 
of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in 
which the cabinet is installed .shall also be ventilated 
as required in Section 608.6. 1 . 

608.6.3 Supervision. Mechanical ventilation systems 
where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be 
supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 

608.7 Signage. Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 
608.7.2. 

608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage. Doors 
into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing sta- 
tionary battery systems shall be provided with approved 
signs. The signs shall state that: 

1 . The room contains energized battery systems. 

2. The room contains energized electrical circuits. 

3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are 
corrosive liquids. 

608.7.2 Cabinet signage. Cabinets shall have exterior 
labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of 
the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the 
contained battery system. There shall be signs within the 
cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and 
fire hazards. 

608.8 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 


608.9 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 
in rooms containing stationary battery systems. 

SECTION 609 

COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 

[M] 609.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall 
comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 609.2 Wbere required. A Type I hood shall be installed at 
or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic 
cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce 
grease vapors. Where any cooking appliance under a single 
hood requires a Type I hood, a Type 1 hood shall be installed. 
Where a Type II hood is required, a Type I or Type II hood shall 
be installed. 

609.2.1 Type I hoods. Type I hoods shall be installed where 
cooking appliances produce grease or smoke. Type I hoods 
shall be installed over medium-duty, heavy-duty and extra- 
heavy duty cooking appliances. Type I hoods shall be 
installed over light-duty cooking appliances that produce 
grease or smoke. 

609.2.1.1 Operation. Type I hood systems shall be 
designed and installed to automatically activate the 
exhaust fan whenever cooking operations occur. The 
activation of the exhaust fan shall occur through an inter- 
lock with the cooking appliances, be means of heat sen- 
sors or by means of other approved methods. 

609.2.2 Type 11 hoods. Type II hoods shall be installed above 
dishwashers and light-duty appliances that produce heat or 
moisture and do not produce grease or smoke, except where 
the heat and moisture loads from such appliances are incor- 
porated into the HVAC system design or into the design of a 
separate removal system. Type II hoods shall be installed 
above all light- duty appliances that produce grease orsmoke. 
Spaces containing cooking appliances that do not require 
Type II hoods shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 

403.3 of the Oregon Mechanical Specialty Code. For the pur- 
pose of determining the floor area required to be ventilated, 
each individual appliance that is not required to be installed 
under a Type II hood shall be considered as occupying not 
less than 100 square feet (9.3 m^). 

609.2.3 Domestic cooking appliances used for commer- 
cial purposes. Domestic cooking appliances utilized for 
commercial purposes shall be provided with Type I or Type 
II hoods as required for the type of appliances and proces.ses 
in accordance with Sections 609.2, 609.2. 1 , and 609.2.2. 

Exception: A single domestic cooking appliance 
installed where domestic cooking operations occur, such 
as in a church, day care center, fire station, employee 
break rooms or similar types of commercial occupancies 
shall meet the requirements of the Oregon Mechanical 
Specialty Code, Section 505. 1 . 

609.2.4 Extra-heavy duty. Type I hoods for use over 
extra-heavy-duty cooking appliances shall not cover other 
heavy, medium- or light-duty appliances. Such hoods shall 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


69 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 


discharge to an exhaust system that is independent of other 
exhaust systems. 

609.3 Operations and maintenance. Commercial cooking 
systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4 and NFPA 96. 

609.3.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system in con- 
nection with hoods shall be operated at the required rate of 
air movement, and classified grease filters shall be in place 
when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used. 

609.3.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors are 
installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type 
cooking equipment is used. 

609.3.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, 
ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals 
as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3. 

609.3.3.1 Inspection. Hoods, grease-removal devices, 
fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at 
intervals specified in Table 609.3.3. 1 or as approved by 
\hcfire code official. Inspections shall be completed by 
qualified individuals. 


TABLE 609.3.3.1 

COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY 


TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONS 

FREQUENCY OF 
INSPECTION 

High-volume cooking operations such as 24-hour 
cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking 

3 months 

Low-volume cooking operations such as places of 
religious worship, seasonal businesses and 
senior centers 

1 2 months 

Cooking operations utilizing solid-fuel burning 
cooking appliances 

1 month 

All other cooking operations 

6 months 


609.3.3.2 Grease accumulation. If during the inspec- 
tion it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, fens, 
ducts or other appurtenances have an accumulation of 
grease, such components shall be cleaned. 

609.3.3.3 Records. Records for inspections shall state 
the individual and company performing the inspection, a 
description of the inspection and when the inspection 
took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individ- 
ual and company performing the cleaning and when the 
cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed 
after each inspection or cleaning, maintained on the pre- 
mises for a minimum of three years and be copied to the 
fire code official upon request. 


70 


609.3.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire- 
extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking sys- 
tems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.1 1.6. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 


SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify the 
requirements for and the maintenance of firc-resistance-rated 
construction. New buildings shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

701.2 Unsafe conditions. Where any components in this chap- 
ter are not maintained and do not function as intended or do not 
have the. fire resistance required by the code under which the 
building was constructed, remodeled or altered, such compo- 
nent(s) or portion thereof shall be deemed an unsafe condition, 
in accordance with Section 1 10. 1.l. Components or portions 
thereof determined to be unsafe shall be repaired or replaced to 
conform to that code under which the building was con- 
structed, remodeled, altered or this chapter, as deemed appro- 
priate by the fire code official. 

Where the extent of the conditions of components is such 
that any building, structure or portion thereof presents an 
imminent danger to the occupants of the building, structure or 
portion thereof, the fire code official shall act in accordance 
with Section 1 10.2. 


SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

[B] DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed 
to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

[B] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage 
of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1 966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies. 

[B] FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials 
approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free pas- 
sage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed 
spaces. 

SECTION 703 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of 
fire-resistance-rated construction (including ceilings, walls, 
firestops, shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, 
fire-resistive coatings and sprayed llre-resistant materials 
applied to structural members and fire-resistant joint systems) 
shall be maintained. Such elements shall be visually inspected 


by the owner annually and properly repaired, restored or 
replaced when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. 
Where concealed, such elements shall not be required to be 
visually inspected by the owner unless the concealed space is 
accessible by the removal or movement of a panel, access door, 
ceiling tile or similar movable entry to the space. Openings 
made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, 
ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any reason shall 
be protected with approved methods capable of resisting the 
passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or auto- 
matic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the fire 
protection requirements for the assembly. 

703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required fire- 
blocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed spaces 
shall be maintained to provide continuity and integrity of 
the construction. 

703.1.2 Smoke barriers and smoke partitions. Required 
smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall be maintained to 
prevent the passage of smoke. All openings protected with 
approved smoke barrier doors or smoke dampers shall be 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 105. 

703.1.3 Fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions. 

Required fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions shall be 
maintained to prevent the passage of fire. All openings pro- 
tected with approved doors or fire dampers shall be main- 
tained in accordance with NFPA 80. 

703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be 
maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 
80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or 
obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be 
replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door 
assemblies shall not be modified. 

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a 
sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire 
door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as 
follows: 

1 . For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE 
DOOR— DO NOT BLOCK. 

2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE 
DOOR— KEEP CLOSED. 

703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open 
devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall 
be maintained. During the period that such device is out of 
service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the 
closed position. 

703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close 
from the full-open position and latch automatically. The 
door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the 
door from any partially open position. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


71 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 


703.3 Ceilings. The hanging and displaying of salable goods 
and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems 
that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceil- 
ing assembly, shall be prohibited. 


703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire 
doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper 
operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained 
and be available to the fire code official. 


SECTION 704 

FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 

704.1 Enclosure. Interior vertical shafts, including but not lim- 
ited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, 
that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed 
or protected as required in Chapter 46. New floor openings in 
existing buildings shall comply with the International Building 
Code. 

704.2 Opening protectives. When openings are required to be 
protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self-closing 
or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fus- 
ible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if 

^ the fusible link rating does not exceed 1 35T (57“C). 



72 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 8 


INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 


SECTION 801 
GENERAL 


801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern inte- 
rior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative 
materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Existing 
buildings shall comply with Sections 803 through 808. New 
buildings shall comply with Sections 804 through 808 and Sec- 
tion 803 of the International Building Code. 


SECTION 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

[B] FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a sur- 
face. 

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. Interior floor finish trim 
used to provide a functional or decorative border at the inter- 
section of walls and floors. 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, fab- 
ricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aesthetic 
purposes, that is comprised of three elements: 

1 . A frame constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other 
material used to hold fabric in place; 

2. A core material (infill, with the correct properties for the 
application); and 

3. An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, 
that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or 
mechanical fasteners via the frame. 

[B] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative mea- 
sure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from mea- 
surements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 


SECTION 803 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING 
FINISH AND TRIM IN EXISTING BUILDINGS 

803.1 General. The provisions of this section shall limit the 
allowable flame spread and smoke development of interior 
wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiling trim in 
existing buildings based on location and occupancy classifica- 
tion. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in 
accordance with Section 803 of the International Building 
Code. Such materials shall be grouped in accordance with 


ASTM E 84, as indicated in Section 803. 1 . 1 , or in accordance 
with NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch (0,9 
mm) applied directly to the surface of walls and ceilings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members complying 
with the requirements of buildings of Type IV con- 
struction in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code shall not be subject to interior finish 
requirements. 

803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following 
classes in accordance with their flame spread and 
smoke-developed index when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84. 

Class A: flame spread index 0-25; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class B: flame spread index 26-75; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class C: flame spread index 76-2(X); smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

803.1.2 Classiflcation in accordance with NFPA 286. 

Interior wall or ceiling finishes shall be allowed to be tested 
in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 803. 1.2.1. 
Interior wall and ceiling finish materials tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 286 and meeting the acceptance criteria of 
Section 803. 1 .2. 1 shall be allowed to be used where a Class 
A classification in accordance with ASTM E 84 is required. 

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for interior finish mate- 
rials tested to NFPA 286. During the 40 kilowatt (kW) 
exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1 . 
During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior 
finish shall comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2. 1 , Flame shall not spread to the outer extrem- 
ity of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall 
not occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 1 ,000 m^. 

803,2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chap- 
ter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that 
such materials will not readily become detached where sub- 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


73 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 


jected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 
30 minutes. 

803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy. 

Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index 
not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the group and 
location designated. 

803.4 Fire-retardant coatings. The required flame spread or 
smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall 
be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire-retar- 
dant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a flame 
spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications shall 
comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire-retardant proper- 
ties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with the 
manufacturer’s instructions. 

803.5 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish 
materials, textiles, including materials having woven or 


nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. 

803.5.1 Textile wall coverings. Textile wall coverings shall 
comply with one of the following; 

1. The coverings shall have a Class A flame spread 
index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and 
be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2. 

2. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 

803.5.1.1 or 803.5.1.2 when tested in the manner 
intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using 
the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of 
actual use, or 

3. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 

803. 1 .2. 1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 
using the product-mounting system (including adhe- 
sive) of actual use. 


TABLE 803.3 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY'* 


GROUP 

sprinklered' 

NONSPRINKLERED 

Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways"' '’ 

Corridors 

Rooms and 
enclosed spaces" 

Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways"''’ 

Corridors 

Rooms and 
enclosed spaces" 

A-1 & A-2 

B 

B 

C 

A 

A** 

B" 

A-3f A-4, A-5 

B 

B 

C 

A 

A" 

C 

B,E,M, R-l,R-4 

B 

C 

C 

A 

B 

C 

F 

C 

C 

C 

B 

C 

C 

H 

B 

B 

C8 

A 

A 

B 

I-l 

B 

C 

C 

A 

B 

B 

1-2 

B 

B 

Bh.i 

A 

A 

B 

1-3 

A 

A 

C 

A 

A 

B 

1-4 

B 

B 

Bh.i 

A 

A 

B 

R-2 

C 

C 

C 

B 

B 

C 

R-3 

C 

C 

C 

C 

C 

C 

S 

C 

C 

C 

B 

B 

C 

U 

No Restrictions 

No Restrictions 


For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, I square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed for wainscoting or paneling of not more than 1 ,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.4 of the Iniernaliomil 
Building Code. 

b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for 
sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be 
the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allowed. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces. 

i. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors. 

k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

l. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

m. Class B finish materials required for all atriums as required by Section 404.7 of ihe International Building Code. 


74 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 




INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 


803.5.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method 
A protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceiling during 
the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW exposure, the 
textile wall covering shall comply with all of the follow- 
ing: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 305 
mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not burn to the outer extremity 
of the 2-foot-wide (610 mm) samples mounted in 
the corner of the room. 

3. Burning droplets deemed capable of igniting tex- 
tile wall coverings or that burn for 30 seconds or 
more shall not form. 

4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat release 
rate, determined by subtracting the burner output 
from the maximum heat release rate, does not 
exceed 300 kW. 

803.5.1.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method B 
protocol, flames shall not spread to the ceiling at any time 
during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW expo- 
sure, the textile wall covering shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of 
the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 
305 mm) walls. 

2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings. Expanded 
vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with the require- 
ments of either Section 803.6.1 or 803.6.2. 

803.6.1 General. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.2. 
Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings complying with 
Section 803. 1 .2 shall not be required to comply with Section 
803.1.1. 

803.6.2 Compliance alternative. Expanded vinyl wall or 
ceiling coverings shall be allowed to comply with the 
requirements for textile wall or ceiling coverings in Section 
803.5. When tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 
723, test specimen preparation shall be in accordance with 
ASTM E 2404. 

803.7 Foam plastic materials. Foam plastic materials shall 
not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifically 
allowed by Section 803.7.1 or 803.7.2. Foam plastic materials 
shall not be used as interior trim unless specifically allowed by 
Section 803.7.3. 

803.7.1 Combustibility characteristics. Foam plastic 
materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that sub- 
stantiate their combustibility characteristics for the use 
intended under actual fire conditions, as indicated in Section 
2603.9 of the International Building Code. This section 
shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plas- 


tics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or 
cover. 

803.7.2 Thermal barrier. Foam plastic material shall be 
allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building by 
a thermal barrier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of the 
International Building Code. 

803.7.3 Trim. Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in 
accordance with Section 804.2. 

803.8 High-density polyethylene (HDPE). Where high-den- 
sity polyethylene is used as an interior finish, it shall comply 
with Section 803. 1 .2. 

803.9 Site-fabricated stretch systems. Where used as newly 
installed interior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, 
site-fabricated stretch systems shall be tested in the manner 
intended for use, and shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 803.1 . 1 or 803. 1 .2. If the materials are tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, specimen preparation and 
mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2573. 


SECTION 804 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM 
IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

804.1 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic, used as 
interior trim in new and existing buildings shall have minimum 
Class C flame spread and smoke-developed indices, when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, as described 
in Section 803. 1.1. Combustible trim, excluding handrails and 
guardrails, shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or 
ceiling areas to which it is attached. 

804.1.1 Alternate testing. When the interior trim material 
has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with 
NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Sec- 
tion 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame 
spread index and smoke-developed index in accordance 
with ASTM E 84. 

804.2 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall 
comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4. 

804.2.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim 
shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^). 

804.2.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the interior 
trim shall be '/2 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width 
shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

804.2.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not consti- 
tute more than 1 0 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area 
to which it is attached. 

804.2.4 Flame spread. The flame spread index shall not 
exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or 
UL 723. The smoke-developed index shall not be limited. 

Exception: When the interior trim material has been 
tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 
and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 
803.1 .2.1 , it shall not be required to be tested for flame 
spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 


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804.3 Interior floor-wall base. Interior floor-wall base that is 
6 inches (152 mm) or less in height shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 253 and shall not be less than Class II. Where 
a Class I floor finish is required, the floor-wall base shall be 
Class I. The classification referred to herein corresponds to the 
classifications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 

0.45 watt/cm^ or greater; Class II, 0.22 watts/cm^ or greater. 

Exception; Interior trim materials that comply with Section 

804.1. 


SECTION 805 

UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES 
IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

805.1 Group I-l, board and care facilities. The requirements 
in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to board and 
care facilities classified in Group I-l . 

805.1.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 

805.1.1.1 through 805.1.1.3. 

805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1 . Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 261. 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall 
meet the requirements for Class I when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 260. 

805.1.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception; Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1.1 . 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 1 0 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 megajoules (MJ). 

Exception; Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.1.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compi i- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 
805.1.1.2. 

805.1.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 
805.1.2.3. 


805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests condueted in accordance with 
DOC 1 6 CFR Part 1 632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.1.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception; Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception; Mattresses in rooms or spaees pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1. 

805.1.2.3 Identification, Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.2 Group 1-2, nursing homes and hospitals. The require- 
ments in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply to nurs- 
ing homes and hospitals classified in Group 1-2. 

805.2.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 

805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3. 

805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: (a) mocked-up compos- 
ites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length 
not exceeding 1 .5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 261 or (b) the components of the 
upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for 
Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exception; Upholstered furniture belonging to the 
patients in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group 
1-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed in 
such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station smoke 
alarms shall be allowed. 

805.2.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception; Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 


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2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.2.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 and 

805.2.1.2. 

805.2.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 

805.2.2.3. 

805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 1 6 CFR Part 1 632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.2.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by tbe single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1. 

805.2.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.2.2. 1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.3 Group 1-3, detention and correction facilities. The 
requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall apply 
to detention and correction facilities classified in Group 1-3. 

805.3.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 

805.3.1.1 through 805.3.1.3 

805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 261, or 


2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall 
meet the requirements for Class I when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 260. 

805.3.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, as fol- 
lows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

805.3.1.3 Identincation. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 

805.3.1.2. 

805.3.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 

805.3.2.3. 

805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (5 1 mm). 

805.3.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

805.3.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2. 

805.4 Group R-2 college and university dormitories. The 

requirements of Sections 805.4. 1 through 805.4.2.3 shall apply 
to college and university dormitories classified in Group R-2. 

805.4.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 

805.4.1.1 through 805.4.1.3 

805.4.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by 
cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1 . Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture 
shall have a char length not exceeding 1 '/j inches (38 
mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261 ; or 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall 
meet the requirements for Class I when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 260. 

805.4.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 


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INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 


when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exeeed 80 kW. 

Exception; Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in aecordance with Section 

903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception; Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1. 

805.4,1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compli- 
ance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 and 

805.4.1.2. 

805.4.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet 
the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 through 805.4.2.3. 

805.4.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes 
as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.4.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in aceordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Teehnical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the si ngle mattress 
shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception; Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception; Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.4.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the 
requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 and 805.4.2.2. 

SECTION 806 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION 
IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

806.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where allowed by 
this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off at least 0.5 inch 
(12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a sup- 
port device complying with Section 806.1 .2. 


806.1.1 Restricted occupancies. Natural cut trees shall be 
prohibited in Group I-l, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, R-4 and SR occupan- 
cies. 

Exception; Trees located in areas protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be 
prohibited. 

806. 1 .2 Support devices. The support deviee that holds the 
tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and 
that meets all of the following criteria: 

1 . The device shall hold the tree securely and be of ade- 
quate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 

2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum 
two-day supply of water. 

3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at 

least 2 inches (5 1 mm). The water level shall be main- 
tained above the fresh cut. < 

806.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the build- 
ing whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a 
tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break 
when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree 
shall be checked daily for dryness. 

806.2 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation 
shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 
701. Meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the manufac- 
turer in an approved manner. 

806.3 Obstruction of means of egress. The required width of 
any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by dec- 
orative vegetation. 

806.4 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be used 
on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept 
a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-produc- 
ing devices at least equal to the height of the tree. 

806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unlisted elec- 
trical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial dec- 
orative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electrical 
wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely of 
metal shall be prohibited. 


SECTION 807 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN 
DECORATIVE VEGETATION 
IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

807.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, E, 
I and R-l and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, 
hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls 
or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 806.2 or be 
noncombustible. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curtains, draperies, hangings and other decorative 
materials suspended from walls of sleeping units and 
dwelling units in dormitories in Group R-2 protected 


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by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and such materi- 
als are limited to not more than 50 percent of the 
aggregate area of walls. 

2. Decorative materials, including, but not limited to, 
photographs and paintings in dormitories in Group 
R-2 where such materials are of limited quantities 
such that a hazard of fire development or spread is not 
present. 

In Groups I- 1 and 1-2, combustible decorative materials shall 
meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless the 
decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photographs 
and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire 
development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combusti- 
ble decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads, applied structurally or for decoration, acousti- 
cal correction, surface insulation or other purposes, shall be 
considered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of 
the wall or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered deco- 
rative materials or furnishings. 

In Group B and M occupancies, fabric partitions suspended 
from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall meet the 
flame propagation performance criteria in accordance with 
Section 807.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncombustible. 

807.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

807.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The permissi- 
ble amount of decorative materials meeting the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not exceed 
10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which it is 
attached. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall 
area where the building is equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1, and where the 
material is installed in accordance with Section 
803.4 of the International Building Code. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceiling and not supported by the floor in Group 
B and M occupancies shall not be limited. 

807.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to be 
flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance 
criteria of NFPA 701, or such materials shall be noncombusti- 
ble. Reports of test results shall be prepared in accordance with 
NFPA 701 and furnished to the fire code official upon request. 

807.3 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous 
base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 


807.4 Occupancy-based requirements. In occupancies in 
Group A, E and 1-4 day care facilities, decorative materials 
other than decorative vegetation shall comply with Sections 
807.4.1 through 807.4.4.2. 

807.4.1 General. All of the following requirements shall 
apply to all Group A and E occupancies and Group 1-4 day 
care facilities regulated by Sections 807.4.2 through 
807.4.4: 

1 . Explosive or highly flammable materials. Furnishings or 
decorative materials of an explosive or highly flammable 
character shall not be used. 

2. Fire-retardant coatings. Fire-retardant coatings in exist- 
ing buildings shall be maintained so as to retain the effec- 
tiveness of the treatment under service conditions 
encountered in actual use. 

3. Obstructions. Furnishings or other objects shall not be 
placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom 
or visibility thereof. 

807.4.2 Group A. The requirements in Sections 807.4.2.1 
through 807.4.2.3 shall apply to occupancies in Group A. 

807.4.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materi- 
als and unprotected materials containing foam plastic 
used for decorative purposes or stage scenery or exhibit 
booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 1 00 kW 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Individual foam plastic items or items contain- 
ing foam plastic where the foam plastic does 
not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. 

2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for 
trim in accordance with Section 804.2. 

807.4.2.2 Motion picture screens. The screens upon 
which motion pictures are projected in new and existing 
buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria of NFPA 701 or shall comply 
with the requirements for a Class B interior finish in 
accordance with Section 803 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

807.4.2.3 Wood use in Group A-3 places of religious 
worship. In places of religious worship, wood used for 
ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel fur- 
nishing shall be allowed. 

807.4.3 Group E. The requirements in Sections 807.4.3.1 
and 807.4.3.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group E. 

807.4.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 


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3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 

807.4.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 
20 percent of the wall area. 

807.4.4 Group 1-4, day care facilities. The requirements in 
Sections 807.4.4.1 and 807.4.4.2 shall apply to day care 
facilities classified in Group 1-4. 

807.4.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 .1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 

807.4.4.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 
percent of the wall area. 


SECTION 808 

FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED 
FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE 
MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 

808.1 Wastebaskets and linen containers in Group 1-2 and 
1-3 occupancies. Wastebaskets, linen containers and other 
waste containers, including their lids, located in Group 1-2 and 
1-3 occupancies shall be constructed of noncombustible mate- 
rials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 300 kW/m^ when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m^ in the horizontal 
orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste contain- 
ers with a capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more shall be listed 
in accordance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a 
noncombustible lid. Portable containers exceeding 32 gallons 
(121 L) shall be stored in an area classified as a waste and linen 
collection room and constructed in accordance with Table 

508.2 of the International Building Code. 

808.2 Signs. Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior 
building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 
150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs 
is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the 
room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is 
less, subject to the approval of the fire code official. 


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CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the 
design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and mainte- 
nance of all fire protection systems. 

901.2 Construction documents. The fire code official shall 
have the authority to require construction documents and cal- 
culations for all fire protection systems and to require permits 
be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of 
any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire 
protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to system installation. 

901.2.1 Statement of compliance. Before requesting final 
approval of the installation, where required by the fire code 
official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written 
statement to the fire code official that the subject/ire protec- 
tion system has been installed in accordance with approved 
plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufac- 
turer’s specifications and the appropriate installation stan- 
dard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be 
noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall 
be attached to the written statement. 

901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6 and 105.7. 

901.4 Installation. Fire protection systems shaW be maintained 
in accordance with the original installation standards for that 
system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or aug- 
mented as necessary to maintain and continue protection 
whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alter- 
ations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance 
with applicable standards. 

901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection 
systems required by this code or the International Building 
Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and main- 
tained in accordance with this code. 

901.4.2 Nonrequired fire protection systems. Any fire 
protection system or portion thereof not required by this 
code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to 
be furnished for partial or complete protection provided 
such installed system meets the requirements of this code 
and the International Building Code. 

901.4.3 Additional fire protection systems. In occupan- 
cies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in 
addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where 
the fire code official determines that access for fire appara- 
tus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards 
include, but shall not be limited to, tbe following: automatic 
fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable 
or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required 


under this section shall be installed in accordance with this 
code and the applicable referenced standards. 

901.4.4 Appearance of equipment. Any device that has the 
physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equip- 
ment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protec- 
tion function shall be prohibited. 

901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and 
alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant sys- 
tems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire 
service mains and all other /ire protection systems and appurte- 
nances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained 
in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code 
official. The fire code official shall be notified before any 
required acceptance testing. 

901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the required fire detec- 
tion, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and 
approved. 

901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, 
alarm and extinguishing systems shall be maintained in an 
operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or 
repaired where defective. Nonrequired /ire protection systems 
and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or 
removed. 

901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the ref- 
erenced standards listed in Table 901 .6.1 . 


TABLE 901.6.1 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS 


SYSTEM 

STANDARD 

Portable fire extinguishers 

NFPA 10 

Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system 

NFPA 12 

Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems 

NFPA 12A 

Dry-chemical extinguishing systems 

NFPA 1 7 

Wet-chemical extinguishing systems 

NFPA 1 7A 

Water-based fire protection systems 

NFPA 25 

Fire alarm systems 

NFPA 72 

Water-mist systems 

NFPA 750 

Clean-agent extinguishing systems 

NFPA 2001 


901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests 
and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall 
be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years 
and shall be copied to the fire code official upon request. 

901.6.2.1 Records information. Initial records shall 
include the name of the installation contractor, type of 
components installed, manufacturer of the components. 


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location and number of components installed per floor. 
Reeords shall also include the manufacturers’ operation 
and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall 
be maintained on the premises. 

901.7 Systems out of service. Where a required fire protection 
system is out of serviee, the fire department and the fire code 
official shall be notified immediately and, where required by 
the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or an 
approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left 
unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system 
has been returned to serviee. 

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least 
one approved means for notification of the fire department and 
their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the pro- 
tected premises and keep watch for fires. 

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner 
shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the 
requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific 
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment 
coordinator. 

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a 
system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service. 

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each 
fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm 
control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command cen- 
ter, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been 
removed from service. The fire code official shall specify 
where the tag is to be placed. 

901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs. Preplanned 
impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordi- 
nator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual 
shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following 
proeedures have been implemented: 

1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected 
and the increased risks determined. 

3. Recommendations have been submitted to manage- 
ment or building own^r/manager. 

4. The fire department has been notified. 

5. The insurance earrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/manager, and other authorities having juris- 
diction have been notified. 

6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been 
notified. 

7. A tag impairment system has been implemented. 

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled 
on the impairment site. 

901.7.5 Emergency impairments. When unplanned 
impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be 
taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impair- 
ment eoordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Sec- 
tion 901.7.4. 


901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coord i nator shal 1 veri fy that al 1 of the followi ng proce- 
dures have been implemented: 

1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted 
to verify that affected systems are operational. 

2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is 
restored. 

3. The fire department has been advised that protection 
is restored. 

4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, 
alarm company and other involved parties have been 
advised that protection is restored. 

5. The impairment tag has been removed. 

901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment. It shall be 
unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise 
disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire 
suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this 
code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training pur- 
poses, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when 
approved by the fire code official. 

901.8.1 Removal of or tampering with appurtenances. 

Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, 
tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction 
of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, 
destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any 
manner. 

901.9 Recall of fire protection components. Any fire protec- 
tion system component regulated by this code that is the subject 
of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be 
replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with 
the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official 
shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the 
recalled component parts have been replaced. 


SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm sys- 
tem component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text dis- 
play that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requir- 
ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of auto- 
matic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a 
given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator 
lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in 


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which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device 
or system providing an emergency function without Ihe neces- 
sity for human intervention and activated as a result of a prede- 
termined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or 
combustion products. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An 

approved system of devices and equipment which automati- 
cally detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire 
alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke 
detectors for protection of an area such as a room or .space with 
detectors to provide early warning of fire. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic 
sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated 
system of underground and overhead piping designed in accor- 
dance with fire protection engineering standards. The system 
includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system 
above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydrauli- 
cally designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally 
overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a 
systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat 
from a fire and discharges water over the fire area. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever 
time period is less. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A sys- 
tem supplying carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a pressurized vessel 
through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a man- 
ual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gas- 
eous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evap- 
oration. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated 
location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continu- 
ous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and 
facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or 
other emergency services. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
charges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

DETECTOR, HEAT, A fire detector that senses heat, either 
abnormally, high temperature or rate of rise, or both. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT, A powder 
composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, 
potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, 
potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added 


particulate material supplemented by special treatment to pro- 
vide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption 
(caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building 
located adjacent or directly across from one another that 
respond to a common hall call button(s). 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and 
distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation 
signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a 
building. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See “Manual fire alarm 
box.” 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that 
receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices 
and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices 
and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control 
unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the noti- 
fication appliances and transfer of condition to relays or 
devices. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm- 
initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire 
detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is 
indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combina- 
tion system consisting of components and circuits arranged to 
monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory 
signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate 
response to those signals. 

[B] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and 
bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal 
assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided 
with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor next above. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to 
detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equip- 
ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a 
fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or 
manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire. 

[B] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial busi- 
ness granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an 
airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, 
hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft main- 
tenance and flight instruction. 


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FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system dis- 
charging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically 
or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible 
for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system. 

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates 
transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke 
detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device 
used to initiate an alarm signal. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such 
that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm 
device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire 
alarm box. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal 
to operate in all interconnected alarms. 

NOTIFICATION ZONE. See “Zone, notifieation.” 

NUISANCE ALARM, An alarm caused by mechanical fail- 
ure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper main- 
tenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings (“as builts”) that docu- 
ment the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, 
wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire 
alarm system as installed. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, the control equipment and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people 
sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, 
eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. 
Sueh rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are 
not sleeping units. 

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm re- 
sponsive to smoke. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed deviee that senses visible or 
invisible particles of combustion. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes 
are as follows; 

Class I system. A system providing 2'/2-inch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

Class H system. A system providing 1 '/j-ineh (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the build- 


ing occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class III system. A system providing I '/j-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 
and 2'/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fire departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys- 
tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. 
The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system 
shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire depart- 
ment connection in order to supply the system demand. 

Manual wet, A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but which does not have a water supply capable of deliv- 
ering the system demand attached to the system. Manual 
wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to 
supply the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged 
through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit 
water into the system piping upon activation of a remote con- 
trol device located at a hose connection. A remote control 
activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. 
The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system 
shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

SUBSTANTIAL ALTERATION. For the purpose of Section 
903.2.8.1 is any alteration where the total cost of all alterations 
(including but not limited to electrical, mechanical, plumbing 
and structural changes) for a building or facility within any 
1 2-month period amounts to 25 percent or more of the assessed 
value of the structure before the alterations occurred. For the 
purpose of Section 903.2.8.1, standard building maintenance, 
rewiring, re-siding or re-roofing are not considered as alter- 
ations. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. For the purpose of Section 
903.2.8.1 is any damage of any origin to a structure whereby 
the cost of restoring the structure to its original condition would 
be equal to or exceed 25 percent of the assessed value of the 
structure before the damage occurred. 

SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals 
and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond 
to these signals. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor 
performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed 


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suppression systems or other systems for the proteetion of life 
and property. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of 
aetion in eonnection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance fea- 
tures of related systems. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An ini- 
tiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level 
indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler 
system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition 
and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety 
system; ora need for action in connection with guard tours, fire 
suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of 
related systems. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m^). 

[B] TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another 
location and is at the transient location for not more than 90 
days. 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm sys- 
tem or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or com- 
ponent. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solu- 
tion of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potas- 
sium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part 
of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid 
of wire. 

ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone 
can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area 
to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of con- 
trol can be executed. 

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facil- 
ity covered by notification appliances which are activated 
simultaneously. 

SECTION 903 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

903.1 General. Automatic sprinkier systems shaW comply with 
this section. 

903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the building code official. 

903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler systems 
in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the loca- 
tions described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 


equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated 
from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour 
fire harriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of 
the International Building Code or not less than 2-hour 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 7 12 of the International Building Code, or both. 

903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as 
Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group 
A- 1 , A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the 
Group A- 1 , A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all 
floors from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the 
nearest level of exit discharge serving the Group A occu- 
pancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 
903.2.1.5. 

903.2.1.1 Group A-1. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A- 1 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet (1 1 1 5 m^). 

2. The//re area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 5,000 .square feet (464 m^). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 1 00 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet ( 1 1 1 5 m^). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet (1115 m^). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level 
of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the fol- 
lowing areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes 
and other accessory use areas in excess of 1 ,000 square 
feet (93 m^). 


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[F] 903.2.2 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. 

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
all fire areas eontaining a Group B ambulatory health eare 
facility occupancy when either of the following conditions 
exist at any time; 

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self- 
preservation. 

2. One or more care reeipients who are incapable of 
self-preservation are located at other than the level of 
exit discharge serving such an occupancy. 

903.2.3 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 
12,000 square feet (1 1 15 m^) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that 
portion of the building. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any area below the lowest level of exit 
discharge serving that area where every classroom 
throughout the building has at least one exterior 
exit door at ground level. 

903.2.4 Group F-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(lllSm^). 

2. A Group F- 1 fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.4.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking 
operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m^) 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or 
which use finely divided combustible materials. 

903.2.5 Group Automatic sprinkler systems shall be pro- 
vided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 
903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3. 

903.2.5.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be installed in Group H occupancies. 

903.2.5.2 Group H-5 occupancies. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be installed throughout buildings con- 
taining Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the 
sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under 
the International Building Code for the occupancy haz- 
ard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2. 

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists 
of a co/'rWc7r protected by one row of sprinklers, the maxi- 
mum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 1 3. 

903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 


thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities 
exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). 

TABLE 903.2.5.2 


GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA 


LOCATION 

OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 

Fabrication areas 

Ordinary Hazard Group 2 

Service corridors 

Ordinary Hazard Group 2 

Storage rooms without dispensing 

Ordinary Hazard Group 2 

Storage rooms with dispensing 

Extra Hazard Group 2 

Corridors 

Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


903.2.6 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 .2 or 903.3. 1 .3 shall be 
allowed in Group I- 1 facilities. 

903.2.7 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occu- 
pancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m2). 

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories 
above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all 

floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). < 

903.2.7.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided as required in Chapter 23 in all 
buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in 
high-piled or rack storage arrays. 

903.2.8 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided through- 
out all buildings with a Group R fire area. 

903.2.8.1 Requirement. Where substantial alterations 
are made or substantial damage occurs to an existing 
nonsprinkled Group R2 apartment house, designed and 
constructed under the provisions of the Oregon Struc- 
tural Specialty Code, an approved automatic purpose 
sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13R shall be 
installed only in the substantially altered or damaged 
dwelling units. When more than 50 percent of the dwell- 
ing units within a building are substantially altered or 
damaged, the entire apartment house occupancy shall be 
provided with an NFPA 13R sprinkler system or equiva- 
lent. 

For the purpose of this section when NFPA 1 3R sprin- 
kler system is installed, a fire department connection 
shall not be required. 

903.2.9 Group S-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group 


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S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions 
exists: 

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m^). 

2. A Group S-l fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group S- 1 fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of com- 
mercial trucks or buses where the //re area exceeds 
5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

903.2.9.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided throughout all buildings used as 
repair garages in accordance with Section 406 of the 
International Building Code, as shown: 

1 . Buildings having two or more stories above grade 
plane, including basements, with a fire area con- 
taining a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square 
feet (929 m^). 

2. Buildings no more than one story above grade 
plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage 
exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m^). 

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles 
parked in basements. 

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of eom- 
mercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 
5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

903.2.9.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and structures 
where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 
cubic feet (566 m^) shall be equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Seetion 
903.3.1.1. 

903.2.10 Group S-2 enclosed parking garages. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout build- 
ings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordanee 
with Section 406.4 of the International Building Code as 
follows: 

1 . Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage 
exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m^); or 

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath 
other groups. 

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located 
beneath Group R-3 occupancies. 

903.2.10.1 Commercial parking garages. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout 
buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses 
where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

903.2.11 Specific building areas and hazards. In all occu- 
pancies an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for 
building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sec- 
tions 903.2. 11.1 through 903.2. 1 1 .6. 

Exception: Groups R-3 and U. 


903.2.11.1 Stories without openings. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, 
including basements, of all buildings where the floor 
area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m^) and where 
there is not provided at least one of the following types of 
exterior wall openings: 

1 . Openings below grade that lead direetly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with Sec- 
tion 1 009 or an outside ramp eomply ing with Sec- 
tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 
linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraetion thereof, of 
exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The 
required openings shall be distributed such that the 
lineal distance between adjacent openings does 
not exeeed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m^) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one 
side. The required openings shall be distributed 
such that the lineal distance between adjacent 
openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

903.2.11.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be 
accessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 

903.2.11.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

903.2.11.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

903.2.11.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their termination rooms. Chutes 
extending through three or more floors shall have addi- 
tional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at 
alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for 
servicing. 

903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 
30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 


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903.2.11.4 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 

Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying 
hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible materials. 

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 1 0 i nches (254 mm). 

903.2.11.5 Commercial cooking operations. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial 
kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic 
sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904. 

903.2.11.6 Other required suppression systems. In 

addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provi- 
sions indicated in Table 903.2.1 1.6 also require the instal- 
lation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings 
and areas. 

903,2.12 During construction. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems required during construction, alteration and demoli- 
tion operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 
1413. 

903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.7. 

903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless 
otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3. 1.2 and 903.3. 1 .3. 

903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the pro- 
visions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers 
shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 
13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprinklers 
shall not be required in the following rooms or areas 
where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 
not be omitted from any room merely because it is 
damp, of fire-resistance rated construction or contains 
electrical equipment. 

1 . Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 
contents, when approved by the building code 
official. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls and 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
afire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible con- 
struction with wholly noncombustible contents. 

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and 
machinery spaces. 


TABLE 903.2.11.6 


ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 


SECTION 

SUBJECT 

914.2.1 

Covered malls 

914.3.1 

High rise buildings 

914.4.1 

Atriums 

914.5.1 

Underground structures 

914.6.1 

Stages 

914.7.1 

Special amusement buildings 

914.8.2,914.8.5 

Aircraft hangars 

914.9 

Flammable finishes 

914.10 

Drying rooms 

914.11.1 

Group B ambulatory health care facilities 

1028.6.2.3 

Smoke-protected assembly seating 

1208.2 

Dry cleaning plants 

1208.3 

Dry cleaning machines 

1504.2 

Spray finishing in Group A, E, 1 or R 

1 504.4 

Spray booths and spray rooms 

1505.2 

Dip-tank rooms in Group A, 1 or R 

1505.4.1 

Dip tanks 

1505.9.4 

Hardening and tempering tanks 

1803.10 

HPM facilities 

1803.10.1.1 

HPM work station exhaust 

1803.10.2 

HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures 

1803.10.3 

HPM exit access corridor 

1803.10.4 

HPM exhaust ducts 

1803.10.4.1 

HPM noncombustible ducts 

1803.10.4.2 

HPM combustible ducts 

1907.3 

Lumber production conveyor enclosures 

1908.7 

Recycling facility conveyor enclosures 

2106.1 

Class A and B ovens 

2106.2 

Class C and D ovens 

2209.3.2.6.2 

Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies 

Table 2306.2 

Storage fire protection 

2306.4 

Storage 

2703.8.4.1 

Gas rooms 

2703.8.5.3 

Exhausted enclosures 

2704.5 

Indoor storage of hazardous materials 

2705. 1 .8 

Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials 

2804.4. 1 

Aerosol warehouses 

2806.3.2 

Aerosol display and merchandising areas 

2904.5 

Storage of more than 1 ,000 cubic feet of loose 
combustible fibers 

3306.5.2.1 

Storage of smokeless propellant 

3306.5.2.3 

Storage of small arms primers 


(continued) 


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TABLE 903.2.11.6— continued 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 


SECTION 

SUBJECT 

3404.3.7.5.1 

Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms 

3404.3.8.4 

Flammable and combustible liquid storage 

warehouses 

3405.3.7.3 

Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or 

H-3 areas 

3704.1.2 

Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas 

3704. 1 .3 

Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas 

3704.2.2.6 

Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas 

3704.3.3 

Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas 

4204.1.1 

Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets 

4204.1.3 

Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults 

4204.2 

Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing 

4603.4.1 

Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings 

4603.4.2 

Existing Group 1-2 occupancies 


For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 ml 


> 


903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Automatic 
sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up lo and 
including four stories in height shall be permitted to be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks 
and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the 
building is of Type V construction. Sidewall sprin- 
klers that are used to protect such areas shall be per- 
mitted to be located such that their deflectors are 
within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the 
structural members and a maximum distance of 14 
inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balco- 
nies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist 
construction. 

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Automatic 
sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family 

ings and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed 
throughout in accordance with NFPA 1 3D. 

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their listings; 

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

2. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R and I- 1 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall 
be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay 
activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Auto- 
matic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 


kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 
3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between 
automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible 
fibers. 

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 

903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the dome.stic ser- 
vice provides the water supply for the automatic sprin- 
kler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this 
section. 

903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. Lim- 
ited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet 
automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area 
sprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup- 
plies shall comply with each of the following require- 
ments: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the 
domestic water riser control valve and the 
sprinklers. 

Exception; An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA 1 3D. 

903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 

single combination water supply shall be allowed pro- 
vided that the domestic demand is added to the sprin- 
kler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. A secondary on-site 
water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprin- 
kler demand, including the hose stream requirement, 
shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to 
Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by 
the International Building Code. The secondary water 
supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes 
as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in 
accordance with NFPA 13. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 


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903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads and fittings used in 
connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as pre- 
scribed by the fire code official. 

903.3.7 Fire department connections. The location of fire 
department connections shall be approved by the fire code 
official. 

903.4 Sprinkler system supervision and alarms. All valves 
controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, 
pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pres- 
sures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be 
electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two- 
family dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 1 3R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 
sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump 
engines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

903.4.1 Monitoring. Alarm, supervisory and trouble sig- 
nals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically 
transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when 
approved by the building code official, shall sound an audi- 
ble signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, 
the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically 
supervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 

903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be con- 
nected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler 
water- flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow 
equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest 
orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be 
provided on the exterior of the building in an approvedloca- 
tion. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the 


automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

903.4.3 Floor control valves. Ap/jrovetf supervised indicat- 
ing control valves shall be provided at the point of connec- 
tion to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 

903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be 
tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901. 

903.6 Existing buildings. The provisions of this section are 
intended to provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing 
structures not complying with the minimum requirements of 
the International Building Code by requiring installation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

903.6.1 Pyroxylin plastics. All structures occupied for the 
manufacture or storage of articles of cellulose nitrate 
(pyroxylin) plastic shall be equipped with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system where required in Chapter 
46. 

903.6.2 Group 1-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout Group 1-2 fire areas where required in 
Chapter 46. 


SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC 
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other 
than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and the applicable referenced standards. 

904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler 
systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the building code 
official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be con- 
sidered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reduc- 
tions allowed by other requirements of this code. 

904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each 
required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be pro- 
tected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem installed in accordance with this code. 

904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this section. 

904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 70. 

904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual 
means of actuation in accordance with Section 904. 11.1. 

904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment inter- 
locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, 
window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, 
and other features necessary for proper operation of the 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by 
the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 

904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 


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guishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, 
a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu- 
pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.6.2. 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is 
installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be 
monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance 
with NFPA 72. 

904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the 
provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 

904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance 
tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

.3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connec- 
tions to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility 
and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent 
discharge or system operation, where required, shall be 
verified. 

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. 

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 


904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. 

904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with NFPA 1 1 and NFPA 16 and their listing. 

904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 
25. 

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. 

904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders 
shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall 
be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a 
loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder 
shall be refilled or replaced. 

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges 
of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week 
intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more 
than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain 
the minimum gas requirements. 

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not 
less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) ( 1 7 238 kPa) 
for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month 
intervals to ensure that such components are in proper oper- 
ating condition. 

904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with NFPA 1 2A and their listing. 

904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 


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904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of containers shall be checked at 6-nionth intervals. 
Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more 
than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for 
temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be 
refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, 
hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 
kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems 
and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 
kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 
hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi 
(17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 1 2-month 
intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating 
condition. 

904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. 

904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month inter- 
vals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of 
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted 
for temperature, of more than 1 0 percent, the container shall 
be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year intervals. 

904.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic 
fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems 
shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial 
cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and 
arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and 
wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accor- 
dance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended 
application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection 
for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be 
installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manu- 
facturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing systems of the following types shall be installed in 
accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 1 3. 


3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 1 6. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A. 

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculat- 
ing systems that are tested in accordance with UL 7 1 OB and 
listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 

304.1 of the International Mechanical Code. 

904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actuation 
device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the 
cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. 
The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 
48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) 
above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard pro- 
tected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force 
of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 
inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. 

Exception; Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be 
required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the fire 
extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel 
or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The 
fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon dioxide 
systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ven- 
tilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori- 
zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall 
be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and 
shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation 
of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is 
installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be imme- 
diately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro- 
tect all hazards venting through a common duct simulta- 
neously. 

904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type cook- 
ing equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide 
extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the 
ventilation system upon activation. 

904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a 
separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve 
that is identified. 

904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the 
protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 
199E, listed for that application and installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

904.11.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial 
cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of 
commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment 
involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats 


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shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in 
accordance with Sections 904.11.5.1 or 904.11.5.2, as 
applicable. 

904.11.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel 
cooking appliances. All solid fuel cooking appliances, 
whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet 
(0.14 m^) or less in volume shall have a minimum 
2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet- 
chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accor- 
dance with Section 904.1 1.5. 

904.11.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for 
deep fat fryers. When hazard areas include deep fat fry- 
ers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided as follows: 

1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking 
medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: One 
Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 
1 .5 gallon ( 6 L) capacity. 

2. For every additional group of four fryers having a 
maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds 
(36.3 kg) each: One additional Class K portable 
fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5 gallon (6 L) 
capacity shall be provided. 

3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 
m^) in surface area: Class K portable fire 
extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with 
the extinguisher manufacturer’s recommenda- 
tions. 

904.11.6 Operations and maintenance. Automatic fire- 
extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking sys- 
tems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 

904.11.6.1 through 904.1 1.6.3. 

904.11.6.1 Existing automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems. Where changes in the cooking media, positioning 
of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equip- 
ment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the 
automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to 
comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 
904.1 1 through 904.1 1.4. 

904.11.6.2 Extinguishing system service. Automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least 
every 6 months and after activation of the system. 
Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and acerlifi- 
cate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code offi- 
cial upon completion. 

904.11.6.3 Fusible link and sprinkler head replace- 
ment. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall 
be replaced at least annually, and other protection 
devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with 
the manufacturer’s instructions. 

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be 
replaced annually. 


SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. 

905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 
and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 
905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with 
automatic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

905.3.1 Height. Class III standpipe systems shall be 
installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the 
highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above 
the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or 
where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 
30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class 1 standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 1 50 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connections are 
located as required for Class II standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department 
vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider: 

5. 1 . Recessed loading docks for four vehicles 
or less, and 

5.2. Conditions where topography makes 
access from the fire department vehicle to 
the building impractical or impossible. 

905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be 
provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an 
occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 


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2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings where the highest floor surface used 
for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system 
where required by Section 905.3.1 . Covered mall buildings 
not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Sec- 
tion 905.3. 1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections 
connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver 
water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most 
hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently 
supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The 
standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 
50-pounds-per-square-inch (345 kPa) residual pressure loss 
with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from 
the fire department connection to the hydraulically most 
remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be pro- 
vided at each of the following locations: 

1 . Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall. 

4. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to 
reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 
200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection. 

905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe 
system with I'/j-inch and 2'/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) 
hose connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a I'/j 
inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for 
Class II or III standpipes. 

905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The I (38 mm) hose 

connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 
I Vj-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the 
stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an 
approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cab- 
inet or on a rack. 

905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings 
shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or 
manual wet standpipe system. 

905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a helistop 
or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend 
the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heli- 
port is located in accordance with Section 1 107.5. 

905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Standpipes in marinas 
and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 45. 


905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. Class 
I standpipe ho.se connections shall be provided in all of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose 
connections shall be located at an intermediate floor 
level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved 
by the fire code official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a 
horizontal exit. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal 
exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections 
by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle 
attached to 1 00 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose con- 
nection shall not be required at the horizontal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit pas- 
sageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connec- 
tions by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a 
nozzle attached to 1 00 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose 
connection shall not be required at the entrance from 
the exit passageway to other areas of the building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior pub- 
lic entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance 
from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. 

5. Where the roof has aslope less than four units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe 
shall be provided with a hose connection located either 
on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with 
stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection 
shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically 
remote standpipe for testing purposes. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor 
or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose 
connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered 
floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a 
hose connection, the building code official is authorized | 
to require that additional hose connections be provided 
in approved locations. 

905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe 
systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressur- 
ized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resis- 
tance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the 
building in which they are located. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are 
not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized 
enclosure are not required to be enclosed within 
fire-resistance-rated construction. 

905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 


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905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. Class 
II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be 
located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet 
(91 44 mm) of a nozzle attached to 1 00 feet (30 480 mm) of hose. 

905.5.1 Groups A-1 and A-2. In Group A-1 and A-2 occu- 
pancies with occupant loads of more than 1 ,000, hose con- 
nections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each 
side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the bal- 
cony, and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of ris- 
ers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required. 

905.5.3 Class II system 1-inch hose. A minimum 1-inch 
(25 mm) hoseshall be allowed to beused for hose stations in 
light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for 
this service and where approved by the building code offi- 
cial. 

905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. Class 
in standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as 
required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have 
Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5. 

905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class HI 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4. 1 . 

905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be inter- 
connected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, 
such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department 
valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view. 

905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall 
be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that contrasts with the background color, 
indicating the equipment contained therein. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 

905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be unlocked. 
Exceptions: 

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other 
approved transparent frangible material that is 
easily broken and allows access. 

2. locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3 occupancies. 

905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the 


normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal 
at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a 
fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted 
to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required dur- 
ing construction and demol ition operations shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 1413. 

905.11 Existing buildings. Where required in Chapter 46, 
existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed 
in accordance with Section 905. 

SECTION 906 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
installed in the following locations. 

1 . In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I , M, R-1, R-2, 
R-4 and S occupancies. 

Exception: In new and existing Group A, B and E 
occupancies equipped throughout with quick- 
response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall 
be required only in locations specified in Items 2 
through 6. 

2. Within 30 feet (9 144 mm) of commercial cooking equip- 
ment. 

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are 
stored, used or dispensed. 

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except 
Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 
1415.1. 

5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906. 1 . 

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to labora- 
tories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where 
required by the fire code official. 

906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and NFPA 10. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not 
apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 
occupancies. 

2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and 
maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three 
years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable 
fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and 
approved electronic monitoring device, provided that 
all of the following conditions are met: 


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TABLE 906.1 

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 


SECTION 

SUBJECT 

303.5 

Asphalt kettles 

307.5 

Open burning 

308.1.3 

Open flames — torches 

309.4 

Powered industrial trucks 

1105.2 

Aircraft towing vehicles 

1105.3 

Aircraft welding apparatus 

1105.4 

Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles 

1105.5 

Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles 

1 105.6 

Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 

1107.7 

Heliports and helistops 

1208.4 

Dry cleaning plants 

1415.1 

Buildings under constmction or demolition 

1417.3 

Roofing operations 

1504.4.1 

Spray-finishing operations 

1505.4.2 

Dip-tank operations 

1506.4.2 

Powder-coating areas 

1904.2 

Lumberyards/woodworking facilities 

1908.8 

Recycling facilities 

1909.5 

Exterior lumber storage 

2003.5 

Organic-coating areas 

2106.3 

Industrial ovens 

2205.5 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

2210.6.4 

Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

2211.6 

Repair garages 

2306.10 

Rack storage 

2404.12 

Tents and membrane structures 

2508.2 

Tire rebuilding/storage 

2604.2.6 

Welding and other hot work 

2903.6 

Combustible fibers 

3403.2.1 

Flammable and combustible liquids, general 

3404.3.3.1 

Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids 

3404.3.7.5.2 

Liquid storage rooms for flammable and 
combustible liquids 

3405.4.9 

Solvent distillation units 

3406.2.7 

Farms and construction sites — flammable and 
combustible liquids storage 

3406.4.10.1 

Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and 
combustible liquids 

3406.5.4.5 

Commercial, industrial, governmental or 

manufacturing establishments — fuel dispensing 

3406.6.4 

Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids 

3606.5.7 

Flammable solids 

3808.2 

LP-gas 

4504.4 

Marinas 


2. 1 . Electronic monitoring shall confirm that 
extinguishers are properly positioned, prop- 
erly charged and unobstructed. 

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the elec- 
tronic monitoring device shall initiate a trou- 
ble signal. 

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a 
building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environ- 
ment. 

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervi- 
sory circuits shall be tested every three years 
when extinguisher maintenance is performed. 

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test 
dates for extinguishers shall be maintained 
by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests 
are conducted at the frequency required by 
NFPA 10. 

3. In Group 1-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be per- 
mitted to be located at staff locations. 

906.3 Size and distribution. The size and distribution of por- 
table fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 
906.3.1 through 906.3.4. 

906.3.1 Class A fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, 
the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 
906.3(1). 


TABLE 906.3(1) 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS 



LIGHT 

ORDINARY 

EXTRA 


(Low) 

(Moderate) 

(High) 


HAZARD 

HAZARD 

HAZARD 


OCCUPANCY 

OCCUPANCY 

OCCUPANCY 

Minimum Rated 
Single Extinguisher 

2-A‘’ 

2-A 

4-A''' 

Maximum Floor Area 

3,000 

1,500 

1,000 

Per Unit of A 

square feet 

square feet 

square feet 

Maximum Floor Area 

11,250 

11.250 

1 1,2.50 

For Extinguisher'’ 

square feet 

square feet 

square feet 

Maximum Travel 
Distance to 
Extinguisher 

75 feet 

75 feet 

75 feet 


For SI; I foot = 304.8 mm, I square foot = 0.0929 m^. I gallon = 3.78.S L. 

a. Two 2'/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of 
one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 1 0 provides more details concerning application of the 
maximum floor area criteria. 

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a I -A rating shall be deemed the 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupan- 
cies. 

906.3.2 Class B fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for 
occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids 
with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall 
be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). 

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving 
flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater 
than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in 
accordance with NFPA 10. 


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TABLE 906.3(2) 

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH 
DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH 




MAXIMUM TRAVEL 


BASIC MINIMUM 

DISTANCE TO 


EXTINGUISHER 

EXTINGUISHERS 

TYPE OF HAZARD 

RATING 

(feet) 


5-B 

30 

Light (Low) 

lO-B 

50 


lO-B 

30 

Ordinary (Moderate) 

20-B 

50 


40- B 

30 

Extra (High) 

80-B 

50 


For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 
sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10. 

906.3.3 Class C fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the 
basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard. 

906.3.4 Class D fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be 
selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10. 

906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for 
the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved 
type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system 
agent and in accordance with Section 904.1 1 .5. 

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily 
accessible and immediately available for use. These locations 
shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code offi- 
cial determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for 
placement away from normal paths of travel. 

906.6 Unobstructed and unohscured. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In 
rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be com- 
pletely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the loca- 
tions of extinguishers. 

906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be 
securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with 
the manufacturer’s installation instructions. 

906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be locked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious 
use or damage are provided with a means of ready 
access. 

2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in 
Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be 
located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 

906.9 Extinguisher installation. The installation of portable 
fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9. 1 
through 906.9.3. 


906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less. Porta- 
ble fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 
40 pounds ( 1 8 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not 
more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 

906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing more than 40 pounds. 

Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight 
exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their 
tops are not more than 3.5 feet ( 1 067 mm) above the floor. 

906.9.3 Floor clearance. The clearance between the floor 
and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be 
conspicuously located in a designated location. 


SECTION 907 

FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

907.1 General. This section covers the application, installa- 
tion, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components in new and existing buildings and structures. 
The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new build- 
ings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.3 are 
applicable to existing buildings and structures. 

907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to 
indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed 
and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of 
this code, the International Building Code, and relevant 
laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by 
Ihe fire code official. 

907.1.2 Fire alarm shop drawings. Shop drawings for fire 
alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, all of the following: 

1 . A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices. 

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, includ- 
ing candela ratings for visible alarm notification 
appliances. 

4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and 
notification power supplies. 

5. Annunciators. 

6. Power connection. 

7. Battery calculations. 

8. Conductor type and sizes. 

9. Voltage drop calculations. 

10. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model num- 
bers and listing information for equipment, devices 
and materials. 

1 1 . Details of ceiling height and construction. 

12. The interface of fire safety control functions. 

13. Classification of the supervising station. 


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907.1.3 Equipment. Systems and components shall be 
listed and approved for the purpose for which they are 
installed. 

907.2 Where required — new buildings and structures. An 

approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 
through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accor- 
dance with Section 907.6, unless other requirements are pro- 
vided by another section of this code. 

A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided 
in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire 
alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or 
water-flow detection devices. Where other sections of this code 
allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single 
fire alarm box shall be installed. 

Exceptions: 

1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire 
alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and 
supervisory service. 

2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group 
R-2 occupancies unless required by the /ire code offi- 
cial to provide a means for fire watch personnel to ini- 
tiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment 
event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box 
shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the 
public. 

907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system that activates 
the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 
907.6 shall be installed in Group A occupancies having an 
occupant load of 300 or more. Portions of Group E occu- 
pancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occu- 
pancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances 
will activate throughout the notification zones upon 
sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies 
with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation of 
the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant 
load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an 
emergency voice/alarm communications system in 
accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded 
announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated 
for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the 
sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement 
from an approved, constantly attended location. 

907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies where one of the follow- 
ing conditions exists: 

1 . The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 
500 or more. 


2. The Group B occupant load is more than 1 00 persons 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

3. The Group B fire area contains a Group B ambulatory 
health care facility. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances 
will activate throughout the notification zones upon 
sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.2.1 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. 

Fire areas containing Group B ambulatory health care 
facilities shall be provided with an electronically super- 
vised automatic smoke detection system installed within 
the ambulatory health care facility and in public use areas 
outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and 
elevator lobbies. 

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification 
appliances will activate throughout the notification 
zones upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system that activates 
the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 
907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When 
automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are 
installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the 
building fire alarm system. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 
less than 50. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group 
E occupancies where all of the following apply: 

2. 1 . Interior corridors are protected by smoke 
detectors. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
similar areas are protected by heat detec- 
tors or other approved detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.4. The capability to activate the evacuation 
signal from a central point is provided. 

2.5. In buildings where normally occupied 
spaces are provided with a two-way com- 
munication system between such spaces 
and a constantly attended receiving station 
from where a general evacuation alarm can 
be sounded, except in locations specifi- 
cally designated by the fire code official. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in 
Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 


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> 


tion 903.3.1.1, the notification appliances will 
activate on sprinkler water How and manual acti- 
vation is provided from a normally occupied loca- 
tion. 

907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alann system that activates 
the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 
907.6 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both 
of the following conditions exist: 

1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in 
height; and 

2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant 
load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of 
exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notillcation appliances 
will activate throughout the notification zones upon 
sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system that activates 
the occupant notification system shall be installed in Group 
H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufac- 
ture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection sys- 
tem that activates the occupant notification system shall be 
installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxi- 
dizers in accordance with Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respec- 
tively. 

907.2.6 Group I. A manual and automatic fire alarm system 
that activates the occupant notification system shall be 
installed in Group I occupancies. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or 
patient sleeping areas of Group 1- 1 and 1-2 occupancies 
shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses’ con- 
trol stations or other constantly attended staff locations, 
provided such stations are visible and continuously 
accessible and that travel distances required in Section 

907.5.2 are not exceeded. 

907.2.6.1 Group I-l . An automatic smoke detection sys- 
tem shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to 
corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units 
and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accor- 
dance with Section 907.6. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior 
balconies. 


907.2.6.2 Group 1-2. Supervised smoke detectors that 
comply with UL 268 shall be provided in corridors, 
sleeping rooms and spaces open to the corridors. 

Exception: Corridor smoke detection is not required 
in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping 
units where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped 
with automatic door-closing devices with integral 
smoke detectors installed in accordance with their 
listing, provided that the integral detectors shall be 
supervised and perform the required alerting function 
in an approved manner. 

907.2.6.2.1 Annunciation. Smoke detectors in 
patient sleeping rooms ofGroup 1-2 occupancies shall 
provide a visual display on the corridor side of each 
patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm 
at the nursing station attending each unit. 

907.2.6.3 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupan- 
cies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system 
and automatic smoke detection system installed for alert- 
ing staff 

907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm 
box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire 
alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 

907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire 
alarm boxes are not required to be located in accor- 
dance with Section 907.5.2 where the fire alarm boxes 
are provided at staff-attended locations having direct 
supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes 
have been omitted. 

907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual fire alarms boxes in 
detainee areas. Manual fire alarm boxes are 
allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detain- 
ees, provided that staff members are present within 
the subject area and have keys readily available to 
operate the manual fire alarm boxes. 

907.2.6.3.3 Automatic smoke detection system. An 

automatic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping 
units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces 
and other common spaces normally accessible to resi- 
dents. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other approved smoke detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection, 
including, but not limited to, placing detec- 
tors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind 
protective guards listed for the purpose, are 
allowed when necessary to prevent damage 
or tampering. 


907.2.6.1.1 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance 
with Section 907.2.1 1 . 


2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as 
described in Section 308 of the International 
Building Code. 


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3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping 
units with four or fewer occupants in smoke 
compartments that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 

907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group M occupancies 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 
500 or more persons. 

2. The Group M occ«pa«r /oat/ is more than 100 persons 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exceptions; 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in cov- 
ered mall buildings complying with Section 402 of 
the International Building Code. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appli- 
ances will automatically activate throughout the 
notification zones upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the 
building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a 
manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall 
not be required to activate the alarm notification appli- 
ances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly 
attended location from which evacuation instructions 
shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system installed in accordance with Section 

907.6.2.2. 

907.2.8 Group R-1. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms 
shall be installed in Group R-l occupancies as required in 
Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3. 

907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual lire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in 
Group R-l occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous attic and crawl spaces to those units are sep- 
arated from each other and public or common 
areas by at least I -hour fire partitions and each 
individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a 
public way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met; 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; 


2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 

907.2.8.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An auto- 
matic smoke detection system that activates the occupant 
notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 
shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serv- 
ing sleeping units. 

Exception; An automatic smoke detection system is 
not required in buildings that do not have interior cor- 
ridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping 
unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an 
exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to 
an exit. 

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.11. 

907.2.9 Group R-2. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms 
shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in 
Section 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.2. 

907.2.9.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in 
Group R-2 occupancies where; 

1 . Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three 
or more stories above the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleep- 
ing unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units 
or sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
not more than two stories in height where all 
dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous 
attic and crawl spaces are separated from each 
other and public or common areas by at least 
1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public 
way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where 
the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and 
the occupant notification appliances will auto- 
matically activate throughout the notification 
zones upon a sprinkler water flow. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving 
dwelling units and are protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, pro- 


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vided that dwelling units either have a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to the exits or are 
served by open-ended corridors designed in 
accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4. 

907.2.9.2 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.11. 

907.2.10 Group R-4. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms 
shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in 
Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3. 

907.2.10.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in 
Group R-4 occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous attic and crawl spaces to those units are sep- 
arated from each other and public or common 
areas by at least I -hour fire partitions and each 
individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a 
public way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient 
sleeping areas shall not be required at exits 
where located at all nurses’ control stations or 
other constantly attended staff locations, pro- 
vided such stations are visible and continuously 
accessible and that travel distances required in 
Section 907.5.2.1 are not exceeded. 

907.2.10.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An 

automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with Section 
907.6 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open 
to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping 
units and kitchens. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

2. An automatic smoke detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior 


corridors serving sleeping units and where 
each sleeping unit has a means of egress door 
opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to an exit. 

907,2.10.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.11. 

907.2.11 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms comply- 
ing with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 907.2. 11.1 through 907.2. 1 1 .4 and NFPA 72. 

Note: Readers should also consult the Oregon smoke 
detection law located in ORS 479.250 through 479.300. 

907.2.11.1 Group R-1. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations in Group R- 1 : 

1 . In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from the 
sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels and 
without an intervening door between the adjacent 
levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level 
shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided 
that the lower level is less than one full story below 
the upper level. 

907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R.4 and I-l. Single or 
multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and 
maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I- 1 regardless of 
occupant load at all of the following locations: 

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke 
alarms in Group I-l shall not be required where 
smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping 
rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection 
system. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units 
with split levels and without an intervening door 
between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm 
installed on the upper level shall suffice for the 
adjacent lower level provided that the lower level 
is less than one full story below the upper level. 

907.2.11.3 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R- 1 , R-2, R-3 
or R-4, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such 
a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all 
of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be 


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clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise 
levels with all intervening doors closed. 

907.2.11.4 Power source. In new construction, required 
smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the 
building wiring where such wiring is served from a com- 
mercial source and shall be equipped with a battery 
backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not 
equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an 
emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a 
signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be perma- 
nent and without a disconnecting switch other than as 
required for overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be 

equipped with battery backup where they are con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 

907.2.12 Special amusement buildings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be provided in special amuse- 
ment buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 
through 907.2.12.3. 

907.2.12.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke 
detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other 
automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound 
an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location 
from which emergency action can be initiated, including 
the capability of manual initiation of requirements in 
Section 907.2. 12.2. 

907.2.12.2 System response. The activation of two or 
more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped 
with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprin- 
kler system or other approved fire detection device shall 
automatically: 

1. Cau.se illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 foot-candle (I I lux) at the 
walking surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and 
visual distractions; 

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that 
will become apparent in an emergency; and 

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible through- 
out the special amusement building, instructing 
patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm sig- 
nals used in conjunction with the prerecorded mes- 
sage shall produce a sound which is distinctive 
from other sounds used during normal operation. 

907.2.12.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. An emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem, which is also allowed to serve as a public address 
system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 

907.6.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special 
amusement building. 

907.2.13 High-rise buildings. Buildings with a floor used 
for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 
mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access shal I be provided with an automatic smoke detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2. 1 3. 1 , a fire depart- 
ment communication system in accordance with Section 


907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication 
system in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3 of the International Building Code. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in 
accordance with Section 303.1 of the International 
Building Code. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503.1 . 1 of the International Building 
Code. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 4 1 5 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

6. In Group I- 1 and 1-2 occupancies, the alarm shall 
sound at a constantly attended location and general 
occupant notification shall be broadcast by the 
emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

907.2.13.1 Automatic smoke detection. Automatic 
smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2. 

907.2.13.1.1 Area smoke detection. Area smoke 
detectors shall be provided in accordance with this 
section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an 
automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any 
detector required by this section shall operate the 
emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. Smoke detectors 
shall be located as follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, 
transformer, telephone equipment or similar 
room which is not provided with sprinkler pro- 
tection. 

2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator 
lobbies. 

907.2.13.1.2 Duct smoke detection. Duct smoke 
detectors complying with Section 907.4.1 shall be 
located as follows: 

1 . In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 mVs). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downstream of the last duct 
inlet. 

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser 
serving two or more stories from a return air 
duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. 
In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke 
detector is allowed to be used in each return air 
riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 
mVs) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet 
openings. 


102 


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907.2.13.2 Fire department communication system. 

Where a wired communication system is approved in 
lieu of a radio coverage system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 510, the wired fire department communication sys- 
tem shall be designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 72 and shall operate between afire command cen- 
ter comp\y'mg with Section 508, elevators, elevator lob- 
bies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump 
rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stair- 
ways. The fire department communication device shall 
be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit 
stainvay. 

907.2.14 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A 

fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke 
detection installed throughout the atrium. The .system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.6. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system complying with 
the requirements of Section 907.6.2.2. 

907.2.15 High-piled combustible storage areas. An auto- 
matic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout 
high-piled combustible storage areas where required by 
Section 2306.5. 

907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms and 
general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be 
provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where 
required by this code. 

907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer 
mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall 
be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 

907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke control 
systems. Where a smoke control system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with the International 
Building Code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 907.2. 18.1. 

907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one smoke 
detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed 
in the following areas: 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or ri.ser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or ple- 
nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a 
listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each 
return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm 
(2.4 mVs) and serving not more than 10 air inlet 
openings. 


907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
control system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

907.2.19 Deep underground buildings. Where the lowest 
level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below 
the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the 
structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire 
alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.6.2.2. 

907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in total floor area 
shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communi- 
cation system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. 

907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of one 
single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a resi- 
dential aircraft hangar as defined in the International Build- 
ing Code and shall be interconnected into the residential 
smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm 
that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 

907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic 
smoke detection system that activates the occupant notifica- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be pro- 
vided in airport control towers in all occupiable and 
equipment spaces. 

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed 
within the control tower cab. 

907.2.23 Battery rooms. An automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in areas containing stationary stor- 
age battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 
gallons (189 L). 

907.3 Where required in existing buildings and structures. 

An approved fire alarm system shall be installed in existing 
buildings and structures where required in Chapter 46. 

907.4 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors utilized 
for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be con- 
nected to the building’s fire alarm control unit where a fire 
alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the 
alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible 
supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In build- 
ings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire 
detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors 
shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.4.1 Duct smoke detectors. Smoke detectors installed 
in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and 
humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be 
connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit when a 
fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of 
a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible 
supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and 
shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance 
with this code and the International Mechanical Code. Duct 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


smoke detectors shall not be used as a substitute for required 
open area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended 
location is not required where duct smoke detec- 
tors activate the building’s alarm notification 
appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a 
fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector 
shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an 
approved location. Smoke detector trouble condi- 
tions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an 
approved location and shall be identified as air 
duct detector trouble. 

907.4.2 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress locks 
are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke or heat detection 
system shall be installed as required by that section. 

907.4.3 Elevator emergency operation. Automatic fire 
detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shal I be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17. 1 
and NFPA 72. 

907.4.4 Wiring. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and 
equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety func- 
tions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

907.5 Initiating devices. Where manual or automatic alarm 
initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating 
devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.5. 1 
through 907.5.3. 

907.5.1 Protection of fire alarm control unit. In areas that 
are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall 
be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, 
notification appliance circuit power extenders and supervis- 
ing station transmitting equipment. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of 
smoke detector, a heat detector shaW be permitted. 

2. The smoke detector shall not be required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

907.5.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Where a manual fire 
alarm system is required by another section of this code, it 
shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance 
with Sections 907.5.2.1 through 907.5.2.5. 

907.5.2.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be 
located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the 
entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box 
does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

907.5.2.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a 
maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, 


from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the 
box. 

907.5.2.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in 
color. 

907.5.2.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not moni- 
tored by a supervising station, an approved permanent 
sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm 
box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL 
FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm 
box. 

907.5.2.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire 
alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false 
alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with pro- 
tection from physical damage. The protective cover shall 
be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to 
permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover 
shall include proper operating instructions. A protective 
cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed 
unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more 
than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3. 

907.5.3 Automatic smoke detection. Where an automatic 
smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke 
detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an instal- 
lation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized 
due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detec- 
tors shall be permitted. 

907.5.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. For conditions 
other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 
907.4, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the 
installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler 

installed in such areas in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire 
alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detec- 
tion. 

907.6 Occupant notification systems. A fire alarm system 
shall annunciate at the panel and shall initiate occupant notifi- 
cation upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 
through 907.6.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by 
another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1. Automatic fire detectors. 

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed else- 
where in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended 
location. 

907.6.1 Presignal feature. A presignal feature shall not be 
installed unless approved by the fire code official and the 
fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a 
signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location 
approvedhy the fire department, in order that occupant noti- 


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fication can be activated in the event of fire or other emer- 
gency. 

907.6.2 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their pur- 
pose. 

907.6.2.1 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound 
that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a 
fire alarm. 

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances 
shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification 
appliances in critical care areas of Group 1-2 occupan- 
cies. 

907.6.2.1.1 Average sound pressure. The audible 
alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound 
pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average 
ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum 
sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, 
whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within 
the building. The minimum sound pressure levels 
shall be: 75 dBA in occupancies in Groups R and I- 1 ; 
90 dBA in mechanical equipment rooms; and 60 dBA 
in other occupancies. 

907.6.2.1.2 Maximum sound pressure. The maxi- 
mum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be 1 10 dBA at the minimum 
hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where 
the average ambient noi.se is greater than 95 dBA, vis- 
ible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in 
accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall not be required. 

907.6.2.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
systems. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems required by this code shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any auto- 
matic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual 
fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone fol- 
lowed by voice instructions giving approved information 
and directions for a general or staged evacuation in 
accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation 
plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the 
system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, 
the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be 
provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a 
minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows: 

1 . Elevator groups. 

2. Exit stairways. 

3. Each floor. 

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1. 

Exception: In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 


907.6.2.2.1 Manual override. A manual override for 
emergency voice communication shall be provided 
on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones. 

907.6.2.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall also have 
the capability to broadcast live voice messages by 
paging zones on a selective and all-call basis. 

907.6.2.2.3 Alternate uses. The emergency voice/ 
alarm communication system shall be allowed to be 
used for other announcements, provided the manual 
fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use. 

907.6.2.2.4 Emergency power. Emergency voice/ 
alarm communications systems shall be provided 
with an approved emergency power source. 

907.6.2.3 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 

907.6.2.3.1 through 907.6.2.3.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not 
required in alterations, except where an exist- 
ing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, 
or a new fire alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required in exits as defined in Section 
1002 . 1 . 

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required in elevator cars. 

907.6.2.3.1 Public and common areas. Visible 
alarm notification appliances shall be provided in 
public areas and common areas. 

907.6.2.3.2 Employee work areas. Where employee 
work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notifica- 
tion appliance circuits serving the employee work 
areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 
20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential 
of adding visible notification appliances in the future 
to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s). 

907.6.2.3.3 Groups I-l, R-1 and R-4. Group I-l , R-l 
and R-4 dwelling units or sleeping units shall be pro- 
vided with a visible alarm notification appliance, acti- 
vated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the 
building fire alarm system in accordance with Chap- 
ter 1 1 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code and 
NFPA 72, 

907.6.2.3.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies 
required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, 
visual alarms shall be provided within common and 
public use areas, but are not required within individ- 
ual adaptable dwelling units. See Section 1 1 10. 10 of 
the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 

907.7 Installation. A fire alarm system shall be installed in 
accordance with Sections 907.7. 1 through 907.7.5.1 and NFPA 
72. 

907.7.1 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements 
of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems uti- 


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lizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply 
with the special requirements for supervision of low-power 
wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

907.7.2 Power supply. The primary and secondary power 
supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Backup power for single-station and multi- 
ple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 
907.2.11.4. 

907.7.3 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a 
zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m^). The 
length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in 
any direction. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not 
exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

907.7.3.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indicator 
panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an 
approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock 
in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by 
the operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch. 

907.7.3.2 High-rise buildings. In high-rise buildings, a 
separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the 
following types of alarm-initiating devices where pro- 
vided: 

1 . Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection 
devices or suppression systems. 

907.7.4 Access. Access shall be provided to each fire alarm 
device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, 
maintenance and testing. 

907.7.5 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by this 
chapter or by the International Building Code shall be mon- 
itored by an approved supervising station in accordance 
with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not 
required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms 
required by Section 907.2,1 1 . 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings. 

907.7.5.1 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Auto- 
matic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an 
emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire 
department telephone number unless approved by the 
fire chief. 

907.8 Acceptance tests and completion. Upon completion of 
the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm compo- 
nents shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.8.1 Single- and multiple-station alarm devices. 

When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each 


device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station 
alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke 
alarm provisions of NFPA 72. 

907.8.2 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has 
been installed and tested in accordance with the approved 
plans and specifications shall be provided. 

907.8.3 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance 
instructions and record drawings (“as builts”) and equip- 
ment specifications shall be provided at an approved loca- 
tion. 

907.9 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 

907.9. 1 through 907.9.5 and NFPA 72. 

907.9.1 Maintenance required. Whenever required for 
compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equip- 
ment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protec- 
tion or other features shall thereafter be continuously 
maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA require- 
ments or as directed by the fire code official. 

907.9.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance 
with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where 
required by the fire code official. 

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible 
for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled 
shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but 
not less than every 1 8 months. 

907.9.3 Smoke detector sensitivity. Smoke detector sensi- 
tivity shall be checked within one year after installation and 
every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration 
test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has 
remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 
4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the 
length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to 
be extended to a maximum of five years. Where the fre- 
quency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance 
alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be main- 
tained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any 
increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be 
performed. 

907.9.4 Method. To verify that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be 
tested using one of the following methods: 

1 . A calibrated test method; 

2. The manufacturer’s calibrated sensitivity test instru- 
ment; 

3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose; 

4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby 
the detector causes a signal at the control unit where 
the detector’s sensitivity is outside its acceptable sen- 
sitivity range; or 

5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable 
to the fire code official. 


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Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed 
and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and 
recalibrated or replaced. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permit- 
ted to be either adjusted within the listed and 
marked sensitivity range and cleaned and 
recalibrated or they shall be replaced. 

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station 
smoke alarms. 

907.9.4.1 Testing device. Smoke detector sensitivity 
shall not be tested or measured using a device that admin- 
isters an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other 
aerosol into the detector. 

907.9.5 Maintenance, inspection and testing. The build- 
ing owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life 
safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service 
personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of 
NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and testing such sys- 
tems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be 
made available to the fire code official. 

SECTION 908 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detec- 
tion and notification of an emergency condition in Group H 
occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27. 

908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notifica- 
tion of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be pro- 
vided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accor- 
dance with Section 1803.13. 

908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by 
Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided 
for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed 
gases. 

908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system 
shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance 
with Section 3705.3.2. 

908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 221 1.7.2. 

908.6 Refrigeration systems. Refrigeration system machin- 
ery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in 
accordance with Section 606.8. 


SECTION 909 

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical 
or passive smoke control systems when they are required for 
new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or this code. The purpose of this section is 
to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation 
and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are 


intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or 
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for 
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera- 
tions, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. 
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a differ- 
ent purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found 
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be 
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures, or 
parts thereof required by the International Building Code or 
this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have 
such systems designed in accordance with the applicable 
requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and 
well-established principles of engineering relevant to the 
design. The construction documents shall include sufficient 
information and detail to describe adequately the elements of 
the design necessary for the proper implementation of the 
smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompa- 
nied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate 
compliance with these provisions. 

909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition 
to the ordinary inspection and test requirements to which build- 
ings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify 
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its 
final installed condition. The design submission accompany- 
ing the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures 
and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspec- 
tions and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance 
with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possi- 
ble, based on published standards for the particular testing 
involved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- 
tion shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1 704 
of the International Building Code. 

909.4 .Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their 
operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of 
construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction 
documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the 
items indicated in Sections 909.4. 1 through 909.4.6. 

909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In 
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, 
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be 
used. 

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expan- 
sion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such 
that these effects do not adversely interfere with the sys- 
tem’s capabilities. 

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse 
effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with 
the wind-loading provisions of the International Building 
Code. 


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909.4.4 Systems. The design shall consider the effects of 
the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) sys- 
tems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall 
include all permutations of systems status. The design shall 
consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and 
air-conditioning systems. 

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of 
low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air 
inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or 
ice blockage. 

909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not 
less than either 20 minutes or 1 .5 times the calculated egress 
time, whichever is less. 

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with the International Building Code. Smoke barriers 
shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive 
of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area 
shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leak- 
age area ratios: 

1. Walls: = 0.00100 

2. Exit enclosures: A/A^. = 0.00035 

3. All other shafts: A/A^ =0.00150 

4. Floors and roofs: A/Af, = 0.00050 
where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Af = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A^ = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be 
included in calculating the total leakage area. 

909.5.1 Leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier is 
the product of the smoke barrier gtoss area multiplied by the 
allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings 
such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be 
determined by achieving the minimum air pressure differ- 
ence across the barrier with the system in the smoke control 
mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive 
smoke control systems tested using other approved means, 
such as door fan testing, shall be as approved by the building 
code official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers 
shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by 
the required controls for the mechanical smoke control sys- 
tem. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assem- 
blies complying with Section 715.4.3 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic- 
closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke 
detectors listed for releasing service installed in 
accordance with Section 907.10. 


2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are pro- 
tected utilizing the airflow method. 

3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across 
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors with- 
out a center mullion shall be installed having 
vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing 
materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area 
of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors 
shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances 
and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. 
The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astra- 
gals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3 of the International Build- 
ing Code. Positive-latching devices are not 
required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

909.5.2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and 
air transfer openings are required to be protected with a 
minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper com- 
plying with Section 716 of the International Building 
Code. 

909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical 
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment 
is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin. 

909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered 
buildings. 

In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, 
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pres- 
sure differences at least two times the maximum calculated 
pressure difference produced by the design fire. 

909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maximum air 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be deter- 
mined by required door-opening or closing forces. The 
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is 
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors 
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for 
the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force 
to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be deter- 
mined by: 

F= -I- KiWAAP)l2{ W- d) (Equation 9-1) 

where: 

A = Door area, square feet (m^). 

d - Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet 

(m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 


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F,c = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds 
(N). 

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 

W = Door width, feet (m). 

AP- Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 

909.7 Airflow design method. When approved by the build- 
ing code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a 
permanently open position, which are located between 
smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be 
permitted. The design airflow shall be in aceordance with this 
section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration 
from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be consid- 
ered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. 

909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through a 
fixed opening shall not be less than: 

V 2 1 7.2 [h (7}- 7;)/(7}h- 460)] (Equation 9-2) 

For SI: v = 1 19.9 [h (7}- 7’„)/7}]'« 

where: 

h = Height of opening, feet (m). 

Tf = Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 

7), = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 

909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not be 
employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of 
the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke 
control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume 
dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow 
toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). 
Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflows to 
exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used. 

909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by tbe building code 
official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the 
exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust 
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B. 

909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal 
surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at 
least 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) above any walking surface that forms 
a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone. 

909.9 Design fire. The design lire shall be based on a rational 
analysis performed by the registered design professional and 
approved by the building code official. The design fire shall be 
based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this 
section. 

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis shall 
include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects 
included by tbe fire, and whether tbe fire is likely to be 
steady or unsteady. 

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design 
fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spac- 
ing and configuration. 


909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of 
combustible material. 

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, 
fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be 
suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable expo- 
sure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as 
approved by the building code official. 

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall 
be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable 
temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. 
This temperature rise shall be computed by: 

T.s = {QJmc) + {TJ (Equation 9-3) 

where: 

c = Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, 
Btu/lb°F ■ (kJ/kg • K). 

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 

7), = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 

T, = Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exception: Reduced 7, as calculated based on tbe assur- 
ance of adequate dilution air. 

909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable 
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to 
wbicb they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909.10. 1 . Ducts shall be constructed and supported 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1 .5 times the maximum design 
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practiees. 
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. 
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation 
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis- 
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan- 
tial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of 
vibration isolation) complying with the International 
Mechanical Code and which are constructed oi approved 
fire-resistance-raled materials. 

909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment shall 
be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the 
building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall 
be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing 
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so 
located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into tbe 
building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent 
buildings to an additional fire hazard. 

909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, 
regardless of tbe purpo.se for which they are installed within 


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the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the 
requirements of approved recognized standards. 

909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, 
belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts 
required for the design duty with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, 
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan 
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans 
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible 
devices in accordance with the structural design require- 
ments of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code. 
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their 
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from mea- 
surement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum 
service factor of 1 . 15. 

909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be 
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be 
from the normal building power systems. Secondary power 
shall be from an approved standby source complying with Sec- 
tion 604 and NFPA 70. The standby power source and its trans- 
fer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power 
transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and 
from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 
1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 
707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, or both. 

909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements of 
the smoke management system relying on volatile memo- 
ries or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power 
sources of sufficient duration to span 1 5-minute primary 
power interruption. Elements of the smoke management 
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably pro- 
tected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved 
means. 

909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems 
providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke 
control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped 
with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke 
control equipment. 

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall 
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include 
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, 
the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, 
through a preprogrammed we.ekly test sequence, report abnor- 
mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 

909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of 
NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully 
enclosed within continuous raceways. 

909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be acti- 
vated in accordance with this section. 

909.12.2.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust method. 

Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressuriza- 
tion, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely 
automatic control. 


909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control sys- 
tems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for 
releasing service shall be permitted. 

909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely automatic 
control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences 
shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic 
sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3. 1.1, manual 
controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, 
and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analy- 
sis. 

909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of suffi- 
cient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be 
flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be 
adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and pro- 
tected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 

909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard drawn 
copper. Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, 
ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 25 1 and 
ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, sol- 
der type, in accordance with ASME B 16. 18 or ASME B 
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate 
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at 
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed 
using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F 
(593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (8I6°C). Brazing flux 
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only. 

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan- 
els and at the final connection to devices, provided all of 
the following conditions are met: 

1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for 
flame and smoke characteristics. 

2. Tubing and the connected device shall be com- 
pletely enclosed within a galvanized or paint- 
grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness 
of 0.0296 inches (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). 
Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing 
with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or 
by suitable brass compression to male-barbed 
adapter. 

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be 
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving 
devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing 
serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated 
by automatic isolation valves or shall bean independent sys- 
tem. 

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three 
times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes 
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final 
connection to devices. 


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909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and con- 
trol systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses 
and terminations. 


909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams show- 
ing all devices in the system and identifying their location and 
function shall be maintained current and kept on tile with the 

I I building code official, the fire department and in the /ire com- 
mand center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief. 

909.16 Fire-fighter’s smoke control panel. A fire-fighter’s 
smoke control panel for fire department emergency response 
purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual con- 
trol or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke 
control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command 
center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or 
buildings with smoke-protected as.sembly seating. In all other 
buildings, the fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall be 
installed in an app roved \ocat\on adjacent to the fire alarm con- 
trol panel. The fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply 
with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 

909.16,1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the building 
shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel. A clear 
indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of 
components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be 
provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by 
fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows: 


control and indicate all elements of a single 
smoke zone as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where 
the control is accomplished by computer 
interface using approved, plain English 
commands. 

909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire- fighter’s 
control panel actions shall be as follows: 

I . ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall 
have the highest priority of any control point within 
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s con- 
trol panel, no automatic or manual control from any 
other control point within the building shall contra- 
dict the control action. Where automatic means are 
provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equip- 
ment operation or produce a specific result to safe- 
guard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, 
duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, tem- 
perature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such 
means shall be capable of being overridden by the 
fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as 
indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch 
position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions 
require the smoke control system to assume more 
than one configuration at any one time. 


Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
normal status — WHITE. 


Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 
70. 


2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
off or closed status — RED. 

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/AMBER. 

909.16,2 Smoke control panel. The fire- fighter’s control 
panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as fol- 
lows: 


1. ON-AUTO-OFT control over each individual piece 
of operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke 
exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; eleva- 
tor shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or 
intended for smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual 
dampers relating to smoke control and that are also 
controlled from other sources within the building. 


3. 


ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment as.sociated with a fire 
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled 
from the fire-fighter’s control panel. 


Exceptions: 


1 . Complex systems, where approved, where 
the controls and indicators are combined to 


2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position 
fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow auto- 
matic or manual control action from other control 
points within the building. The AUTO position shall 
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control 
position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the 
status indicator described above. When directed by an 
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, 
tbe NORMAL position shall become the emergency 
condition for that device or group of devices within 
the zone. In no case shall control actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

909,17 System response time. Smoke-control system activa- 
tion shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropri- 
ate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control 
systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers 
and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage 
to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes 
of smoke control, the fire-fighter’s control panel response time 
shall be tbe same for automatic or manual smoke control action 
initiated from any other building control point. The total 
response time, including that necessary for detection, shut- 
down of operating equipment and srnoke control system 
startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved 
before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke 
condition. The system response time for each component and 
their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


111 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


rational analysis and verification of their installed condition 
reported in the required final report. 

909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components 
and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addi- 
tion to those required by other provisions of this code, shall 
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where 
applicable, capacity of their installed condition. 

909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors that are 
a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When 
applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow 
in both minimum and maximum conditions. 

909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control sys- 
tem shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to 
determine actual air quantities. 

909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function in 
their installed condition. 

909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be read 
using generally accepted practices to determine air quanti- 
ties. 

909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. 
Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per min- 
ute and belt tension shall be made. 

909.18.6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using inclined 
manometers or other approved calibrated measuring 
devices shall be made of the pressure differences across 
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for 
each possible smoke control condition. 

909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone equipped with an 
automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the 
actuation of one such device. Each additional device within 
the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence with- 
out requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent 
damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the 
system, including verification of override from the 
fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power 
conditions. 

909.18.8 Special inspections for smoke control. Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 

909.18.8.1 Scope of testing. Special inspections shall be 
conducted in accordance with the following: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and 
recording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion 
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, 
flow measurements, and detection and control ver- 
ification. 

909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agencies 
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as 
air balancers. 

909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing shall 
be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection 
agency. The report shall include identification of all 


devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, 
measured values and identification tag or mark. The 
report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered 
design professional and, when satisfied that the design 
intent has been achieved, the responsible registered 
design professional shall seal, sign and date the report. 

909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final report 
shall be filed with the building code official and an 
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved 
location at the building. 

909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating 
each component of the smoke control system, and describ- 
ing their proper function and maintenance requirements, 
shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment 
to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall 
have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consis- 
tent with the other required documentation and shall be 
dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested 
and by whom. 

909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, 
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be 
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the build- 
ing code official determines that the provisions of this section 
have been fully complied with and that the fire department has 
received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both auto- 
matic and manual, of the system. 

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the building 
code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions 
of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this 
section and that the remainder does not pose a significant 
hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 

909.20 Maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be main- 
tained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capa- 
ble of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system 
shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s 
instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.5. 

909.20.1 Schedule. A routine maintenance and operational 
testing program shall be initiated immediately after the 
smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A 
written schedule for routine maintenance and operational 
testing shall be established. 

909.20.2 Written record. A written record of smoke con- 
trol system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on 
the premises. The written record shall include the date of the 
maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and 
notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the correc- 
tive action taken, including parts replaced. 

909.20.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control 
system shall include all equipment such as initiating 
devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows. 

909.20.4 Dedicated smoke control systems. Dedicated 
smoke control systems shall be operated for each control 
sequence semiannually. Tbe system shall also be tested 
under standby power conditions. 


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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


909.20.5 Nondedicated smoke control systems. Non- 
dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each 
control sequence annually. The system shall also be tested 
under standby power conditions. 

SECTION 910 
SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

910.1 General. Where required by this eode or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of 
this section. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of 
Class I and 11 commodities where protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Where areas of buildings arc equipped with early sup- 
pression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic 
smoke and heat vents shall not be required witbin 
these areas. 

910.2 Where required. .Smoke and heat vents shall be installed 
in the roofs of one-stoiy buildings or portions thereof occupied 
for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2. 1 and 910.2.2. 

910.2.1 Group F-1 or S-1. Buildings and portions thereof 
used as a Group F- 1 or S- 1 occupancy having more than 
50,000 square feet (4645 m-) of undivided area. 

Exception: Group S- 1 aircraft repair hangars. 

910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage. Buildings and 
portions thci eof containing high-piled combustible stock or 
rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Sec- 
tion 2306.7. 

910.3 Design and installation. The design and installation of 
smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in 
Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3. 

910.3.1 Design. Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and 
labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793. 

910.3.2 Vent operation. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
capable of being operated by approved automatic and man- 
ual means. Automatic operation of smoke and heat vents 
shall conform to the provisions of Sections 910.3.2.1 
through 910.3.2.3. 

910.3.2.1 Gravity-operated drop out vents. Automatic 
smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensilive glazing 
designed to shrink and drop out of the vent opening when 
exposed to lire shall fully open within 5 minutes after the 
vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire represented by a 
time-temperature gradient that reaches an air tempera- 
ture of 500°F (260”C) within 5 minutes. 

910.3.2.2 Sprinklered buildings. Where installed in 
buildings equipped with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to 
operate automatically. 

910.3.2.3 Nonsprinklered buildings. Where installed in 

buildings not equipped with an approved automatic sprin- 


kler .system, smoke and heat vents shall operate automati- 
cally by actuation of a heat-responsive device rated at 
between 1 00"F (56"C) and 220°F ( 1 22^C) above ambient. 

Exception: Gravity-operated drop out vents comply- 
ing with Section 9 10.3.2. 1 . 

910.3.3 Vent dimensions. The effective venting area shall 
not be less than 16 square feet (1.5 m^) with no dimension 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters having 
a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). 

910.3.4 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines 
and,/?re walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire bar- 
riers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof in the 
areas of the building where the vents arc required to be 
installed by Section 910.2, with consideration given to roof 
pilch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location and struc- 
tural members. 

910.3.5 Draft curtains. Where required by Table 910.3, 
draft curtains shall be installed on the underside of the roof 
in accordance with this .section. 

F>xception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided 
within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided 
at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the 
non-ESFR sprinklers. 

910.3.5.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum hoard or 
other approved materials that provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connec- 
tions shall be smoke tight. 

910.3.5.2 Location and depth. The location and mini- 
mum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with 
Table 910.3. 

910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
building code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust 
shall be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents. 

910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced 
within each draft-curtained area and the maximum distance 
between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual capac- 
ity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 m-Vs). The aggregate capacity of 
sitioke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: 

C=Ax 300 (Equation 9-4) 

where: 

C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic 
feet per minute (m-Vs). 

A - Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m-) in 
accordance with Table 910.3. 

910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall 
be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem or by heat detectors having operating characteristics 
equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.2. Individual 
manual controls for each fan unit shall also be provided. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


113 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


TABLE 910.3 

REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS' 


OCCUPANCY GROUP 
AND COMMODITY 
CLASSIFICATION 

DESIGNATED 
STORAGE 
HEIGHT (feet) 

MINIMUM DRAFT 
CURTAIN DEPTH 
(feet) 

MAXIMUM AREA 
FORMED BY DRAFT 
CURTAINS 
(square feet) 

VENT-AREA-TO 

FLOOR-AREA 

RATIO' 

MAXIMUM 
SPACING OF VENT 
CENTERS 
(feet) 

MAXIMUM DISTANCE 
FROM VENTS TO WALL 
OR DRAFT CURTAIN” 
(feet) 

Group F-l and S-l 

— 

0.2 X H'* but > 4 

50,000 

1:100 

120 

60 

High-piled storage 
(see Section 910.2.2) 
Class I-IV Commodities 
(Option 1) 

<20 

6 

10,000 

1:100 

100 

60 

>20<40 

6 

8,000 

1:75 

100 

55 

High-piled storage 
(see Section 9 1 0.2.2) 
Class I-IV Commodities 
(Option 2) 

<20 

4 

3,000 

1:75 

100 

55 

>20<40 

4 

3,000 

1:50 

100 

50 

High-piled storage 
(see Section 910.2.2) 
High-hazard Commodities 
(Option 1) 

<20 

6 

6,000 

1:50 

100 

50 

>20<30 

6 

6,000 

1:40 

90 

45 

High-piled storage 
(see Section 910.2.2) 
High-hazard Commodities 
(Option 2) 

<20 

4 

4,000 

l:.50 

100 

50 

>20<30 

4 

2,000 

1:30 

75 

40 


For SI: I foot = 304.8 mm, I square fool = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Additional requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. For solid-piled storage heights in excess of 
those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be used. 

b. Vents adjacent to walls or draft curtains shall be located within a horizontal distance not greater than the maximum distance specified in this column as measured 
perpendicular to the wall or draft curtain that forms the perimeter of the draft curtained area. 

c. Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option I ). 

d. “H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor. 


910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wiring for operation and con- 
trol of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of the 
main disconnect and protected against exposure to tempera- 
tures in excess of l,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less 
than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be imme- 
diately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of the 
building and protected against interior fire exposure by not 
less than 1-hour fire ftarr/er^ constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 712, or both. 

910.4.5 Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be pro- 
vided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to provide a 
minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Openings for 
supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periph- 
ery of the area served. 

910.4.6 Interlocks. On combination comfort air-han- 
dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort 
air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down 
in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 

SECTION 911 
EXPLOSION CONTROL 

911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes 
involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1. 


2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in 
Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
in Table 270.3.1.1(1). 

Such areas shall be provided with explosion {deflagration) 
venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or barri- 
cades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 
495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as 
a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards, 

911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required 
to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the 
following: 

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas 
shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure 
of 100 pounds per square foot (psO (4788 Pa). The mini- 
mum internal design pressure shall not be less than five 
times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in 
Section 91 1.2, Item 5. 

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior 
walls and roofs. 

Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof 
venting cannot be provided because of inadequate 
exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall 
be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the 
exterior of the building. 

3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unac- 
ceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagra- 
tion, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of 
sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening 


114 


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injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property 
or adjacent public ways. 

4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall 
be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction 
assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the maxi- 
mum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section. 

5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance 
with the International Building Code. Vents shall consist 
of any one or any combination of tbe following to rel ieve 
at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square 
foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the 
International Building Code: 

5. 1 . Exterior walls designed to release outward. 

5.2. Hatch covers. 

5.3. Outward swinging doors. 

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose. 

6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs 
of the building when venting a deflagration shall dis- 
charge directly to the exterior of the building where an 
unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in 
width is provided between the exterior walls of the build- 
ing and the property line. 

Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this section. 

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when 
venting a deflagration shall be so located that the dis- 
charge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
vertically from window openings and exits in the building 
and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the build- 
ing, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings 
on the same property, and from the property line. 

8. Discharge from vents shall not be into tbe interior of the 
building. 

911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention 
systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69. 

911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 495. 


SECTION 912 

FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 

912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be 
installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the 
system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 
912.6. 

912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, build- 
ings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so 
located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the 
system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire 
apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be 
approved by the fire chief 

912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections shall 
be located on the streetside of buildings, fully visible and rec- 


ognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department 
vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire chief. 

912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, wherever 
the fire department connection is not visible to approaching 
fire apparatus, the fire department connection shall be indi- 
cated by an appmved sign mounted on the street front or on 
the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters 
“FDC” at least 6 inches (1 52 mm) high and words in letters at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm) high or an arrow to indicate the loca- 
tion. All such signs shall be subject to the approval of the^rc 
code official. 

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction 
by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable 
object. Access to fire department connections shall be 
approved by the fire chief 

Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate 
equipped with a sign complying with the legend require- 
ments of Section 912.4 and a means of emergency opera- 
tion. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall 
be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at 
all times. 

912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The 

fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire 
department connections for water-based fire protection sys- 
tems where the responding fire department carries appropri- 
ate key wrenches for removal. 

912.3.2 Clear space around connections. A working 
space of not less than 36 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 
inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to 
the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and 
around the circumference of free-standing fire department 
connections, except as otherwise required or approved by 
the fire chief. 

912.3.3 Physical protection. Where fire department con- 
nections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle 
impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tion 312. 

912.4 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch (25 
mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connec- 
tions serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump 
connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRIN- 
KLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a com- 
bination thereof as applicable. Where the fire department 
connection does not serve the entire building, a sign shall be 
provided indicating the portions of the building served. 

912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to auto- 
matic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the International Plumbing 
Code. 

912.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. All fire depart- 
ment connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. 


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TABLE 911.1 

EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 


MATERIAL 

CLASS 

EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 

Barricade 

construction 

Explosion (deflagration) venting 
or explosion (deflagration) 
prevention systems 

Hazard Category 

Combustible dusts* 

— 

Not required 

Required 

Cryogenic fluids 

Flammable 

Not required 

Required 

Explosives 

Division 1.1 

Division 1.2 

Division l.,3 

Division 1.4 

Division 1.5 

Division 1.6 

Required 

Required 

Not required 

Not required 

Required 

Required 

Not required 

Not required 

Required 

Required 

Not required 

Not required 

Flammable gas 

Gaseous 

Liquefied 

Not required 

Not required 

Required 

Required 

Flammable liquids 

lA" 

IB"^ 

Not required 

Not required 

Required 

Required 

Organic peroxides 

Unclassified detonable 

I 

Required 

Required 

Not permitted 

Not permitted 

Oxidizer liquids and solids 

4 

Required 

Not permitted 

Pyrophoric 

Gases 

Not required 

Required 

Unstable (reactive) 

4 

3 detonable 

3 nondetonable 

Required 

Required 

Not required 

Not permitted 

Not permitted 
Required 

Water-reactive liquids and solids 

3 

2" 

Not required 

Not required 

Required 

Required 

Special Uses 

Acetylene generator rooms 

— 

Not required 

Required 

Grain processing 

— 

Not required 

Required 

Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities 

— 

Not required 

Required 

Where explosion hazards exist"* 

Detonation 

Deflagration 

Required 

Not required 

Not permitted 

Required 


a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2. 

b. Storage or use. 

c. In open use or dispensing. 

d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because ofthe characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 


SECTION 913 
FIRE PUMPS 

913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed 
in accordance with this section and NFPA 20. 

913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The ftre 
pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through 
damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, 
insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse con- 
ditions. 


913.2.1 Protection of fire pump rooms. Rooms where fire 
pumps are located shall be separated from all other areas of 
the building in accordance with Section 9 1 3.2. 1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be 
provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C). 

913.3.1 Engine manufacturer’s recommendation. Tem- 
perature of the pump room, pump house or area where 
engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine 


116 


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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


manufacturer’s recommendations for oil heaters shall be 
followed. 

913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suc- 
tion, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on 
the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be super- 
vised open by one of the following methods. 

1 . Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling 
service. 

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

3. Locking valves open. 

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures 
under the control of the owner. 

913.4.1 Test outjet valve supervision. Fire pump test outlet 
valves shall be supervised in the closed position. 

913.5 Testing and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the 
requirements of this section and NFPA 25. 

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20. 

913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying 
emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall 
be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 1 10. 

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches 
shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 1 10. 

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of 
pump room environmental conditions, including heating, 
ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper 
manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment. 


SECTION 914 

FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED 
REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

914.1 General. This section shall specify where /ire protection 
systems are required based on the detailed requirements of use 
and occupancy of the International Building Code. 

914.2 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4. 

914.2.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.1.1, which shall comply with the 
following: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system shaW be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered 
mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant 
spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly 
protected unless provided with approved alternative 
protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. 


Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, 
they shall be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.2 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

914.2.2 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accor- 
dance with Section 905. 

914.2.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/ 
alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or 
otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The 
system shall be provided in accordance with Section 

907.6.2.2. 

914.2.4 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, 
suppression or control elements shall be identified for use 
by the fire department. 

914.3 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.5. 

914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a 
secondary water supply where required by Section 

903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1 . Open parking garages in accordance with Section 

406.3 of the International Building Code. 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equip- 
ment, batteries and standby engines, provided that 
those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with 
an automatic fire detection system in accordance 
with Section 907.2 and are separated from the 
remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 707 of the International Building Code or not 
less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed 
in accordance with Section 712 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, or both. 

914.3.1.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system 
design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are 
more than 420 feet ( 1 28 m) in height shall be supplied by 
a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply sprin- 
klers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are pro- 
vided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not 
be supplied from the same riser. 

914.3.1.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be 
placed in stair enclosures which are remotely located 
in accordance with Section 1015.2. 


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914.3.1.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. 

Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to 
a minimum of two water mains located in different 
streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided 
between each connection to the water main and the 
pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between 
the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the 
flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate. 

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall 
be permitted provided the main is valved such that an 
interruption can be isolated so that the water supply 
will continue without interruption through at least one 
of the connections. 

914.3.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2. 13. 

914.3.3 Automatic smoke detection. Smoke detection 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2. 13.1. 

914.3.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. 

914.3.5 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emer- 
gency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 510. 

914.3.6 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 508 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

914.4 Atriums. Atriums shall comply with Sections 914.4.1 
and 914.4.2. 

914.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the 
atrium need not be sprinklered, provided that por- 
tion of the building is separated from the atrium 
portion by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 of the 
International Building Code or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 712 
of the International Building Code, or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection 
at the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

914.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.14. 

914.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.5.1 through 914.5.5. 

914.5.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below shall be equipped with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and eontrol valves shall be 
supervised in accordance with Section 903.4. 


914.5.2 Smoke control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and provisions of this sec- 
tion. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the 
general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a 
usable condition. 

914.5.3 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required by Section 405.4 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, each compartment shall have an 
independent smoke-control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Section 907.2.18. 

914.5.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 

914.5.5 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be provided throughout with a standpipe system in accor- 
dance with Section 905. 

914.6 Stages. Stages shall comply with Sections 914.6.1 and 
914.6.2. 

914.6.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed 
under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and gal- 
leries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing 
rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory 
to such stages. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized 
exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, pro- 
vided the concealed space is separated from the 
adjacent spaces by not less than Vg-inch (1 5.9 mm) 
Type X gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m’) or less in area and 50 feet ( 1 5 240 mm) 
or less in height where curtains, scenery or other 
combustible hangings are not retractable verti- 
cally. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a 
single main curtain, borders, legs and a single 
backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orches- 
tra enclosures on stages. 

914.6.2 Standpipe system. Standpipe systems shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 905. 

914.7 Special amusement buildings. Special amusement 
buildings shall comply with Sections 914.7.1 and 914.7.2. 

914.7.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where the special amusement building is temporary, the 
sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary 
means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where 
the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the 


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travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 
feet (15 240 mm). 

914.7.2 Automatic smoke detection. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2.12. 

914.8 Aircraft-related occupancies. Aircraft-related occu- 
pancies shall comply with Sections 914.8.1 through 914.8.5. 

914.8.1 Automatic smoke detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic 
smoke detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.22. 

914.8.2 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance 
with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar 
given in Table 914.8.2. 

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate 
repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a 
fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft 
only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system 
shall be exempt from foam requirements. 

914.8.2.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III air- 
craft hangar according to Table 914.8.2 that contains 
hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the 
following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire sup- 
pression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as appli- 
cable: 

1. Doping. 

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, 
torch cutting and torch soldering. 

.3. Fuel transfer. 

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including 
defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, 
inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled. 

5. Spray finishing operations. 


6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the 
unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 
gallons (6057 L). 

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maxi- 
mum single/ire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 
390 L) for a hangar equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

914.8.2.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. 

Maximum single/ire areas established in accordance 
with hangar classifieation and construction type in Table 

914.8.2 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls con- 
structed in accordance with Section 706 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

914.8.3 Finishing. The process of “doping,” involving the 
use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting shall be 
carried on in a separate detached building equipped with 
automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

914.8.4 Residential aircraft hangar smoke alarms. 

Smoke alarms shall be provided within residential aircraft 
hangars in accordance with Section 907.2.21 . 

914.8.5 Aircraft paint hangar fire suppression. Aircraft 
paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as 
required by NFPA 409. 

914.9 Application of flammable finishes. An automatic 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and 
immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

914.10 Drying rooms. Drying rooms designed for high-haz- 
ard materials and processes, including special occupancies as 
provided for in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, 
shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing 
system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9. 


TABLE 914.8.2 

HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTS “ 


MAXIMUM 
SINGLE FIRE AREA, 
SQUARE FEET 

INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 

lA 

IB 

IIA 

IIB 

IIIA 

IIIB 

IV 

VA 

VB 

> 40,001 

Group 1 

Group I 

Group ! 

Group ! 

Group 1 

Group 1 

Group I 

Group I 

Group 1 

40,000 

Group II 

Group II 

Group 11 

Group 11 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group 11 

Group II 

30,000 

Group III 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

20,000 

Group III 

Group III 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

Group II 

15,000 

Group III 

Group 111 

Group III 

Group II 

Group III 

Group II 

Group III 

Group II 

Group II 

12,000 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group 11 

Group II 

8,000 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group II 

5,000 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 

Group 111 

Group III 

Group III 

Group III 


For SI: I square foot = 0.0929 I foot = 304.8 mm, 

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feel shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area. 

b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409. 

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3 1 02 of the Iniernalioiuil Building Code shall be classified as a Group IV hangar. 


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914.11 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. Occupan- 
cies classified as Group B ambulatory health care facilities 
shall comply with Sections 914.1 1.1 through 914.1 1.3. 

914.11.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided for Group B ambulatory 
health care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2. 

914.11.2 Manual fire alarm systems. A manual fire alarm 
system shall be provided for Group B ambulatory care facil- 
ities in accordance with Seetion 907.2.2. 

914.11.3 Fire alarm systems. An automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be provided for Group B ambulatory care 
facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1. 


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CHAPTER 10 

MEANS OF EGRESS 


SECTION 1001 
ADMINISTRATION 

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. 
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, con- 
struction and arrangement of means of egress components 
required to provide an approved means of egress from struc- 
tures and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1029 shall 
apply to new construction. Section 1 030 shall apply to existing 
buildings. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate 
means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply 
with the International Residential Code. 

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a 
building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of 
exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required 
by this code. 

1001.3 Abatement of buildings and structures with inade- 
quate means of egress. Buildings or structures that are not 
provided with adequate means of egress or emergency escapes 
are unsafe and shall be subject to the abatement procedures 
specified in Section 1 10. When abatement is by repair, or reha- 
bilitation, means of egress and emergency escapes shall be pro- 
vided and maintained in accordance with the Oregon 
Structural Specialty Code. 

Such unsafe buildings are hereby declared to be public nui- 
sances and shall be abated by repair, rehabilitation, demolition, 
or removal. See the abatement procedure specified in OAR 
837-041-0050. Actions to correct hazards and other deficien- 
cies shall be in accordance with ORS 479.160, 479.170 and 
479.195. 


ORS 479.160, 479.170, 479.195 and OAR 837-041-0050 
are not a part of this code but are reproduced or paraphrased 
here for the reader’s convenience. 

ORS 479. 1 60 defines the provisions for granting a permit for 
continued use or occupancy of existing nonconforming 
buildings. 

ORS 479. 1 70 provides authority to the State Fire Marshal or 
deputies to order repair or removal of material from build- 
ings or premises. 

ORS 479. 195 provides authority to the State Fire Marshal or 
deputies to close buildings when the occupant load is ex- 
ceeded. 

OAR 837-041-0050 defines the rules for the abatement, re- 
pair or discontinuance of use or occupancy of unsafe build- 
ings and specifies the parameters that are used to determine 
the degree of fire and life hazard. 


[B] SECTION 1002 
DEFINITIONS 

1002.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and 
unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in 
a building or facility to a public way. 

AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and 
provides a path of egress travel. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that 
leads to an aisle. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a 
series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1 .22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assis- 
tance during emergency evacuation. 

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated struc- 
tural system and two or more rows high and is not a building 
element (see “Grandstands"). 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before 
two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are 
available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Com- 
mon paths of egress travel shall be included within the permit- 
ted travel distance. 

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. 

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced 
swing action when opening. 

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a 
public way for one or more exits. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 

operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit 
doors at the level of exit discharge, vertical exit enclosures, exit 
passageways, exterior exit stairways, exterior exit ramps and 
horizontal exits. 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 
leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an 
exit. 

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the 
path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space 
where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, 
unenclosed exit access stair or unenclosed exit access ramp. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at 
which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or hor- 
izontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or 
partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the 
area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal 
direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for 
use on fire door assemblies. 

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or 
combination thereof from one landing to another. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside per- 
imeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, 
exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corri- 
dors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion 
thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be 
the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or 
floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with 
no openings or interior courts. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including 
unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet 
rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
having an overall shape and size that is capable of being 
reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building 
element. 

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated 
structural system and two or more rows high and is not a build- 
ing element (see “Bleachers"). 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located at or near the open sides of elevated walking 
surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walk- 
ing surface to a lower level. 


HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts; the exit 
access, the exit and the exit discharge. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for dis- 
play of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures 
or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed 
and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as 
indicated in Section 105.2 of the International Building Code 
from which customers browse or shop. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporat- 
ing a device that releases the latch upon the application of a 
force in the direction of egress travel. 

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting 
light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visi- 
ble or invisible light has been removed. 

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedi- 
cated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for 
public use and which has a clear width and height of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope). 

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two 
separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure. 

SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power 
source, other than batteries, and operated independently of 
external power sources. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumu- 
lation within or under a structure. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more ris- 
ers. 

STAIRWAY, One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or 
interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them, to form acontinuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least 
one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand- 
rails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either 
yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior 
stairway need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defini- 
tion of an exterior stairway. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads 


122 


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attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting 
column. 

SUITE. A group of patient treatment rooms or patient sleeping 
rooms within Group 1-2 oecupancies where staff are in atten- 
dance within the suite, for supervision of all patients within the 
suite and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of 
Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 


[B] SECTION 1003 
GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in 
Sections 1 003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of 
the means of egress system, in addition to those specific 
requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge 
detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 

1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have aceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2 of 
the International Building Code. 

2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2 of the International Building Code. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 

6. Hallways and corridors shall be permitted to be not 
less than 7 feet (2133.6 mm) in height. 

7. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 
1010.5.2. 

8. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and 
pedestrian traffic areas in parking garages in accor- 
dance with Section 406.2.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

9. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accor- 
dance with Section 505.1 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 

1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to 
extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Sec- 
tion 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, 
including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not 
more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress 
shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. 

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce 

headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 


such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 

1003.3.2 Post-mounted objects. A free-standing object 
mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or 
pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point 
of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts 
or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons 
is greater than 1 2 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such 
sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (686 mm) maximum 
or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum above the finished floor 
or ground. 

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to slop- 
ing portions of handrails between the top and bottom 
riser of stairs and above the ramp run. 

1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fix- 
tures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from 
either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude A'f 
inches (1 14 mm) from the wall. 

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce the 
minimum clear width of accessible routes. 

1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of egress 
shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 

1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped 
surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit 
vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps com- 
plying with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in 
elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be 
equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that 
contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches 
( 1 78 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies 
in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, S and U at exterior doors not 
required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread 
is permitted at locations not required to be accessible 
by Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code, 
provided that the risers and treads comply with Sec- 
tion 1009.4, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 
inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying 
with Section 1012 is provided within 30 inches (762 
mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress 
travel on the stair. 

3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a 
difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 
1 1 of the International Building Code, provided that 
the risers and treads comply with Section 1028.1 1 and 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with 
Section 1028.13. 

Throughout a story in a Group 1-2 occupancy, any change in 
elevation in portions of the exit access that serve nonambula- 
tory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 

1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel 
along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building 
element other than a means of egress component as specified in 
this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required 
width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this 
chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system 
shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 

1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component 
of a required means of egress from any other part of the build- 
ing. 

Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
in accordance with Section 1108.3 of the International 
Building Code. 


[B] SECTION 1004 
OCCUPANT LOAD 

1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of egress 
requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of 
egress facilities shall be provided shall be determined in accor- 
dance with this section. Where occupants from accessory areas 
egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load 
for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of 
the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing 
through it from the accessory area. 

1004.1,1 Areas without fixed seating. The number of 
occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per 
unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1. 1 . For areas with- 
out fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than 
that number determined by dividing the floor area under 
consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor 
assigned to the occupancy as set forth in Table 1004.1.1. 
Where an intended use is not listed in Table 1004.1.1, the 
building official shall establish a use based on a listed use 
that most nearly resembles the intended use. 

Exception: Where approved by the building official, the 
actual number of occupants for whom each occupied 
space, floor or building is designed, although less than 
those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be 
used in the determination of the design occupant load. 

1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permitted 
in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased 
from that number established for the occupancies in Table 
1004.1.1, provided that all other requirements of the code are 
also met based on such modified number and the occupant load 
does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m^) of 
occupiable floor space. Where required by the building official, 
an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substanti- 
ating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where 
required by the building official, such diagram shall be posted. 


TABLE 1004.1.1 

MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 


FUNCTION OF SPACE 

FLOOR AREA IN SO. 
FT. PER OCCUPANT 

Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 

300 gross 

Agricultural building 

300 gross 

Aircraft hangars 

500 gross 

Airport terminal 


Baggage claim 

20 gross 

Baggage handling 

300 gross 

Concourse 

1 00 gross 

Waiting areas 

1 5 gross 

Assembly 


Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 

1 1 gross 

Assembly with fixed seals 

See Section 1004.7 

Assembly without fixed seats 


Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 

7 net 

Standing space 

5 net 

Unconcentraied (tables and chairs) 

15 net 

Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each 


lane including 15 feet of runway, and for 


additional areas 

7 net 

Business areas 

100 gross 

Courtrooms — other than fixed seating areas 

40 net 

Day care 

35 net 

Dormitories 

50 gross 

Educational 


Classroom area 

20 net 

Shops and other vocational room areas 

50 net 

Exercise rooms 

50 gross 

H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 

200 gross 

Industrial areas 

100 gross 

Institutional areas 


Inpatient treatment areas 

240 gross 

Outpatient areas 

1 00 gross 

Sleeping areas 

1 20 gross 

Kitchens, commercial 

200 gross 

Library 


Reading rooms 

50 net 

Stack area 

1 00 gross 

Locker rooms 

50 gross 

Mercantile 


Areas on other floors 

60 gross 

Basement and grade floor areas 

30 gross 

Storage, stock, shipping areas 

300 gross 

Parking garages 

200 gross 

Residential 

200 gross 

Skating rinks, swimming pools 


Rink and pool 

1 5 gross 

Decks 

50 gross 

Stages and platforms 

15 net 

Warehouses 

500 gross 


For SI: I square foot = 0.0929 m^. 


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1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is 
an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the 
room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit 
or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs 
shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be 
maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more 
than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered 
individually shall be used in computing the required capacity 
of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 

1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from 
floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the 
capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence 
shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 

1004.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine 
level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to 
that room or area’s occupant load, and the capacity of the exits 
shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established. 

1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, 
the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed 
seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which 
fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheel- 
chair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 

1004.1 .1 and added to the number of fixed seats. 

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the 
occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based 
on one person for each 1 8 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar out- 
door areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants 
shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chap- 
ter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned 
by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. 
Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the 
occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the 
outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress 
requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the 
occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and 
individual dwelling units of Group R-2. 

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two 
or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall 
apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of 
that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of 
the same means of egress system, those egress components 
shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies 
that are served. 


[B] SECTION 1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of 
egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The 
total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less 
than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mul- 
tiplied by 0.3 inches (7.62 mm) per occupant for stairways and 
by 0.2 inches (5.08 mm) per occupant for other egress compo- 
nents. The width shall not be less than specified elsewhere in 
this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized such that the 
loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available 
capacity to less than 50 percent of the required eapacity. The 
maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall 
be maintained to the termination of the means of egress. 

Exception: Means o/egre55 complying with Section 1028. ^ 

1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors, when fully opened, and 
handrails shall not reduce the required means of egress width 
by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall 
not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other 
nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative 
features shall be permitted to project into the required width a 
maximum of I '/2 inches (38 mm) on each side. 

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply 
to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3. 

1005.3 Door hardware encroachment. Surface-mounted 
latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 
7-inch ( 1 78 mm) maximum projection requirement of Section 

1005.2 when: 

1 . The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing the 
corridor width when the door is in the open position; and 

2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inches (865 mm) 
or more than 48 inches ( 1 220 mm) above the finished floor. 

[B] SECTION 1006 
MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION 

1006.1 Illumination required. The means of egress, including 
the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building 
space served by the means of egress is occupied. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 

1006.2 Illumination level. The means of egress illumination 
level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (1 1 lux) at the walking 
surface. 

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls 
and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the 
walking surface is permitted to be reduced during perfor- 
mances to not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), provided 
that the required illumination is automatically restored upon 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


125 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


activation of a premises’ fire alarm system where such sys- 
tem is provided. 

1006.3 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises’ electrical supply. 

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical 
system shall automatically illuminate ail of the following areas: 

1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and 
spaces that require two or more means of egress. 

2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways in 
buildings required to have two or more exits. 

3. Exterior egress components at other than their levels of 
exit discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for 
buildings required to have two or more exits. 

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1 027. 1 , in buildings required to have two or more exits. 

5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1008. 1.6 for cj:// 
discharge doorways in buildings required to have two or 
more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 27 of the International Building Code. 

1006.4 Performance of system. Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least 
an average of I foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any 
point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of 
egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at 
any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emer- 
gency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illu- 
mination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 

[B] SECTION 1007 
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 
Not adopted by the State of Oregon 
See Oregon Structural Specialty Code, Chapter 1 1 

1007.1 (Not adopted) Accessible means of egress required. 
Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. 
Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one 
accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of 
egress are required by Section 1015.1 or 1021.1 from any 
accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be 
served by not less than two accessible means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5. 

3. In assembly areas with sloped or stepped aisles, one 
accessible means of egress is permitted where the 
common path of travel is accessible and meets the 
requirements in Section 1028.8. 


1007.2 (Not adopted) Continuity and components. Each 
required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a 
public way and shall consist of one or more of the following 
components: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104 of the 
International Building Code. 

2. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 
and 1022. 

3. Exterior exit stainvays complying with Sections 1007.3 
and 1026. 

4. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4. 

5. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5. 

6. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025. 

7. Ramps complying with Section 10 10. 

8. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1007.6. 
Exceptions: 

1. Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior 
area for assisted re.scue must be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.7. 

2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the 
accessible means of egress shall include either an 
area of refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 or 
an exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance 
with Section 1007.7. 

1007.2.1 (Not adopted) Elevators required. In buildings 
where a required accessible floor is four or more stories 
above or below a level of exit discharge, at least one 
required accessible means of egress shall be an elevator 
complying with Section 1007.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
horizontal exit and located at or above the levels of 
exit discharge. 

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not he required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
lOIO. 

1007.3 (Not adopted) Stairways. In order to be considered part 
of an accessible means of egress, an exit access stairway as per- 
mitted by Section 1016. 1 or exit stairway shall have a clear 
width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails and 
shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged 
floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an area of 
refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. The area of refuge is not required at open exit access 
or exit stairways as permitted by Sections 1016. 1 and 
1022.1 in buildings that are equipped throughout 


126 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

2. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required at exit access stairway as 
permitted by Section 1016.1 or exit stairways in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or903.3. 1.2. 

3. Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for exit stairways accessed 
from a horizontal exit. 

5. Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways 
serving open parking garages. 

6. Areas of refuge are not required for smoke protected 
seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2. 

7 . The areas of refuge are not required in Group R-2 
occupancies. 

1007.4 (Not adopted) Elevators. In order to be considered part 
of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with 
the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of 
Section 2.27 ofASMEAll. 1. Standby power shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 604.2.5 of this code and Section 
3003 of the International Building Code. The elevator shall he 
accessed from either an area of refuge complying with Section 
1007.6 or a horizontal exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an 
area of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking 
garages. 

2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an 
area of refuge or horizontal exit in buildings and 
facilities equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 

903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2. 

3. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in 
accordance with Section 708.2 of the International 
Building Code are not required to be accessed from 
an area of refuge or horizontal exit. 

4. Elevators are not required to he accessed from an 
area of refuge or horizontal exit for smoke-protected 
seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2. 

1007.5 (Not adopted) Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) 
lifts shall not serve as part of an accessible means of egress, 
except where allowed as part of a required accessible route in 
Section 1109.7, Items 1 through 9, of the Internat ional Build- 
ing Code. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 604.2.6 of this code for platform lifts permitted to serve 
as part of a means of egress. 

1007.5.1 (Not adopted) Openness. Platform lifts on an 
accessible means of egress shall not be installed in a fully 
enclosed hoistway. 


1007.6 (Not adopted) Areas of refuge. Every required area of 
refuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an acces- 
sible means of egress. The maximum travel distance from any 
accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel 
distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1016.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct 
access to a stairway within an exit enclosure complying with 
Sections 1007.3 and 1022 or an elevator complying with Sec- 
tion 1007.4. Where an elevator lobby is used as an area of ref- 
uge, the shaft and lobby shall comply with Section 1022.9 for 
smokeproof enclosures except where the elevators are in an 
area of refuge formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

Exceptions: 

1. A stairway serving an area of refuge is not required to 
be enclosed where permitted in Sections 1016.1 and 
1022 . 1 . 

2. Smokeproof enclosure is not required for an elevator 
lobby used as an area of refuge not required to be 
enclosed. 

1007.6.1 (Not adopted) Size. Each area of refuge shall be 
sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 
48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or 
portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of 
refuge and areas .served by the area of refuge. Such wheel- 
chair spaces shall not reduce the required means of egress 
width. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an 
area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one 
adjoining wheelchair space. 

1007.6.2 (Not adopted) Separation. Each area of refuge 
shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a 
smoke barrier complying with Section 710 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or a horizontal exit complying with 
Section 1025. Each area of refuge shall be designed to mini- 
mize the in trusion of smoke. 

Exception: Areas of refuge located within an exit enclo- 
sure. 

1007.6.3 (Notadopted) Two-way communication. Areas of 
refuge shall be provided with a two-way communication 
system complying with Sections 1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2. 

1007.7 (Not adopted) Exterior area for assisted rescue. The 
exterior area for assisted rescue must be open to the outside air 
and meet the requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation 
walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 of the 
International Building Code for exterior walls. Where walls or 
openings are between the area for assisted rescue and the inte- 
rior of the building, the building exterior walls within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected 
opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 
hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less 
than 3/4 hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the 
ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the 
area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 

1007.7.1 (Not adopted) Openness. The exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall he at least 50 percent open, and the 
open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to min- 
imize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. 


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127 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


1007.7.2 (Not adopted) Exterior exit stairway. Exterior exit 
stairways that are part of the means of egress forthe exterior 
area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 
inches (1219 mm) between handrails. 

1007.8 (Not adopted) Two-way communication. A two-way 
communication system shall be provided at the elevator land- 
ing on each accessiblefloor that is one or more stories above or 
below the story of exit discharge complying with Sections 

1007. 8. 1 and 1007.8.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Two-way communication systems are not required at 
the elevator landing where the two-way communica- 
tion system is provided within areas of refuge in 
accordance with Section 1007.6.3. 

2. Two-way communication systems are not required on 
floors provided with exit ramps conforming to the 
provisions of Section 1010. 

1007.8.1 (Not adopted) System requirements. Two-way 
communication systems shall provide communication 
between each required location and the fire command cen- 
ter or a central control point location approved by the fire 
department. Where the central control point is not con- 
stantly attended, a two-way communication system shall 
have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a 
monitoring location or 911. The two-way communication 
system shall include both audible and visible signals. 

1007.8.2 (Not adopted) Directions. Directions forthe use of 
the two-way communication system, instructions for sum- 
moning assistance via the two-way communication system 
and written identification of the location shall be posted 
adjacent to the two-way communication system. 

1007.9 (Not adopted) Signage. Signage indicating special 
accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown: 

1. Each door providing access to an area of refuge from an 
adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stating: 
AREA OF REFUGE. 

2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: 
EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE. 

Signage shall comply with the ICC Al 17.1 requirements for 
visual characters and include the International Symbol of 
Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Sec- 
tion 1011.2, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, tactile 
signage complying with ICC A117.1 shall be located at each 
door to an area of refuge and exterior area for assisted rescue 
in accordance with Section 1011.3. 

1007.10 (Not adopted) Directional signage. Direction signage 
indicating the location of the other means of egress and which 
are accessible means of egress shall be provided at the follow- 
ing: 

1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not pro- 
viding an approved accessible means of egress. 

2. At elevator landings. 

3. Within areas of refuge. 


1007.11 (Not adopted) Instructions. In areas of refuge and 
exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the 
area under emergency conditions shall be posted. The instruc- 
tions shall include all of the following: 

1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 

2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the 
use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and 
how to summon such assistance. 

3. Directions for use of the two-way communications sys- 
tem where provided. 


[B] SECTION 1008 
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 

1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system 
shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1 020.2. 
Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than 
required by this code shall meet the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from 
the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are 
easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting 
materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of 
egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decora- 
tions or similar materials. 

1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 
shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (813 mm). Clear 
openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be mea- 
sured between the face of the door and the stop, with the 
door open 90 degrees ( 1 .57 rad). Where this section requires 
a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door 
opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one 
leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 
mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 
48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress doors in a 
Group 1-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds shall 
provide a clear width not less than 41 Vj inches (1054 mm). 
The height of door openings shall not be less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupan- 
cies. 

2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group 
T3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less 
than 28 inches (71 1 mm). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by 
the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that com- 
ply with Section 1008. 1 .4.1 shall not be limited. 


128 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door, 
shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. In other than Group R-l occupancies, the mini- 
mum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors 
within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not 
required to be adaptable or accessible. 

8. Door openings required to be accessible within 
Type B units shall comply with Section 1 1 10.4.2. 

1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not 
be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 
inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections 
into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 
mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground 
shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). 

Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be per- 
mitted to be 78 inches ( 1 980 mm) minimum above the 

floor. 

1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be of the pivoted 
or side-hinged swinging type. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within 
suites of health care facilities. 

4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.1. 

6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 
1008.1.4.2. 

8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual 
sleeping unit in Group R-l . 

9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually 
operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a 
means of egress from spaces with an occupant 
load of 10 or less. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group 
H occupancy. 

1008.1.3 Door opening force. The force for pushing or 
pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than /tre 
doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N). For other swinging 
doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch 


shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. 
The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound ( 1 33 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open 
position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. 

1008.1.3.1 Location of applied forces. Forces shall be 
applied to the latch side of the door. 

1008.1.4 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.4.1 
through 1008.1.4.5. 

1008.1.4.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing 
into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths 
providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 
feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or 
escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided 
between the stairs or escalators and the revolving 
doors. 

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.4.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 

1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 

5. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible 
route required by Section 1007 and Chapter 1 1 of 
the International Building Code. 

TABLE 1008.1.4.1 


REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 


INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-Inches) 

POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL 
(rpm) 

MANUAL-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL 
(rpm) 

6-6 

1 1 

12 

7-0 

10 

1 1 

7-6 

9 

11 

8-0 

9 

10 

8-6 

8 

9 

9-0 

8 

9 

9-6 

7 

8 

10-0 

7 

8 


For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm 


1008.1.4.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door 
used as a component of a means of egress shall com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.4.1 and the following three 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress 
capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


129 




MEANS OF EGRESS 


3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 
pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 

1008.1.4.1.2 Other than egress component. A 

revolving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.4.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 
not used as a component of a means of egress shall not 
be more than 180 pounds (801 N). 

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force 
is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) 
when at least one of the following conditions is sat- 
isfied: 


1. There is a power failure or power is removed 
to the device holding the door wings in posi- 
tion. 


2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprin- 
kler system where such system is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance with 
Section 907 to provide coverage in areas 
within the building which are within 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (578 N) force level. 

1008.1.4.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of 
egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a 
photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon 
the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted 
manual operation, the design shall be such that in the 
event of power failure, the door is capable of being 
opened manually to permit means of egress travel or 
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. 
The forces required to open these doors manually shall 
not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.3, except 
that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 
pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging 
from any position to the full width of the opening in 
which such door is installed when a force is applied to the 
door on the side from which egress is made. 
Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA 
A 156. 10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall 
comply with BHMA A 156. 19. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.4.3. 


3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout 
mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt from the minimum 
32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of 
Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch 


(813 mm) clear opening is provided when the 
two biparting leaves meeting in the center are 
broken out. 

1008.1.4.3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted 
to be a component of a means of egress in accordance 
with Exception 6 to Section 1 008. 1 .2 shall comply with 
all of the following criteria: 

1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be 
eapable of being operated manually in the event of 
power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or 
effort. 

3. The force required to operate the door shall not 
exceed 30 pounds ( 1 33 N) to set the door in motion 
and 1 5 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to 
the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to 
exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 
pounds (1 100 N) is applied perpendicular to the 
door adjacent to the operating device. 

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be 
self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detec- 
tion in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3, shall be 
installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall 
comply with Section 715 of the International 
Building Code. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the 
operating device. 

1008.1.4.4 Access-controlled egress doors. The 

entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an 
occupancy in Group A, B, E, 1-2, M, R-1 or R-2 and 
entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups 
A, B, E, 1-2, M, R- 1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped 
with an approved entrance and egress access control sys- 
tem which shall be installed in accordance with all of the 
following criteria: 

1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side 
arranged to detect an occupant approaching the 
doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control sys- 
tem which locks the doors shall automatically 
unlock the doors. 

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a man- 
ual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 
inches (1 01 6 mm to 1 2 1 9 mm) vertically above the 
floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured 


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doors. Ready access shall be provided to the man- 
ual unlocking device and the device shall be 
clearly identified by a sign that reads “PUSH TO 
EXIT.” When operated, the manual unlocking 
device shall result in direct interruption of power 
to the lock — independent of the access control sys- 
tem electronics — and the doors shall remain 
unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if 
provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, 
and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire 
alarm system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or 
fire detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain 
unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 

6 . Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is open 
to the general public. 

1008.1.4.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, hor- 
izontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at 
the main exit and shall be openable from the inside with- 
out the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during 
periods that the space is occupied. The grilles shall remain 
secured in the full-open position during the period of 
occupancy by the general public. Where two or more 
means of egress are required, not more than one-half of the 
exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with hori- 
zontal sliding or vertical security grilles. 

1008.1.5 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing 
on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the 
same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be 
level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to 
have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal ( 2 -percent slope). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 

1 . 1 . A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1 .2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1 , and Section 1 020.2, which are not on 
an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be 
Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the 
landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more 
than 7 V 4 inches (197 mm) below the top of the 
threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior 
storm or screen door, does not swing over the land- 
ing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish 
materials, but not more than Vj inch (12.7 mm). 


5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces 
and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) 
below the finished floor level of the adjaeent inte- 
rior space of the dwelling unit. 

1008.1.6 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width not 
less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is 
greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a 
required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When a 
landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any 
position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its 
required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the 
direction of travel of not le.ss than 44 inches (1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group 
R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

1008.1.7 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not 
exceed V 4 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving 
dwelling units or '/j inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised 
thresholds and floor level changes greater than '(4 inch (6.4 
mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater 
than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent 
slope). 

Exception: The threshold height shall be limited to 7 -V 4 
inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or 
R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component 
of the required means of egress’, the door, other than an 
exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the 
landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible 
route as required by Chapter 1 1 of the International 
Building Code and is not part ol &n Accessible unit. Type 
A unit or Type B unit. 

1008.1.8 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in a 
series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the 
width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series 
shall swing either in the same direction or away from the 
space between the doors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum distance between horizontal sliding 
power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches 
(1219mm). 

2. Storm and sereen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 
48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling 
units. 

1008.1.9 Door operations. Exeept as specifieally permitted 
by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from 
the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort. 

1008.1.9.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, 
locks and other operating devices on doors required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the International Building 
Code shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or 
twisting of the wrist to operate. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


131 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


1008.1.9.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be 
installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 
used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and 
fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be per- 
mitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on 
self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maxi- 
mum above the finished floor or ground, provided the 
self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices 
operated by means of a key, electronic opener or inte- 
gral combination lock. 

1008.1.9.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall 
be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of 
the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an 
occupant load of 300 or less. Groups B, F, M and 
S, and in places of religious worship, the main 
exterior door or doors are permitted to be equipped 
with key-operated locking devices from the egress 
side provided: 

2.1. The locking device is readily distinguish- 
able as locked; 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on 
the egress side on or adjacent to the door 
stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN 
UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS 
OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 
inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting back- 
ground; and 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device 
isrevokableby the building official for due 
cause. 

3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved 
automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, 
provided that the door leaf having the automatic 
flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside without 
the use of a key or tool. 

5. Fire doors after the minimum elevated tempera- 
ture has disabled the unlatching mechanism in 
accordance with listed fire door test procedures. 

1008.1.9.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or 
surface bolts are not permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1. On doors not required for egress in individual 

dwelling units or sleeping units. 


2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equip- 
ment room, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf 

3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load 
of less than 50 persons in a Group B, F or S 
occupancy, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the inac- 
tive leaf The inactive leaf shall contain no 
doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating 
hardware. 

4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S 
occupancy, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the inac- 
tive leaf provided such inactive leaf is not 
needed to meet egress width requirements and 
the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall con- 
tain no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operat- 
ing hardware. 

5. Where a pair of doors serves patient care rooms 
in Group 1-2 occupancies, self-latching edge- 
or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf provided that the inactive leaf is 
not needed to meet egress width requirements 
and the inactive leaf contains no doorknobs, 
panic bars or similar operating hardware. 

1008.1.9.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door or 
leaf shall not require more than one operation. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.9.4. 

3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.9.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
sleeping units of Group R occupancies as per- 
mitted by Section 1008.1.9.3, Exception 4. 

1008.1.9.5.1 Closet and bathroom doors in Group 
R-4 occupancies. In Group R-4 occupancies, closet 
doors that latch in the closed position shall be 
openable from inside the closet, and bathroom doors 
that latch in the closed position shall be capable of 
being unlocked from the ingress side. 

1008.1.9.6 Special locking arrangements in Group 
1-2. Approved de\ayed egress locks shall be permitted in 
a Group 1-2 occupancy where the clinical needs of per- 
sons receiving care require such locking. Delayed egress 
locks shall be permitted in such occupancies where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 
an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system 
installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that 
the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 
below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass 


132 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


through more than one door equipped with a delayed 
egress lock before entering an exit. 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command cen- 
ter, a nursing station or other approved location. 

4. The procedures for the operation(s) of the unlock- 
ing system shall be described and approved as part 
of the emergency planning and preparedness 
required by Chapter 4. 

5. All clinical staff shall have the keys, codes or other 
means necessary to operate the locking devices. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

Exception: Items 1 through 3 shall not apply to doors 

to areas where persons, because of clinical needs, 

require restraintorcontainmentas part of the function 

of a mental hospital. 

1008.1.9.7 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, 
delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on 
doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H 
occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or 
heat detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance 
with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall 
not be required to pass through more than one door 
equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an 
exit. 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command cen- 
ter. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will 
release the latch in not more than 1 5 seconds when 
a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is 
applied for 1 second to the release device. Initia- 
tion of the irreversible process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the 
door lock has been released by the application of 
force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by 
manual means only. 

Exception: Where approved, a delay of not 
more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above 
and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release device 


reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. 
DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 1 5 [30] SECONDS. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

1008.1.9.8 Electromagnetically locked egress doors. 

Doors in the means of egress that are not otherwise 
required to have panic hardware in buildings with an 
occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 orR-2 and doors to 
tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 shall be 
permitted to be electromagnetically locked if equipped 
with listed hardware that incorporates a built-in switch 
and meet the requirements below: 

1 . The listed hardware that is affixed to the door leaf 
has an obvious method of operation that is readily 
operated under all lighting conditions. 

2. The listed hardware is capable of being operated 
with one hand. 

3. Operation of the listed hardware releases to the 
electromagnetic lock and unlocks the door imme- 
diately. 

4. Loss of power to the listed hardware automatically 
unlocks the door. 

1008.1.9.9 Locking arrangements in correctional facil- 
ities. In occupancies in Groups A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, F, 1-2, 
1-3, M and S within correctional and detention facilities, 
doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occu- 
pied by persons whose movements are controlled for 
security reasons shall be permitted to be locked when 
equipped with egress control devices which shall unlock 
manually and by at least one of the following means: 

1. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1; 

2. Activation of an approved manual alarm box; or 

3. A signal from a constantly attended location. 

1008.1.9.10 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of 
egre.ss doors shall be openable from both sides without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in 
accordance with Section 403.5.3 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, 
doors are permitted to be locked from the side 
opposite the egress side, provided they are 
openable from the egress side and capable of 
being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire com- 
mand center, if present, or a signal by emer- 
gency personnel from a single location inside 
the main entrance to the building. 

1008.1.9.11 Controlled egress locks. Controlled egress 
locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


133 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


Group I-], 1-2, R-3 occupancies subject to licensure by 
the state, Group R-4 and SR occupancies provided that 
the fire sprinkler system, the fire alarm system and the 
controlled egress are in compliance with Sections SR 1 07 
and SR 108.3. 

1008.1.10 Panic and fire exit hardware. Doors serving a 
Group H occupancy and doors serving rooms or spaces with 
an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy 
shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic 
hardware or fire exit hardware. 

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in com- 
pliance with Section 1008.1.9.3, Item 2. 

Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1 ,200 amperes or 
more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain 
overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices 
with exit or exit access doors shall be equipped with panie 
hardware or fire exit hardware. The doors shall swing in the 
direction of egress travel. 

1008.1.10.1 Installation. Where panic or fire exit hard- 
ware is installed, it shall comply with the following: 

1. Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with 
UL 305; 

2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance 
with UL IOC and UL 305; 

3. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall 
extend at least one-half of the door leaf width; and 

4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 
15 pounds (67 N). 

1008.1.10.2 Balanced doors. If balanced doors are 
used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware 
shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend 
more than one-half the width of the door measured from 
the latch side. 

1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall 
eomply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a 
component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable 
requirements for doors. 

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding 
the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are 
permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

1008.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates 
surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant 
immediate supervision while the public is present, and where 
safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m^) per occu- 
pant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such 
required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed space. See Section 
1027.6 for means of egress from safe dispersal areas. 

1008.3 Turnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict 
travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any 
required means of egress. 

Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited 
with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the fol- 
lowing provisions are met: 


1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the man- 
ual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least Ib'/j inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) 
and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights 
above 39 inches (991 mm). 

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles 
and gates shall comply with Section I 1 09.9. 1 of the Oregon 
Structural Specialty Code. 

1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches 
(991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving 
doors. 

1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occupant load 
greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have 
a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 
1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 


[B] SECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS 

1009.1 Stairway width. The width oi stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005. 1 , but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1109.8 of the 
International Building Code for accessible means of egress 
stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 
shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (9 1 4 mm). 

2. Spiral ifairway^ as provided for in Section 1009.9. 

3. AiT/e stairs complying with Section 1028. 

4. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is 
installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group 
R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group 
R-2, aclear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 
mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be 
folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured 
from the folded position. 

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum head- 
room clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom 
shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the 
line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the 
bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the 
full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exceptions: 

1. 5pi>a/5fai>wayi' complying with Section 1009. 9are 
permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clearance. 

2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies 


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that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or acces- 
sory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occu- 
paneies; where the nosings of treads at the side of a 
flight extend under the edge of a floor opening 
through which the passes, the floor opening shall 
be allowed to project horizontally into the required 
headroom a maximum of 4 V 4 inches (121 mm). 

1009.3 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be 
concentric to the direction of travel through the turn and 
located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders 
are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be mea- 
sured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walk- 
ing surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within the 
flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent 
winders shall be used. 

1009.4 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall 
comply with Sections 1009.4.1 through 1009.4.5. 

1009.4.1 Dimension reference surfaces. For the purpose 
of this section, all dimensions are exclusive of carpets, rugs 
or runners. 

1009.4.2 Riser height and tread depth. Stair riser heights 
shall be 7 inches ( 1 78 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) 
minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically 
between the leading edges of adjacent treads. Rectangular 
tread depths shall be 1 1 inehes (279 mm) minimum measured 
horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost pro- 
jection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread’s 
leading edge. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread 
depth of 1 1 inches (279 mm) measured between the vertical 
planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the 
intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 
10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Alternating tread devices in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1009.10. 

2. Ship ladders in accordance with Section 1009.1 1. 

3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.9. 

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the 
stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by 
the slope of the adjacent seating area in accordance 
with Section 1028.11.2. 

5. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units 
in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occu- 
pancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occu- 
pancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in 
Group R-2 oceupancies; the maximum riser height 
shall be inches (197 mm); the minimum tread 
depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm); the minimum 
winder tread depth at the walkline shall be 10 
inches (254 mm); and the minimum winder Iread 
depth shall be 6 inches ( 1 52 mm). A nosing not less 
than V 4 inch (19.1 mm) but not more than l '/4 
inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways 
with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 
1 1 inches (279 mm). 


6 . See Section 3404. 1 of the International Building 
Code for the replacement of existing stainvays. 

1. In Group 1-3 facilities, stairways providing access 
to guard towers, observation stations and control 
rooms, not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in 
area, shall be permitted to have a maximum riser 
height of 8 inches (203 mm) and a minimum tread 
depth of 9 inches (229 mm). 

1009.4.3 Winder treads. Winderlreads are not permitted in 
means of egress stairways except within a dwelling unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 

1009.8. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 

1009.9. 

1009.4.4 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers 
shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between 
the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest 
and smallest tread depth shall not exceed inch (9.5 mm) in 
any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth at the 
walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the 
smallest by more than Vs inch (9.5 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1028.11.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with 
Section 1009.4.2, differing from rectangular 
treads in the same stairway flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping way, 
walkway or driveway having an established grade and serv- 
ing as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be 
reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser 
not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal ( 8 -per- 
cent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges 
of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinc- 
tive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking 
provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe 
shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a 
slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of at 
least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches (51 mm). 

1009.4.5 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge 
of the tread shall be not greater than Vis inch (14.3 mm). 
Beveling of nosings shall not exceed V|s inch (14.3 mm). 
Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped under the tread 
above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not 
more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The lead- 
ing edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 '(4 
inches (32 mm) beyond the Iread below and all projections 
of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, ineluding the 
leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Solid risers are not required for stairways that are 
not required to comply with Section 1 108.1 .1 .4 of 
the International Building Code provided that the 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


135 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


opening between treads does not permit the pas- 
sage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 
mm). 

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3 or in Group F, H and S occupancies 
other than areas accessible to the public. There are 
no restrictions on the size of the opening in the 
riser. 

3. Solid risers are not required for spiral stairways 
constructed in accordance with Section 1009.9. 

4. Solid risers are not required for alternating tread 
devices constructed in accordance with Section 
1009.10. 

1009.5 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or landing at 
the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings 
shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every 
landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the 
direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such 
dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the 
stairway has a straight run. Doors opening onto a landing shall 
not reduce the landing to less than one-half the required width. 
When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches 
( 1 78 mm) into a landing. When wheelchair spaces are required 
on the stairway landing in accordance with Section 1007.6.1, 
the wheelchair space shall not be located in the required width 
of the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheelchair 
spaces. 

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028. 

1009.6 Stairway construction. All stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 

1009.6.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings 
shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be 
securely attached. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size 
that does not permit the passage of 72-inch-diame- 
ter (12.7 mm) sphere. Elongated opening shall be 
placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular 
to the direction of travel. 

2. In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than areas 
of parking structures accessible to the public, 
openings in treads and landings shall not be pro- 
hibited provided a sphere with a diameter of I 
inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the opening. 

1009.6.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and out- 
door approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water 
will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1009.6.3 Enclosures under stairways. The walls and soffits 
within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unen- 
closed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the 


stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the 
enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stair 
enclosure. 

Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and con- 
tained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group 
R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the 
enclosed side with Vj-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior 
exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space 
under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 

1009.7 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical 
rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or 
landings. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028. 

2. Alternating tread devices used as a means of egress 
shall not have a rise greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
between floor levels or landings. 

1009.8 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder 
treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 
1009.4 and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the 
required width of the stairway. 

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved 
stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within individ- 
ual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2. 

1009.9 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be 
used as a component in the means of egress only within dwell- 
ing units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) 
in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from gal- 
leries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 
1015.6. 

A spiral .stairway shaU have a 7'/2-inch (191 mm)minimum 
clear tread depth at a point 1 2 inches (305 mm) from the narrow 
edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 
inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more 
than 9'/2 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway clear width 
at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm). 

1009.10 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices 
are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of 
Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square 
feet (23 m^) in area and which serves not more than five occu- 
pants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observa- 
tion station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 
m^) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

1009.10.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices. Hand- 
rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread 
devices and shall comply with Section 1012. 

1009.10.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alternat- 
ing tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 
inches ( 1 27 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8'/2 inches (216 
mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a 
maximum riser height of 972 inches (241 mm). The pro- 
jected tread depth shall be measured horizontally between 
the vertical planes of the foremost projections of adjacent 


136 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


treads. The riser height shall be measured vertically 
between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The combina- 
tion of riser height and projected tread depth provided shall 
result in an alternating tread device angle that complies with 
Section |002. The initial tread of the device shall begin at 
the same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface. 

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element 
of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in area which 
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mini- 
mum projected tread of S'/j inches (2 1 6 mm) with a mini- 
mum tread depth of 10'/2 inches (267 mm). The rise to 
the next alternating tread surface should not be more than 
8 inches (203 mm). 

1009.11 Ship ladders. Ship ladders are permitted to be used in 
Group 1-3 as a component of a means of egress to and from con- 
trol rooms or elevated facility observation stations not more 
than 250 square feet (23 m^) with not more than three occu- 
pants and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

Ship ladders shall have a minimum tread depth of 5 inches 
(127 mm). The tread shall be projected such that the total of the 
tread depth plus the nosing projection is not less than 872 
inches (216 mm). The maximum riser height shall be 972 
inches (241 mm). 

Handrails shall be provided on both sides of ship ladders. 
The minimum clear width at and below the handrails shall be 
20 inches (508 mm). 

1009.12 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each 
side and shall eomply with Section 1012. Where glass is used 
to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply with 
Section 2407. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails for aisle stairs are not required where permit- 
ted by Section 1028.13. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and 
aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are permitted 
to have a handrail on one side only. 

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in 
elevation where the landing depth on each side of the 
change of elevation is greater than what is required for a 
landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consist- 
ing of a single riser at an entrance or egress door does not 
require handrails. 

5. Changes in room elevations of three or fewer risers 
within dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-2 
and R-3 do not require handrails. 

1009.13 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more stories 
above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to the roof sur- 
face, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In buildings without 
an occupied roof, access to the roof from the top story shall be 
permitted to be by an alternating tread device or a ship stair or 
ladder that is constructed of steel, is a minimum 30 inches (762 
mm) between handrails, has a rise and run of the stair or ladder 
of 12 inches (304.8 mm) maximum and 4 inches (101.6 mm) 


minimum respectively and has handrails provided on both 
sides of the stair or ladder. 

1009.13.1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a 
roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a pent- 
house complying with Section 1509.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, 
access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or 
trap door not less than 30 inches (762 mm) wide and 8 
feet (2440 mm) long. 

1009.13.2 Protection at roof hatch openings. Where the 
roof hatch opening providing the required access is located 
within 10 feet (3049 mm) of the roof edge, such roof access 
or roof edge shall be protected by guards installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section 1013. 

1009.14 Stairway to elevator equipment. Roofs and pent- 
houses containing elevator equipment that must be accessed 
for maintenance are required to be accessed by a stairway. 


[B] SECTION 1010 
RAMPS 

1010.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
ramps used as a component of a means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes 
providing access in accordance with Section 1109.7 
of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code, ramped 
aisles within assembly rooms or spaces shall conform 
with the provisions in Section 1028.1 1. 

2. Curb shall comply with Section 1 1 03.2.2 of the 
Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit 
access shall not be required to comply with Sections 
1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessi- 
ble route serving accessible parking spaces, other 
required accessible elements or part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

1010.2 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall 
have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedes- 
trian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

Exception: Aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A or 
assembly occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies 
shall comply with Section 1028.1 1 . 

1010.3 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the 
direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit 
vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

1010.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 
inches (762 mm) maximum. 

1010.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of 
means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 
through 1010.5.3. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


137 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


1010.5.1 Width. The minimum width of a means of egress 
ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by 
Section 1018.2. The clear width of a ramp between hand- 
rails, if provided, or other permissible projections shall be 
36 inches (914 mm) minimum. 

1010.5.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm). 

1010.5.3 Restrictions. Means of egress ramps shall not 
reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections 
into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. 
Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear 
width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1010.6 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and 
top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. 
Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 
1010.6.5. 

1010.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than 
one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in 
any direction. Changes in level are not permitted. 

1010.6.2 Width. The landing shall be at least as wide as tbe 
widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 

1010.6.3 Length. The landing length shall be 60 inches 
(1525 mm) minimum. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling and 
sleeping units that are not required to he Accessible 
units. Type A units or Type B units in accordance 
with Section 1 107 of the International Building 
Code, landings are permitted to be 36 inches (914 
mm) minimum. 

2. Where the ramp is not a part of an accessible route, 
the length of the landing shall not be required to be 
more than 48 inches (1220 mm) in the direction of 
travel. 

1010.6.4 Change in direction. Where changes in direction 
of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the 
landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 
mm) minimum. 

Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling or 
sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units. 
Type A units or Type B units in accordance with Section 
1107 of the International Building Code, landings are 
permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 
mm) minimum. 

1010.6.5 Doorways. Where doorways are located adjacent 
to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by Sec- 
tion 1 109.9 of the Oregon Structural Specialty Code are per- 
mitted to overlap the required landing area. 

1010.7 Ramp construction. All ramps shall be built of materi- 
als consistent with the types permitted for the type of construc- 
tion of the building, except that wood handrails shall be 
permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit 
shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 
1022.1 through \Q22.6 for exit enclosures. 


1010.7.1 Ramp surface. The surface of ramps shall be of 
slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 

1010.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor ramps and outdoor 
approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not 
accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1010.8 Handrails. Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches 
(152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails shall 
comply with Section 1012. 

Exception: Handrails for ramped aisles are not required 
where permitted by Section 1028.13. 

1010.9 Edge protection. Edge protection complying with Sec- 
tion 1010.9.1 or 1010.9.2 shall be provided on each side of 
ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not 
required to have handrails, provided they have flared 
sides that comply with the Section 1 109.7 of the Ore- 
gon structural Specialty Code curb ramp provisions. 

2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 

3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings having a vertical drop off of not more than 'f 
inch (12.7 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) horizon- 
tally of the required landing area. 

4. In assembly spaces with fixed seating, edge protec- 
tion is not required on the sides of ramps where the 
ramps provide access to the adjacent seating and aisle 
accessways. 

1010.9.1 Curb, rail, wall or barrier. A curb, rail, wall or 
barrier shall be provided to serve as edge protection. A curb 
must be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in height. Barriers 
must be constructed so that the barrier prevents the passage 
of a 4-inch-diameter ( 1 02 mm) sphere, where any portion of 
the sphere is within 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) of the floor or ground 
surface. 

1010.9.2 Extended floor or ground surface. The floor or 
ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 12 
inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of a 
/ta/idra// complying with Section 1012. 

1010.10 Guards. Guards shall be provided where required by 
Section 1013 and shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1013. 


[B] SECTION 1011 
EXIT SIGNS 

1011.1 Wbere required. Exits and exit access doors shall be 
marked by an approved exit s\gn readily visible from any direc- 
tion of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and 
within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to 
clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the 
ejrt'r orthe path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the 
occupants. Intervening means of egress doors within exits shall 
be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that 
no point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is more 


138 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


than 1 00 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed viewing distance for the 
sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that 
require only one exit or exit access. 

2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously 
and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit 
signs where approved by the building official. 

3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U 
and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in 
Group R- 1 , R-2 or R-3. 

4. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping 
rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group 1-3. 

5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are 
not required on the seating side of vomitories or open- 
ings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in 
the concourse that are readily apparent from the 
vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify 
each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an 
emergency. 

1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or exter- 
nally illuminated. 

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need 
not be provided with illumination. 

1011.3 Tactile exit signs. A tactile sign stating EXIT and com- 
plying with Section 1 107.5 of the Oregon Structural Specialty 
Code shall be provided adjacent to each door to an area of ref- 
uge, an exterior area for assisted rescue, an exit stairway, an exit 
ramp, an exit passageway and the exit discharge. 

1011.4 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically pow- 
ered, self-luminous and photoluminescent exit signs shall be 
listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 and shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions 
and Chapter 27 of the International Building Code. Exit signs 
shall be illuminated at all times. 

1011.5 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall comply with Sections 101 1.5.1 through 
1011.5.3. 

1011.5.1 Graphics. Every sign and directional ejrtVsign 
shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less 
than •V 4 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word “EXIT’ shall have 
letters having a width not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) wide, 
except the letter “I,” and the minimum spacing between let- 
ters shall not be less than inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger than 
the minimum established in this section shall have letter 
widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height. 

The word “EXIT” shall be in high contrast with the back- 
ground and shall be clearly discernible when the means of 
exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron 
directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the 
construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron 
directional indicator cannot be readily changed. 


1011.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign 
illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity 
of not le.ss than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). 

1011.5.3 Power sou rce. Exit signsshall be ilium i nated at al 1 
times. To ensure conti nued illumination for a duration of not 
less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign 
illumination means shall be connected to an emergency 
power system provided from storage batteries, unit equip- 
ment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emer- 
gency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 
of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that 
provide continuous illumination independent of external 
power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, 
in case of primary power loss, are not required to be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 


[B] SECTION 1012 
HANDRAILS 

1012.1 Where required. Handrails for stainvays and ramps 
shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance 
with Section 1 607.7 of the International Building Code. Hand- 
rails required for stairways by Section 1009.12 shall comply 
with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.9. Handrails required for 
ramps by Section 1010.8 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 
through 1012 . 8 . 

1012.2 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair tread 
nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not 
less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 
mm). Handrail height of alternating tread devices and ship lad- 
ders, measured above tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 34 inches (864 mm). 

1012.3 Handrail graspability. All required handrails shall 
comply with Section 1012.3.1 or shall provide equivalent 
graspability. 

Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling 
units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupan- 
cies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or acces- 
sory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; 
handrails shall be Type I in accordance with Section 
1012.3.1, Type II in accordance with Section 1012.3.2 or 
shall provide equivalent graspability. 

1012.3.1 Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section 
shall have an outside diameter of at least I '(4 inches (32 mm) 
and not greater than 2 inches (5 1 mm). If the handrail is not 
circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 
inches ( 1 02 mm) and not greater than 674 inches ( 1 60 mm) 
with a maximum cross-section dimension of 274 inches (57 
mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 
mm). 

1012.3.2 Type 11. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 
674 inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger recess 
area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall 
begin within a distance of inch (19 mm) measured verti- 
cally from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a 
depth of at least -Vk; inch (8 mm) within inch (22 mm) 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


139 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth 
shall continue for at least V, inch (10 mm) to a level that is 
not less than 1 V 4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of 
the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the 
recess shall be 1 'U inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 2 V 4 
inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 
inch (0.25 mm). 

1012.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be con- 
tinuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstruc- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be 
interrupted by a newel post at a turn or landing. 

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout, 
starting easing or starting newel is allowed over the 
lowest tread. 

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bottom 
surface of the handrail that do not project horizon- 
tally beyond the sides of the handrail within 1 '/j 
inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not 
be considered obstructions. For each Vj inch (12.7 
mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension 
above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance 
dimension of 1 '/j inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to 
be reduced by '/g inch (3 mm). 

4. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces 
with slopes not steeper than 1 : 20 , the bottoms of the 
handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be 
obstructed along their entire length where they are 
integral to crash rails or bumper guards. 

1012.5 Fittings, f/antfrai/s shall not rotate within their fittings. 

1012.6 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, 
guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the hand- 
rail of an adjacent stair flight or ramp run. Where handrails are 
not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend hori- 
zontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser and 
continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom 
riser. At ramps where handrails are not continuous between 
runs, the handrails shall extend horizontally above tbe landing 
12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of 
ramp runs. The extensions of handrails shall be in the same 
direction of the stair flights at stairways and the ramp runs at 
ramps. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required 
to be accessible need extend only from the top riser to 
the bottom riser. 

2. Aisle handrails in Group A and E occupancies in 
accordance with Section 1 028, 1 3. 

3. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship lad- 
ders are permitted to terminate at a location vertically 
above the top and bottom risers. Handrails for alter- 
nating tread devices and ship ladders are not required 
to be eontinuous between flights or to extend beyond 
the top or bottom risers. 


1012.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall 
or other surface shall be a minimum of 1 'f inches (38 mm). A 
handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail 
shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 

1012.8 Projections. On ramps, the clear width between hand- 
rails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections into 
the required width of stairways and ramps at each handrail 
shall not exceed 4 72 inches (1 14 mm) at or below the handrail 
height. Projections into the required width shall not be limited 
above the minimum headroom height required in Section 
1009.2. 

1012.9 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have inter- 
mediate handrails located in such a manner that all portions of 
the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 30 
inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental stairs, hand- 
rails shall be located along the most direct path of egress travel. 


[B] SECTION 1013 
GUARDS 

1013.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines, equip- 
ment platforms, stairs, ramps and landings that are located 
more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor 
or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) hori- 
zontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shaW be adequate 
in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7 
of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Guards are not required for the following loca- 
tions: 

1 . On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, 
including steps leading up to the stage and raised plat- 
forms. 

3. On raised stage and platform floor areas, such as run- 
ways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or 
presentations. 

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages 
and platforms. 

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages 
and platforms for access to and utilization of special 
lighting or equipment. 

6 . Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public. 

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with 
Section 1028.14 are permitted and provided, 

1013.1.1 Glazing. Where glass is used to provide a guard or 
as a portion of the guard system, the guard shall also comply 
with Section 2407 of the International Building Code. 
Where the glazing provided does not meet the strength and 
attachment requirements in Section 1607.7 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, complying guards shall also be 
located along glazed sides of open-sided walking surfaces. 

1013.2 Height. Required guards shall be not less than 42 
inches ( 1 067 mm) high, measured vertically above the adjacent 


140 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


walking surfaces, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting 
the leading edges of the treads. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards 
on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less 
than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a 
line connecting the leading edges of the treads. 

2. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, where 
the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the 
open sides of the top of the guard shall not be 
less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 
inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line con- 
necting the leading edges of the treads. 

3. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1028.14. 

4. Along alternating tread devices and ship ladders, 
guards whose top rail also serves as a handrail, shall 
have height not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not 
more than 34 inches (864 mm), measured vertically 
from the leading edge of the device tread nosing. 

1013.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have 
openings which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) in 
diameter from the walking surface to the required guard height. 

Exceptions: 

1. From a height of 36 inches (914 mm) to 42 inches 
(1067 mm), guards shall not have openings which 
allow passage of a sphere 4^/^ inches (111 mm) in 
diameter. 

2. The triangular openings at the open sides of a stair, 
formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail shall not 
allow passage of a sphere 6 inches ( 1 52 mm) in diam- 
eter. 

3. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of 
electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equip- 
ment, guards shall not have openings which allow 
passage of a sphere 2 1 inches (533 mm) in diameter. 

4. In areas that are not open to the public within occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, and for alternating 
tread devices and ship ladders, guards shall not have 
openings which allow passage of a sphere 21 inches 
(533 mm) in diameter. 

5. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles 
where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies 
and galleries shall not have openings which allow 
passage of a sphere 4 inches in diameter (102 mm) up 
to a height of 26 inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 
inches (660 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the 
adjacent walking surfaces, guards shall not have 
openings which allow passage of a sphere 8 inches 
(203 mm) in diameter. 

6. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in 
Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, guards on the open 


sides of stairs shall not have openings which allow 
passage ofa sphere 4-Vj( 1 1 1 mm) inches in diameter. 

1013.4 Screen porches. Porches and decks which are enclosed 
with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the 
walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. 

1013.5 Mechanical equipment. Guards shall be provided 
where appliances, equipment, fans, roof hatch openings or 
other components that require service are located within 1 0 feet 
(3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and 
such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be con- 
structed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 2 1 inches (533 
mm) in diameter. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) beyond each end of such appliance, equipment, fan 
or component. 

1013.6 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where the roof 
hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm)of a roof edge 
or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is 
located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or 
grade below. Tbe guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the 
passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter. 


[B] SECTION 1014 
EXIT ACCESS 

1014.1 General. The access shall comply with the applica- 
ble provisions of Sections 1003 through 1013. Exit access 
arrangement shall comply with Sections 1014 through 1019. 

1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces. Egress through 
intervening spaces shall comply with this section. 

1. Egress from a room or space shall not pass through 
adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where 
such adjoining rooms or areas and the area served are 
accessory to one or the other, are not a Group H occu- 
pancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to 
an exit. 

Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited 
through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a 
Group H, S or F occupancy when the adjoining or 
intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser 
hazard occupancy group. 

2. An exit access shall not pass through a room that can be 
locked to prevent egress. 

3. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas 
shall not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms 
or bathrooms. 

4. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, 
closets or spaces used for similar purposes. 

Exceptions: 

I . Means of egress are not prohibited through a 
kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constitut- 
ing part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit. 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


2. Means of egress are not prohibited through 
stockrooms in Group M occupancies when all 
of the following are met: 

2. 1 . The stock is of the same hazard classifi- 
cation as that found in the main retail 
area; 

2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit 
access is through the stockroom; 

2.3. The stockroom is not subject to locking 
from the egress side; and 

2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 
44-inch- wide (1118 mm) aisle defined 
by full- or partial-height fixed walls or 
similar construction that will maintain 
the required width and lead directly 
from the retail area to the exit without 
obstructions. 

1014.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one tenant 
occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant 
space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with 
access to the required exits without passing through adja- 
cent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units. 

Exception: The means of egress from a smaller tenant 
space shall not be prohibited from passing through a 
larger adjoining tenant space where such rooms or 
spaces of the smaller tenant occupy less than 1 0 percent 
of the area of the larger tenant space through which they 
pass; are the same or similar occupancy group; a 
discernable path of egress travel to an exit is provided; 
and the means of egress into the adjoining space is not 
subject to locking from the egress side. A required means 
of egress serving the larger tenant space shall not pass 
through the smaller tenant space or spaces. 

1014.2.2 Group 1-2. Habitable rooms or jwi'to in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly 
to a corridor. 

Exception: Rooms with exit doors opening directly to 
the outside at ground level. 

1014.2.3 Suites in patient sleeping areas. Patient sleeping 
areas in Group 1-2 occupancies shall be permitted to be 
divided into suites with one intervening room if one of the 
following conditions is met: 

1. The intervening room within the suite is not used as an 
exit access for more than eight patient beds. 

2. The arrangement of the suite allows for direct and 
constant visual supervision by nursing personnel. 

1014.2.3.1 Area. Suites of sleeping rooms shall not 
exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m^). 

1014.2.3.2 Exit access. Any patient sleeping room, or 
any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more 
than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) shall have at least two exit 
access doors remotely located from each other. 

1014.2.3.3 Travel distance. The travel distance between 
any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access 
door of that suite shall not exceed 1 00 feet (30 480 mm). 


1014.2.4 Suites in areas other than patient sleeping 
areas. Areas other than patient sleeping areas in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall be permitted to be divided into suites. 

1014.2.4.1 Area. Suites of rooms, other than patient 
sleeping rooms, shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 
m^). 

1014.2.4.2 Exit access. Any room or suite of rooms, 
other than patient sleeping rooms, of more than 2,500 
.square feet (232 m^) shall have at least two exit access 
doors remotely located from each other. 

1014.2.4.3 One intervening room. For rooms other than 
patient sleeping rooms, suites of rooms are permitted to 
have one intervening room if the travel distance within 
the suite to the exit access door is not greater than 1 00 
feet (30 480 mm). 

1014.2.4.4 Two intervening rooms. For rooms other 
than patient sleeping rooms located within a suite, exit 
access travel from within the suite shall be pennitted 
through two intervening rooms where the travel distance 
to the exit access door is not greater than 50 feet ( 1 5 240 
mm). 

1014.2.5 Exit access through suites. Exit access from all 
other portions of a building not classified as a suite in a 
Group 1-2 occupancy shall not pass through a suite. 

1014.2.6 Travel distance. The travel distance between any 
point in a Group 1-2 occupancy patient sleeping room and an 
exit access door in that room shall not exceed 50 feet ( 1 5 240 
mm). 

1014.2.7 Separation. Suites in Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
be separated from other portions of the building by a smoke 
partition complying with Section 71 1 of the International 
Building Code. 

1014.3 Common path of egress travel. In occupancies other 
than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress 
travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In Group H- 1 , H-2 
and H-3 occupancies, the common path of egress travel shall 
not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). For common path of egress 
travel in Group A occupancies and assembly occupancies 
accessory to Group E occupancies having fixed seating, see 
Section 1028.8. 

Exceptions: 

1. The length of a common path of egress travel in 
Group B, F and S occupancies shall not be more than 
100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

2. Where a tenant space in Group B, S and U occupan- 
cies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the 
length of a common path of egress travel shall not be 
more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

3. The length of a common path of egress travel in a 
Group 1-3 occupancy shall not be more than 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

4. The length of a common path of egress travel in a I 
Group R-2 occupancy shall not be more than 125 feet 1 


142 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


(38 100 mm), provided that the building is protected 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 


[B] SECTION 1015 

EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 

1015.1 Exits or exit access doorways from spaces. Two exits 
or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

Exception: Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7. 

1 . The occupant load of the space exceeds one of the values 
in Table 1015.1. 

Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one 
means of egress is permitted within and from individ- 
ual dwelling units with a maximum occupant load of 
20 where the dwelling unit is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds one of the 
limitations of Section 1014.3. 

3. Where required by Section 1015.3, 1015.4, 1015.5, 1015.6 
or 1015.6.1. 

Where a building contains mixed occupancies, each individ- 
ual occupancy shall comply with the applicable requirements 
for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant 
loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section 1 004. 1 . 

TABLE 1015.1 


SPACES WITH ONE EXIT OR EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY 


OCCUPANCY 

MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD 

A, B, E^ F, M, U 

49 

H-1, H-2, H-3 

3 

H-4, H-5, l-l,I-3, 1-4, R 

10 

S 

29 


a. Day care maximum occupant load is 10. 

1015.1.1 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. 

Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from 
any space with an occupant load of 501 to 1 ,000. Four exits 
or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space 
with an occupant load greater than 1 ,000. 

1015.2 Exit or exit access doorway arrangement. Required 
exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability 
obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit 
access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 

1015.2.1 and 1015.2.2. 

1015.2.1 Two exits or exit access doorways. Where two 
exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion of 
the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways shall be 
placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the 
length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the 
building or area to be served measured in a straight line 


between exit doors or exit access doorways. Interlocking or 
scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion 
of the required exit and are interconnected by a 
I -hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conforming 
to the requirements of Section 1018, the required 
exit separation shall be measured along the short- 
est direct line of travel within the corridor. 

2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2, the separation distance 
of the exit doors or exit access doorways shal I not be 
less than one-third of the length of the maximum 
overall diagonal dimension of the area served. 

1015.2.2 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. 

Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two 
exit doors or exit access doorways shall be arranged in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 1015.2.1 . 

1015.3 Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms. Two exit 
access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace 
rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m^) and any 
fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units 
(Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access door- 
ways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an 
alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be sepa- 
rated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room. 

1015.4 Refrigeration machinery rooms. Machinery rooms 
larger than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) shall have not less than 
two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways 
are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a 
fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access door- 
ways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to 
one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room. 

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 1 50 feet (45 
720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel 
distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1016.1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless 
of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and 
self-closing. 

1015.5 Refrigerated rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces hav- 
ing a floor area larger than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^), contain- 
ing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature 
below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits 
or exit access doors. 

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 
1016. 1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be 
within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door 
where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refriger- 
ated rooms or spaces. 

Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited 
to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


1015.6 Stage means of egress. Where two means of egress are 
required, based on the stage size or occupant load, one means 
of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage. 

1015.6.1 Gallery, gridiron and catwalk means of egress. 

The means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, gal- 
leries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occu- 
pancies in Group F-2. 

Exceptions: 

1. A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is per- 
mitted for lighting and access catwalks, 

2. Spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress. 

3. Stairways required by this subsection need not be 
enclosed. 

4. 5ra«rwayj with a minimum width of22 inches (559 
mm), ladders or spiral stairs are permitted in the 
means of egress. 

5. A second means of egress is not required from these 
areas where a means of escape to a floor or to a roof 
is provided. Ladders, alternating tread devices or 
spiral stairs are permitted in the means of escape. 

6. Ladders are permitted in the means of egress. 


[B] SECTION 1016 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 

1016.1 Travel distance limitations. Exits shall be so located 
on each story such that the maximum length of exit access 
travel, measured from the most remote point within a story 
along the natural and unobstructed path of egre.ss travel to an 
exterior exit door at the level of exit discharge, an entrance to a 
vertical exit enclosure, an exit passageway, a horizontal exit, an 
exterior exit stairway or an exterior exit ramp, shal I not exceed 
the distances given in Table 1016.1. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Travel distance in open parking garages is permitted 
to be measured to the closest riser of open exit stair- 
ways. 

2. In outdoor facilities with open e.xit access compo- 
nents and open exterior exit stairways or exit ramps, 
travel distance is permitted to be measured to the clos- 
est riser of an exit stairway or the closest slope of the 
exit ramp. 

3. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, the exit 
access travel distance to a maximum of 50 percent of 
the exits is permitted to be measured from the most 
remote point within a building to an exit using unen- 
closed exit access stairways or ramps when connect- 
ing a maximum of two stories. The two connected 
stories shall be provided with at least two means of 
egress. Such interconnected stories shall not be open 
to other stories. 

4. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, exit access 
travel distance is permitted to be measured from the 
most remote point within a building to an exit using 
unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps in the first 


TABLE 1016.1 

EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE- 


OCCUPANCY 

WITHOUT SPRINKLER 
SYSTEM (feet) 

WITH SPRINKLER 
SYSTEM (feet) 

A, E, F-I.M, R, S-l 

200 

250" 

1-1 

Not Permitted 

250= 

B 

200 

300'= 

F-2, S-2, U 

300 

400= 

H-1 

Not Permitted 

75'= 

H-2 

Not Permitted 

o 

o 

H-3 

Not Permitted 

150'= 

H-4 

Not Permitted 

175'= 

H-5 

Not Permitted 

200= 

1-2, 1-3, 1-4 

Not Permitted 

200= 



For SI: I foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance 
requirements: 

Section 402,4oflhe/;itema//(wiu/BM(W/ngCo(/c: For the distance limitation 
in malls. 

Section 404.9 of the liitentaiional Building Code'. For the distance limitation 
through an atrium space. 

Section 407.4 of the Inlernational Building Code: For the distance limitation 
in Group 1-2. 

Sections 408.6. 1 and 408.8. 1 of ihe Inlernational Building Code'. For the 
distance limitations in Group 1-3. 

Section 41 1.4 of the International Budding Code: For the distance limitation 
in special amusement buildings. 

Section 101 4.2.2: For the distance limitation in Group 1-2 hospital suites. 

Section 1015.4: For the distance limitation in refrigeration machinery 
rooms. 

Section 101 5.5: Forthe distance limitation in refrigerated rooms and spaces. 

Section 1021.2: For buildings with one exit. 

Section 1028.7; For increased limitation in assembly seating. 

Section 1028.7: For increa,sed limitation for assembly open-air seating. 

Section 3 1 03.4 of the International Building Code: For temporary structures. 

Section 3 104.9 of the International Building Code: For pedestrian walkways. 

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2. See Section 903 for occupancies 
where automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.2. 



c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 


and second stories above grade plane in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The first 
and second stories above grade plane shall be pro- 
vided with at least two means of egress. Such inter- 
connected stories shall not be open to other stories. 


Where applicable, travel distance on unenclosed exit access 
stairways or ramps and on connecting stories shall also be 
included in the travel distance measurement. The measurement 
along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to 
the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway. 


1016.2 Exterior egress balcony increase. Travel distances 
specified in Section 1016.1 shall be increased up to an additional 
1 00 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access 
leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony con- 
structed in accordance with Section 1019. The length of such 
balcony shall not be less than the amount of the increase taken. 


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[B] SECTION 1017 
AISLES 

1017.1 General. serving as a portion of the exit access in 
the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements 
of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied por- 
tions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, 
displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving 
assembly areas shall comply with Section 1028. Aisles serving 
reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers shall also comply 
with Section 1028. The required width of aisles shall be unob- 
structed. 

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2. 

1017.2 Aisles in Groups B and M. In Group B and M occu- 
pancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by 
Section 1005.1 for tbe occupant load served, but shall not be 
less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 jjeople 
and not required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code need not exceed 28 inches (711 
mm) in width. 

1017.3 Aisle accessways in Group M. An aisle accessway shall 
be provided on at least one side of each element within the mer- 
chandise pad. The minimum clear width for an aisle accessway 
not required to be accessible shall be 30 inches (762 mm). The 
required clear width of the aisle accessway shall be measured 
perpendicular to the elements and merchandise within the mer- 
chandise pad. The 30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear width shall 
be maintained to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle 
accessway. The common path of travel shall not exceed 30 feet 
(9144 mm) from any point in the merchandise pad. 

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occupants, the 
common path of travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 880mm). 

1017.4 Seating at tables. Where sealing is located at a table or 
counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, the mea- 
surement of required clear width of the aisle or aisle accessway 
shall be made to a line 19 inches (483 mm) away from and paral- 
lel to the edge of the table or counter. The 1 9-inch (483 mm) dis- 
tance shall be measured perpendicular to the side of the table or 
counter. In the case of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle 


accessways, the clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of 
seating and tread edges, except that handrail projections are per- 
mitted. 

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed 
seats, tbe width of the aisle accessway shall be measured 
from the back of the seat. 

1017.4.1 Aisle accessway for tables and seating. Aisle 
accessways serving arrangements of seating at tables or 
counters shall have sufficient clear width to conform to the 
capacity requirements of Section 1005. 1 but shall not have 
less than the appropriate minimum clear width specified in 
Section 1017.4.2. 

1017.4.2 Table and seating accessway width. Aisle 
accessways shall provide a minimum of 1 2 inches (305 mm) 
of width plus '/2 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each additional 
I foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 12 feet (3658 
mm) of aisle accessway length measured from the center of 
the seat farthest from an aisle. 

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a 
length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a 
total of not more than four persons. 

1017.4.3 Table and seating aisle accessway length. The 

length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not exceed 
30 feet (9 1 44 mm) from any seat to the point where a person 
has a choice of two or more paths of egress travel to separate 
exits. 


[B] SECTION 1018 
CORRIDORS 

1018.1 Construction. Corridors shall be fire-resistance rated 
in accordance with Table 1018.1. The corridor walls required 
to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 709 of the 
International Building Code for fire partitions. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group E where each room that is used 
for instruction has at least one door openi ng directly to 
the exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have at 


TABLE 1018.1 

CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 


OCCUPANCY 

OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRIDOR 

REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 

Without sprinkler system 

With sprinkler system” 

H-l,H-2, H-3 

All 

Not Permitted 

1 

H-4, H-5 

Greater than 30 

Not Permitted 

1 

A, B, E, F, M,S, U 

Greater than 30 

1 

0 

R 

Greater than 10 

Not Permitted 

0.5 

l-2“, 1-4 

All 

Not Permitted 

0 

I-l, 1-3 

All 

Not Permitted 

1'’ 


a. For requirements for occupancies in Group 1-2, see Sections 407.2 and 407.3 of Ihclnteritatioiuil BniMinf; Code. 

b. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group 1-3, see Section 408.8 of ihtinterniitiimal Buildin!> Code. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2 where allowed. 


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least one-half of the required means of egress doors 
opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors speci- 
fied in this exception are required to be at ground level. 

2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an 
occupancy in Group R. 

3. Afire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
in open parking garages. 

4. Afire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
in an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring 
only a single means of egress complying with Section 
1015.1. 

1018.2 Corridor width. The minimum corridor width shall be 
as determined in Section 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Twenty-four inches (610 mm) — For access to and uti- 
lization of electrical, mechanical or plumbing sys- 
tems or equipment. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) — With a required occu- 
pant capacity of less than 50. 

3. Thirty-six inches(9l4 mm) — Within adwelling unit. 

4. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm) — In Group E with a 
corridor having a required capacity of 100 or more. 

5. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm) — In corridors and 
areas serving gurney traffic in occupancies where 
patients receive outpatient medical care, which 
causes the patient to be not capable of self-preserva- 
tion. 

6. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm) — In Group 1-2 in areas 
where required for bed movement. 

1018.3 Corridor obstruction. The required width of corri- 
dors shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2. 

1018.4 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access 
doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that 
there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length. 

Exceptions: 

1. In occupancies in Group 1-3 of Occupancy Condition 
2, 3 or 4 (see Section 202), the dead end in a corridor 
shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

2. In occupancies in Groups B, E, F, I-l, M, R-1, R-2, 
R-4, S and U, where the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the length of the 
dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet ( 1 5 240 
mm). 

3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length 
where the length of the dead-end corridor is less than 
2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor. 


1018.5 Air movement in corridors. Corridors shall not serve 
as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts. 

Exceptions: 

1. Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for 
exhaust systems in rooms that open directly onto such 
corridors, including toilet rooms, bathrooms, dress- 
ing rooms, smoking lounges and janitor closets, shall 
be permitted, provided that each such corridor is 
directly supplied with outdoorairat a rate greater than 
the rate of makeup air taken from the corridor. 

2. Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of com- 
dors for conveying return air shall not be prohibited. 

3. Where located within tenant spaces of 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area, utilization of corridors for 
conveying return air is permitted. 

4. Incidental air movement from pressurized rooms 
within health care facilities, provided that the corri- 
dor \s not the primary source of supply or return air to 
the room. 

1018,5.1 Corridor ceiling. Use of the space between the 
corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a 
return air plenum is permitted for one or more of the follow- 
ing conditions: 

1. The corridor is not required to be of fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction; 

2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by 
fire-resistance-rated construction; 

3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon activation of the air-handling unit smoke 
detectors required by the International Mechanical 
Code', 

4. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon detection of sprinkler waterflow where 
the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system', or 

5. The space between the corridor ceiVing and the floor or 
roof structure above the corridor is used as a compo- 
nent of an appravcrf engineered smoke control system. 

1018.6 Corridor continuity. Fire-resistance-raled corridors 
shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall 
not be interrupted by intervening rooms. 

Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed 
as required for corridors shall not be construed as interven- 
ing rooms. 


[B] SECTION 1019 
EGRESS BALCONIES 

1019.1 General. Balconies used for egress purposes shall con- 
form to the same requirements as corridors for width, head- 
room, dead ends and projections. 


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1019.2 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall be 
separated from the interior of the building by walls and opening 
protectives as required for corridors. 

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior 
egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a dead-end 
travel condition does not require travel past an unprotected 
opening to reach a stair. 

1019.3 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony shall be 
at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards 
shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of 
smoke or toxic gases. 

[B] SECTION 1020 
EXITS 

1020.1 General. Exits shall comply with Sections 1020 
through 1026 and the applicable requirements of Sections 1003 
through 1013. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that 
interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given 
level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection 
shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. 

1020.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used for 
human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that 
meets the requirements of Section 1 008. 1.1. 

1020.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1 008. 1 . 

1020.2.2 Arrangement. Exterior exit doors shall lead 
directly to the exit discharge or the public way. 

[B] SECTION 1021 

NUMBER OF EXITS AND CONTINUITY 

1021.1 Exits from stories. All spaces within each stoty shall 
have access to the minimum number of approved independent 
exits as specified in Table 1021.1 based on ihe occupant load of 
the story. For the purposes of this chapter, occupied roofs shall 
be provided with exits as required for stories. 


Exceptions: 

1 . As modified by Section 403.5.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

2. As modified by Section 1021.2. 

3. Exit access stairways and ramps that comply with 
Exception 3 or 4 of Section 1016.1 shall be permitted 
to provide the minimum number of approved inde- 
pendent exits required by Table 1 02 1 . 1 on eaeh story. 

4. In Group R-2 and R-3 oceupancies, one means of 
egress is permitted within and from individual dwell- 
ing units with a maximum occupant load of 20 where 
the dwelling unit is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

5. Within a story’, rooms and spaces complying with 
Section 1015.1 with ext/j that discharge directly to the 
exterior at the level of exit discharge, are permitted to 
have one exit. 

TABLE 1021.1 


MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD 


OCCUPANT LOAD 
(persons per story) 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS 
(per story) 

1-500 

2 

501-1,000 

3 

More than 1 ,000 

4 


1021.1.1 Exits maintained. The required number of exits 
from any story shall be maintained until arrival at grade or 
the public way. 


1021.1.2 Parking structures. Parking structures shall not 
have less than two exits from each parking tier, except that 
only one exit is required where vehicles are mechanically 
parked. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required 
exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 


TABLE 1021.2 
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT 


STORY 

OCCUPANCY 

MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS (OR DWELLING UNITS) 

PER FLOOR AND TRAVEL DISTANCE 

First story or basement 

_ 

A, B*', E=, F^. M, U. S'* 

49 occupants and 75 feet travel distance 

H-2, H-3 

3 occupants and 25 feet travel distance 

H-4, H-5, 1, R 

10 occupants and 75 feet travel distance 


29 occupants and 1 00 feet travel distance 

.Second story 

B^ F, M, S" 

29 occupants and 75 feet travel distance 

R-2 

4 dwelling units and 50 feet travel distance 

Third story 

R-2" 

4 dwelling units and 50 feet travel distance 


For SI: I foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For the required number of exits for parking structures, see Section 1 02 1. 1. 2. 

b. For the required number of exits for air traffic control towers, see Section 4 1 2.3 of the Iniernalional Building Code. 

c. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1. 1 or 903.3.1 .2 and provided with 
emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1029. 

d. Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1 .1 shall have a maximum 
travel distance of 100 feet. 

e. Day care occupancies shall have a maximum occupant load of 10. 


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1021.1.3 Helistops. The means of egress from helistops 
shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, provided 
that landing areas located on buildings or structures shall 
have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas 
less than 60 feet (1 8 288 mm) long, or less than 2,000 square 
feet (1 86 m^) in area, the second means of egress is permit- 
ted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder 
leading to the floor below. 

1021.1.4 Multistory dwelling units. Individual multi- 
story dwelling units located in buildings of any height shall 
be permitted to have a single exit from the dwelling unit pro- 
vided all of the following criteria are met: 

1. The individual dwelling unit occupies not more than 
three stories; 

2. The exit from the dwelling unit is located at the level 
of exit discharge or is located to provide immediate 
access to not less than two approved independent 
exits from the story; and 

3. The dwelling unit complies with Section 1015.1 asa 
space with one means of egress. 

1021.2 Single exits. Only one exit shall be required from 
Group R-3 occupancy buildings or from stories of other build- 
ings as indicated in Table 1 021 .2. Occupancies shall be permit- 
ted to have a single exit in buildings otherwise required to have 
more than one exit if the areas served by the single exit do not 
exceed the limitations of Table 1021.2. Mixed occupancies 
shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each 
individual occupancy complies with the applicable require- 
ments of Table 1021.2 for that occupancy. Where applicable, 
cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be 
considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 

1004. 1 . Basements with a single exit shall not be located more 
than one story below grade plane. 

1021.3 Exit continuity. Exits shall be continuous from the 
point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. 

1021.4 Exit door arrangement. Exit door arrangement shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.2.2. 


[B] SECTION 1022 
EXIT ENCLOSURES 

1022.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and inte- 
rior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building 
Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with 
Section 712 of the International Building Code, or both. Exit 
enclosures shall have afire-resistance rating of not less than 2 
hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than I 
hour where conneeting less than four stories. The number of 
stories connected by the exit enclosure shall include any base- 
ments but not any mezzanines. Exit enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly pene- 
trated, but need not exceed 2 hours. Exit enclosures shall lead 
directly to the exterior of the building or shall be extended to 
the exterior of the building with an exit passageway conform- 
ing to the requirements of Section 1 023, except as permitted in 


Section 1 027. 1 . An exit enclosure shall not be used for any pur- 
pose other than means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In all occupancies, other than Group H and I occupan- 
cies, a stairway is not required to be enclosed when 
the stairway serves an occupant load of less than 10 
and the stairway complies with either Item 1 . 1 or 1 .2. 
In all cases, the maximum number of connecting open 
stories shall not exceed two. 

1.1. The stairway is open to not more than one 
story above its level of exit discharge', or 

1.2. The stairway is open to not more than one 
story below its level of exit discharge. 

2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of 
the means of egress are essentially open to the outside 
need not be enclosed. 

3. Stairways serving and contained within a single resi- 
dential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not required to be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways in open parking structures that serve only 
the parking structure are not required to be enclosed. 

5. Stairways in Group 1-3 occupancies, as provided for 
in Section 408.3.8 of the International Building 
Code, are not required to be enclosed. 

6. Means of egress stairways as required by Section 
101 5.6. 1 of this code and Section 4 10.5.3 of the Inter- 
national Building Code are not required to be 
enclosed. 

7. Means of egress stairways from balconies, galleries 
or press boxes as provided for in Section 1028.5.1 are 
not required to be enclosed. 

1022.2 Termination. Exit enclosures shall terminate at an exit 
discharge or a public way. 

Exception; An exit enclosure shall be permitted to termi- 
nate at an exit passageway complying with Section 1023, 
provided the exit passageway termi nates at an exit discharge 
or a public way. 

1022.2.1 Extension. Where an exit enclosure is extended to 
an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the 
exit enclosure shall be separated from the exit passageway 
by afire I?a/T/er constructed in accordance with Section 707 
of the International Building Code or a horizontal assembly 
constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, or both. The fire-resistance rating 
shall be at least equal to that required for the exit enclosure. 
A fire door assembly complying with Section 715.4 of the 
International Building Code shall be installed in the fire 
barrier to provide a means of egress from the exit enclosure 
to the exit passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other 
than the fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of 
th& fire barrier are prohibited. 

Exception: Penetrations of tbe fire barrier in accordance 

with Section 1022.4 shall be permitted. 


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1022.3 Openings and penetrations. Exit enclosure opening 
protectives shall be in accordanee with the requirements of 
Section 715 of the International Building Code. 

Openings in exit enclosures other than unprotected exterior 
openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to 
the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and for egress 
from the enclosure. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit enclosure. 

1022.4 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through 
an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required exit doors, 
equipment and ductwork necessary for independent ventilation 
or pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical race- 
way for fire department communication systems and electrical 
raceway serving the exit enclosure and terminating at a steel 
box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m^). Such penetra- 
tions shall be protected in accordance with Section 713 of the 
International Building Code. There shall be no penetrations or 
communication openings, whether protected or not, between 
adjacent exit enclosures. 

1022.5 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit enclo- 
sure ventilation as permitted by Section 1022.4 shall comply 
with one of the following items: 

1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior 
to the building and shall be directly connected to the exit 
enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construction as 
required for shafts. 

2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within 
the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken directly 
from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged 
directly to the outdoors, or such air shall be conveyed 
through ducts enclosed in construction as required for 
shafts. 

3. Where located within the building, such equipment and 
ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the 
building, including other mechanical equipment, with 
construction as required for shafts. 

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and 
operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in 
accordance with Section 715 of the International Building 
Code for shaft enclosures. 

Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of 
other building ventilation systems. 

1022.6 Exit enclosure exterior walls. Exterior walls of an exit 
enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 of 
the International Building Code for exterior walls. Where 
nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of 
the stairway and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts 
of the building at an angle of less than 1 80 degrees (3. 14 rad), the 
building e.vreno/-vra//j within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of 
a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exte- 
rior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having afire 
protection rating of not less than V 4 hour. This construction shall 
extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) 


above the topmost landing of the stairway or to the roof line, 
whichever is lower. 

1022.7 Discharge identification. A stairway in an exit enclo- 
sure shall not continue below its level of exit discharge unless 
an approved barrier is provided at the level of exit discharge to 
prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels 
below. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in 
Section 1011. 

1022.8 Floor identification signs. A sign shall be provided at 
each floor landing in exit enclosures connecting more than 
three stories designating the floor level, the terminus of the top 
and bottom of the exit enclosure and the identification of the 
stair or ramp. The signage shall also state the story of, and the 
direction to, the exit discharge and the availability of roof 
access from the enclosure for the fire department. The sign 
shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor landing in a 
position that is readily visible when the doors are in the open 
and closed positions. Floor level identification signs in tactile 
characters complying with ICC A1 17.1 shall be located at each 
floor level landing adjacent to the door leading from the enclo- 
sure into the corridor to identify the floor level. 

1022.8.1 Signage requirements. Stairway identification 
signs shall comply with all of the following requirements: 

1 . The signs shall be a minimum size of 18 inches (457 
mm) by 12 inches (305 mm). 

2. The letters designating the identification of the stair 
enclosure shall be a minimum of 1 inches (38 mm) 
in height. 

3. The number designating the floor level shall be a min- 
imum of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and located in 
the center of the sign. 

4. All other lettering and numbers shall be a minimum of 
1 inch (25 mm) in height. 

5. Characters and their background shall have a 
nonglare finish. Characters shall contrast with their 
background, with either light characters on a dark 
background or dark characters on a light background. 

6 . When signs required by Section 1022.8 are installed 
in interior exit enclosures of buildings subject to Sec- 
tion 1024, the signs shall be made of the same materi- 
als as required by Section 1024.4. 

1022.9 Smokeproof enclosures and pressurized stairways. 
In buildings required to comply with Section 403 or 405 of the 
International Building Code, each of the exit enclosures serv- 
ing a story with a floor surface located more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor 
of a level of exit discharge serving such stories shall be a 
smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance 
with Section 909.20 of the International Building Code. 

1022.9.1 Termination and extension. A smokeproof 
enclosure or pressurized stairway shall terminate at an exit 
discharge or a public way. The smokeproof enclosure or 
pressurized stairway shall be permitted to be extended by an 
exit passageway in accordance with Section 1022.2. The 
exit passageway shall be without openings other than the 


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MEANS OF EGRESS 


fire door assembly required by Section 1022.2 and those 
necessary for egress from the exit passageway. The exit pas- 
sageway shall be separated from the remainder of the build- 
ing by 2-hour fire harriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizon- 
tal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 
of the International Building Code, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a 
.wiokeproof enclosure are permitted where the exit 
passageway is protected and pjessuri/.ed in the 
same manner as the smokeproqf enclosure, and 
openings are protected as required for access from 
other doors. 

2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pres- 
surized .stairway are permitted where the exit pas- 
sageway is protected and pressurized in the same 
manner as the pressurized stairway. 

The fire /7arncr separating the smokeproof enclo- 
sure or pressurized stainvay from the exit passage- 
way is not required, provided the exit passageway is 
protected and pressurized in the same manner as the 
.smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stainvay. 

4. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway 
shall be permitted to egress through areas on the 
level of discharge or vestibules as permitted by 
Section 1027. 

1022.9.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stains’ay within a 
smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vestibule or an 
open exterior balcony. 

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vestibule 
or exterior balcony for stainvays using the pressurization 
alternative complying with Section 909.20.5 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

[B] SECTION 1023 
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS 

1023.1 Exit passageway. Exit passageways serving as an exit 
component in a means of egress system shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be 
used for any purpose other than as a means of egress. 

1023.2 Width. The width of exit passageways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1 1 1 8 mm), except that e.xit passageways 
serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 
36 inches (914 mm) in width. The required width of exit pas- 
.sageways shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2, 

1023.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall have 
walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 1 -hour fire-resistance 
rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit 
enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire harri- 
ers in accordance with Section 707 of the International Build- 
ing Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance 
with Section 71 2 of the International Building Code, or both. 


1023.4 Termination. Exit passageways shall terminate at an 
exit discharge or a public way. 

1023.5 Openings and penetrations. Exit pas.sageway open i ng 
prolectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of 
Section 7 1 5 of the International Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the International 
Bidlding Code, openings in exit passageways other than exte- 
rior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access 
to the exit pas.sageway from normally occupied spaces and for 
egress from the exit passageway. 

Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a 
public way by an exit passageway, tbe e.xit passageway shall 
also comply with Section 1022.2. 1 . 

Elevators shall not open into an e.xit passageway. 

1023.6 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through 
an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit 
doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent 
pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical race- 
way for fire department communication and electrical race- 
way serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel 
box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.01 Om^). Such penetra- 
tions shall be protected in accordance with Section 7 1 3 of the 
International Building Code. There shall be no penetrations 
or communicating openings, whether protected or not, 
between adjacent exit passageways. 


[B] SECTION 1024 

LUMINOUS EGRESS PATH MARKINGS 

1024.1 General. Approved luminous egress path markings 
delineating the exit path shall be provided in buildings of 
Groups A, B, E, 1, M and R-l having occupied lloors located 
more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire 
department vehicle access in accordance with Sections 1024. 1 
through 1024,5. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Luminous egress path markings shall not be required 
on the level of exit discharge in lobbies that serve as 
part of the exit path in accordance with Section 
1027,1, Exception 1. 

2. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required 
in areas o f open parking garages that serve as part of 
the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, 
Exception 3. 

1024.2 Markings within exit enclosures. Egress path mark- 
ings shall be provided in e.xit enclosures, including vertical e.xit 
enclosures and exit passageways, in accordance with Sections 

1024.2.1 through 1024.2.6. 

1024.2.1 Steps. A solid and continuous stripe shall be 
applied to the horizontal leading edge of each step and 
shall extend for the full length of the step. Outlining 
stripes shall have a minimum horizontal width of 1 inch 
(25 mm) and a maximum width of 2 inches (5 1 mm). The 
leading edge of the stripe shall be placed at a maxitmim of 
'/j inch (12.7 mm) from the leading edge of the step and 
the stripe shall overlap the leading edge of the step by not 


150 


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more than Vj inch (12.7 mm) down the vertical face of the 
step. 

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall 
not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with 
UL 1994. 

1024.2.2 Landings. The leading edge of landings shall be 
marked with a stripe consistent with the dimensional 
requirements for steps. 

1024.2.3 Handrails. All handrails and handrail extensions 
shall be marked with a solid and continuous stripe having a 
minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm). The stripe shall be 
placed on the top surface of the handrail for the entire length 
of the handrail, including extensions and newel post caps. 
Where handrails or handrail extensions bend or turn cor- 
ners, the stripe shall not have a gap of more than 4 inches 
(102 mm). 

Exception: The minimum width of I inch (25 mm) shall 
not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with 
UL 1994. 

1024.2.4 Perimeter demarcation lines. Stair landings and 
other floor areas within exit enclosures, with the exception 
of the sides of steps, shall be provided with .solid and contin- 
uous demarcation lines on the floor or on the walls oracom- 
bination of both. The stripes shall be I to 2 inches (25 mm to 
51 mm) wide with interruptions not exceeding 4 inches (1 02 
mm). 

Exception: The minimum width of I inch (25 mm) shall 
not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with 
UL 1994. 

1024.2.4.1 Floor-mounted demarcation lines. Perime- 
ter demarcation lines shall be placed within 4 inches (1 02 
mm) of the wall and shall extend to within 2 inches (5 1 
mm) of the markings on the leading edge of landings. 
The demarcation lines shall continue across the floor in 
front of all doors. 

Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in 
front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure 
and through which occupants must travel to complete 
the exit path. 

1024.2.4.2 Wall-mounted demarcation lines. Perime- 
ter demarcation lines shall be placed on the wall with the 
bottom edge of the stripe no more than 4 inches (102 
mm) above the finished floor. At the top or bottom of the 
stairs, demarcation lines shall drop vertically to the floor 
within 2 inches (51 mm) of the step or landing edge. 
Demarcation lines on walls shall transition vertically to 
the floor and then extend across the floor where a line on 
the floor is the only practical method of outlining the 
path. Where the wall line is broken by a door, demarca- 
tion lines on walls shall continue across the face of the 
door or transition to the floor and extend across the floor 
in front of such door. 

Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in 
front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure 
and through which occupants must travel to complete 
the exit path. 


1024.2.4.3 Transition. Where a wall-mounted demarca- 
tion line transitions to a floor- mounted demarcation line, 
or vice versa, the wall-mounted demarcation line shall 
drop vertically to the floor to meet a complementary 
extension of the floor-mounted demarcation line, thus 
forming a continuous marking. 

1024.2.5 Obstacles. Obstacles at or below 6 feet 6 inches 
(1981 mm) in height and projecting more than 4 inches ( 1 02 
mm) into the egress path shall be outlined with markings no 
less than 1 ineh (25 mm) in width comprised of a pattern of 
alternating equal bands, of lumineseent luminous material 
and black, with the alternating bands no more than 2 inches 
(51 mm) thick and angled at 45 degrees (0.79 rad). Obsta- 
cles shall include, but are not limited to, standpipes, hose 
cabinets, wall projections and restricted height areas. How- 
ever, such markings shall not conceal any required informa- 
tion or indicators including, but not limited to, instructions 
to occupants for the use of standpipes. 

1024.2.6 Doors from exit enclosures. Doors through 
which occupants within an exit enclosure must pass in order 
to complete the exit path shall be provided with markings 
complying with Sections 1024.2.6.1 through 1024.2.6.3. 

1024.2.6.1 Emergency exit symbol. The doors shall be 
identified by a low-location luminous emergency exit 
symbol complying with NFPA 170. The exit symbol 
shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in height and 
shall be mounted on the door, centered horizontally, with 
the top of the symbol no higher than 1 8 inches (457 mm) 
above the finished floor. 

1024.2.6.2 Door hardware markings. Door hardware 
shall be marked with no less than 16 square inches (406 
mm^) of luminous material. This marking shall be 
located behind, immediately adjacent to or on the door 
handle and/or escutcheon. Where a panic bar is installed, 
such material shall be no less than 1 inch (25 mm) wide 
for the entire length of the actuating bar or touchpad. 

1024.2.6.3 Door frame markings. The top and sides of 
the door frame shall be marked with a solid and continu- 
ous I -inch to 2-inch-wide (25 mm to 51 mm) stripe. 
Where the door molding does not provide sufficient flat 
surface on which to locate the stripe, the stripe shall be 
permitted to be located on the wall surrounding the 
frame. 

1024.3 Uniformity. Placement and dimensions of markings 
shall be consistent and uni form throughout the same exit enclo- 
sure. 

1024.4 Self-luminous and pbotoluminescent. Luminous 
egress path markings shall be permitted to be made of any 
material, including paint, provided that an electrical charge is 
not required to maintain the required luminance. Such materi- 
als shall include, but are not limited to, self-luminous materials 
and photoluminescent materials. Materials shall comply with 
either: 

1. UL 1994; or 

2. ASTM E 2072, except that the charging source shall be I 
foot-candle (1 1 lux) of fluorescent illumination for 60 
minutes, and the minimum luminance shall be 30 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


151 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


millicandelas per square meter at 10 minutes and 5 
millicandelas per square meter after 90 minutes. 

1024.5 IWummation. Exit enclosures where photoluminescent 
exit path markings are installed shall be provided with the mini- 
mum means of egress illumination required by Section 1006 
for at least 60 minutes prior to periods when the building is 
occupied. 


[B] SECTION 1025 
HORIZONTAL EXITS 

1025.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in 
a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of 
this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit 
from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are 
required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or 
total exit width shall be horizontal exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds 
of the required exits from any building or floor area 
for occupancies in Group 1-2. 

2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 per- 
cent of the exits required for occupancies in Group 
1-3. At least 6 square feet (0.6 m^) of accessible space 
per occupant shall be provided on each side of the 
horizontal exit for the total number of people in 
adjoining compartments. 

1025.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or refuge 
areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a fire 
wall complying with Section 706 of the International Building 
Code-, or it shall be provided by a fire barrier complying with 
Section 707 of the International Building Code or a horizontal 
assembly complying with Section 712 of the International 
Building Code, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating of 
the separation shall be 2 hours. Opening proteetives in horizon- 
tal exits shall also comply with Section 7 1 5 of the International 
Building Code. Duct and air transfer openings in afire wall or 
fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit shall also comply with 
Section 716 of the International Building Code. The horizontal 
exit separation shall extend vertically through all levels of the 
building unless floor assemblies have a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 2 hours with no unprotected openings. 

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at hori- 
zontal exits between a building area and an above-grade 
pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 
3104 of the International Building Code, provided that the 
distance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet 
(6096 mm). 

Horizontal cjrto constructed asfire barriers shall be continu- 
ous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide com- 
pletely the floor served by the horizontal exit. 

1025.3 Opening proteetives. Fire doors in horizontal exits 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a 
smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 of the 
International Building Code. Doors, where located in a 
cross-corridor condition, shall be automatic-closing by activa- 


tion of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 
715.4.8.3 of the International Building Code. 

1025.4 Capacity of refuge area. The refuge area of a horizon- 
tal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public 
area and each such refuge area shall be adequate to accommo- 
date the original occupant load of the refuge area plus the occu- 
pant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The 
anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment 
shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal ejr/r doors enter- 
ing the refuge area. The capacity of the refuge area shall be 
computed based on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet 
(0.2787 m^) for each occupant to be accommodated therein. 

Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall 
be as follows for the indicated occupancies; 

1 . Six square feet (0.6 m^) per occupant for occupancies 
in Group 1-3. 

2. Fifteen square feet ( 1 .4 m^) per occupant for ambula- 
tory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m^) per occupant for non- 
ambulatory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

The refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be 
provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant require- 
ments of this chapter, but not including the added occupant 
load imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits 
from other areas. At least one refuge area exit shall lead directly 
to the exterior or to an exit enclosure. 

Exception: The adjoining compartment shall not be 
required to have a stairway or door leading directly outside, 
provided the refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads 
has stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so 
arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to return 
through the compartment from which egress originates. 


[B] SECTION 1026 

EXTERIOR EXIT RAMPS AND STAIRWAYS 

1026.1 Exterior exit ramps and stairways. Exterior exit 
ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means 
of egress shall comply with this section. 

Exception: Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor 
stadiums complying with Section 1022.1, Exception 2. 

1026.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit stairways shall 
not be used as an element of a required means of egress for 
Group 1-2 occupancies. For occupancies in other than Group 
1-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be permitted as an 
element of a required means of egress for buildings not exceed- 
ing six stories above grade plane or having occupied floors 
more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire 
department vehicle access. 

1026.3 Open side. Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving 
as an element of a required means of egress shall be open on at 
least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square 
feet (3.3 m^) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level 
and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open 
area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above 
the adjacent floor or landing level. 


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1026.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit 
ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; 
the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior 
walls of the building. 

1026.5 Location. Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be 
located in accordance with Section 1027.3. 

1026.6 Exterior ramps and stairway protection. Exterior exit 
ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of the 
building as required in Section 1 022. 1 . Openings shall be limited 
to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for occupancies, other than those in Group 
R-l or R-2, in buildings that are no more than two sto- 
ries above grade plane where a level of exit discharge 
serving such occupancies is the first story above 
grade plane. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required where the exterior ramp or stairway is 
served by an exterior ramp or balcony that connects 
two remote exterior stairways or other approved 
exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent 
open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a 
minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing 
wall, with the top of the openings no less than 7 feet 
(2 1 34 mm) above the top of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for an exterior ramp or stairway located in a 
building or structure that is permitted to have unen- 
closed interior stairways in accordance with Section 
1022 . 1 . 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for exterior ramps or stairways connected to 
open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 
through 4.4 are met; 

4.1. The building, including corridors and ramps 
and stairs, shall be equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1018. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway 
complying with Section 1026. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 de- 
grees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not 
less than 35 square feet (3.3 m^) or an exterior 
ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where 
clear openings are provided, they shall be lo- 
cated so as to minimize the accumulation of 
smoke or toxic gases. 


[B] SECTION 1027 
EXIT DISCHARGE 

1027.1 General. Exits shall discharge directly to the exterior of 
the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall pro- 
vide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter 
a building. The combined use of Exceptions 1 and 2 below shall 
not exceed 50 percent of the number and capacity of the 
required exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through 
areas on the level of discharge provided all of the fol- 
lowing are met; 

I . I . Such exit enclosures egress to a free and un- 
obstructed path of travel to an exterior exit 
door and such exit is readily visible and identi- 
fiable from the point of termination of the exit 
enclosure. 

1 .2. The entire area of the level of exit discharge is 
separated from areas below by construction 
conforming to the fire- resistance rating for 
the exit enclosure. 

1 .3. The egress path from the exit enclosure on the 
level of exit discharge is protected throughout 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 
All portions of the level of exit discharge with 
access to the egress path shall either be pro- 
tected throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the 
egress path in accordance with the require- 
ments for the enclosure of exits. 

2. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a 
vestibule provided all of the following are met; 

2. 1 . The entire area of the vestibule is separated 
from areas below by construction conforming 
to the fire- resistance rating for the exit enclo- 
sure. 

2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is 
not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the 
length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm). 

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of 
the level of exit discharge by construction pro- 
viding protection at least the equivalent of ap- 
proved wired glass in steel frames. 

2.4. The area is used only for means of egress and 
exits directly to the outside. 

3. Stairways in open parking garages complying with 
Section 1022.1, Exception 4, are permitted to egress 
through the open parking garage at their levels of exit 
discharge. 

4. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025 shall 
not be required to discharge directly to the exterior of 
the building. 


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1027.2 Exit discharge capacity. The capacity of the exit dis- 
charge shall be not less than the required discharge capacity of 
the exits being served. 

1027.3 Exit discharge location. Exterior balconies, stairways 
and ramps shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
adjacent lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot 
unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are 
protected in accordance with Section 704 of the International 
Building Code based on fire separation distance. 

1027.4 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge compo- 
nents shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize 
the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. 

1027.5 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the 
exit discharge in the means of egress system shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 1027. 

1027.5.1 Width. The width of egress courts shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall 
not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except as specified 
herein. Egress courts serving Group R-3 and U occupancies 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. The 
required width of egress courts shall be unobstructed to a 
height of 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2. 

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required 
width and the width of such egress court is then reduced 
along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be 
gradual. Tbe transition in width shall be affected by a guard 
not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall not cre- 
ate an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with respect 
to the axis of the egress court along the path of egress travel. 
In no case shall the width of the egress court be less than the 
required minimum. 

1027.5.2 Construction and openings. Where an egress 
court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 10 
feet (3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall have 
not less than l-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a 
distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court. 
Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than % 
hour. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Egress courts serving an occupant load of less 
than 10. 

2. Egress courts serving Group R-3. 

1027.6 Access to a public way. The exit discharge shall pro- 
vide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way. 

Exception: Where access to a public way cannot be pro- 
vided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the 
following are met: 

1 . The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 
5 square feet (0.46 m^) for each person. 

2. The area shall be located on the same lot at least 50 
feet (1 5 240 mm) away from the building requiring 
egress. 


3. Tbe area shall be permanently maintained and 
identified as a safe dispersal area. 

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unob- 
structed path of travel from the building. 


[B] SECTION 1028 
ASSEMBLY 

1028.1 General. Occupancies in Group A and assembly occu- 
pancies accessory to Group E which contain seats, tables, dis- 
plays, equipment or other material shall comply with this 
section. 

1028.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands and folding 
and telescopic seating, that are not building elements, shall 
comply with ICC 300. 

1028.2 Assembly main exit. Group A occupancies and assem- 
bly occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies that have an 
occupant load of greater than 300 shall be provided with a main 
exit. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate 
not less than one-half of the occupant load, but such width shall 
not be less than the total required width of all means of egress 
leading to the exit. Where the building is classified as a Group 
A occupancy, the main exit shall front on at least one street or an 
unoccupied space of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in width 
that adjoins a street or public way. 

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 

1028.3 Assembly other exits. In addition to having access to a 
main exit, each level in Group A occupancies or assembly 
occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies having an 
occupant load greater than 300, shall be provided with addi- 
tional means of egress that shall provide an egress capacity for 
at least one-half of the total occupant load served by that level 
and comply with Section 1015.2. 

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building, provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 

1028.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-1 occupancies, where 
persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not 
available, such persons shall be allowed to wait in a lobby or 
similar space, provided such lobby or similar space shall not 
encroach upon the required clear width of the means of egress. 
Such foyer, if not directly connected to a public street by all the 
main entrances or exits, shall have a straight and unobstructed 
corridor or path of travel to every such main entrance or exit. 

1028.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. For 

balconies, galleries or press boxes having a seating capacity of 
50 or more located in Group A occupancies, at least two means 
of egress shall be provided, with one from each side of every 
balcony, gallery or press box and at least one leading directly to 
an exit. 


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1028.5.1 Enclosure of openings. Interior stairways and 
other vertical openings shall be enclosed in an exit enclosure 
as provided in Section 1 022. 1 , except that stairways are per- 
mitted to be open between the balcony, gallery or press box 
and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as the- 
aters, places of religious worship, auditoriums and sports 
facilities. At least one accessible means of egress is required 
from a balcony, gallery or press box level containing acces- 
sible seating locations in accordance with Section 1107 of 
the Oregon Structural Specialty Code. 

1028.6 Width of means of egress for assembly. The clear width 
of aisles and other means of egress shall comply with Section 
1028.6. 1 where smoke-protected seating is not provided and with 
Section 1028.6.2 or 1028.6.3 where smoke-protected seating is 
provided. The clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of 
seating and tread edges except for permitted projections. 

1028.6.1 Without smoke protection. The clear width of 
the means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in 
accordance with all of the following, as applicable: 

1 . At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occupant 
served shall be provided on stairs having riser heights 
7 inches (178 mm) or less and tread depths II inches 
(279 mm) or greater, measured horizontally between 
tread nosings. 

2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) of additional stair 
width for each occupant shall be provided for each 0. 1 0 
inch (2.5 mm) of riser height above 7 inches ( 1 78 mm). 

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 
inch (1 .9 mm) of additional width for each occupant 
shall be provided on those portions of sfa;'/- width hav- 
ing no handrail within a horizontal distance of 30 
inches (762 mm). 

4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper 
than one unit vertical in 1 2 units horizontal (8-percent 
slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of clear 
width for each occupant served. Level or ramped 
means of egress, where slopes are not steeper than one 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), 
shall have at least 0.20 ineh (5. 1 mm) of clear width 
for each occupant served. 

1028.6.2 Smoke-protected seating. The clear width of the 
means of egress for smoke-protected assembly seating shall 
not be less than the occupant load served by tbe egress ele- 


ment multiplied by the appropriate factor in Table 1028.6.2. 
The total number of seats specified shall be those within the 
space exposed to the same smoke-protected environment. 
Interpolation is permitted between the specific values shown. 
A life safety evaluation, complying with NFPA 101, shall be 
done for a facility utilizing the reduced width requirements of 
Table 1028.6.2 for smoke-protected assembly seating. 

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly 
with an occupant load not greater than 1 8,000, the clear 
width shall be determined using the factors in Section 
1028.6.3. 

1028.6.2.1 Smoke control. Means of egress serving a 
smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be provided 
with a smoke control system complying with Section 
909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the 
smoke level at least 6 feel (1829 mm) above the floor of 
the means of egress. 

1028.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assembly 
seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of 
the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the 
highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium 
shall be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided 
that there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 
mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

1028.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas with 
walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing 
smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 

Exceptions: 

1 . The floor area used for contests, performances 
or entertainment provided the roof construction 
is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the 
floor level and the use is restricted to low fire 
hazard uses. 

2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 
1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) in area. 

3. Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the 
means of egress in the seating area are essen- 
tially open to the outside. 


TABLE 1028.6.2 

WIDTH OF AISLES FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 


TOTAL NUMBER OF 

SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 

— 

INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED 

Stairs and aisle steps with 
handrails within 30 Inches 

Stairs and aisle steps 
without handrails 
within 30 inches 

Passageways, doorways 
and ramps not steeper 
than 1 in 10 In slope 

Ramps steeper 
than 1 in 10 in slope 

Equal to or less than 5,000 

0.200 

0.250 

0.150 

0.165 

10,000 

0.130 

0.163 

0.100 

0.110 

15,000 

0.096 

0.120 

0.070 

0.077 

20,000 

0.076 

0.095 

0.056 

0.062 

Equal to or greater than 25,000 

0.060 

0.075 

0.044 

0.048 


For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


155 




MEANS OF EGRESS 


1028.6.3 Width of means of egress for outdoor smoke- 
protected assembly. The clear width in inches (mm) of 
aisles and other means of egress shall be not less than the 
total occupant load served by the egress element multiplied 
by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by aisles and stairs and 
multiplied by 0.06 ( 1 .52 mm) where egress is by ramps, cor- 
ridors, tunnels or vomitories. 

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm)of aw/es and 
other means of egress shall be permitted to comply with 
Section 1028.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly where Section 1028.6.2 per- 
mits less width. 

1028.7 IVavel distance. Exits and aisles shall be so located that 
the travel distance to an exit door shall not be greater than 2(X) 
feet (60 960 mm) measured along the line of travel in 
nonsprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall not be more than 
250 feet (76 200 mm) in sprinklered buildings. Where aisles are 
provided for seating, the distance shall be measured along the 
aisles and aisle accessway without travel over or on the seats. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Smoke-protected assembly seating : The travel distance 
from each seat to the nearest entrance to a vomitory or 
concourse shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The 
travel distance from the entrance to the vomitory or 
concourse to a stair, ramp or walk on the exterior of the 
building shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat 
to the building exterior shall not exceed 400 feet ( 1 22 
m). The travel distance shall not be limited in facilities 
of Type I or II construction. 

1028.8 Common path of egress travel. The common path of 
egress travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat 
to a poi nt where an occupant hasachoiceof two paths of egress 
travel to two exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For areas serving less than 50 occupants, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 
mm). 

2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 50 feet ( 1 5 240 
mm). 

1028.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Where one of the 

two paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of seats 
to another aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats 
between the two aisles, and the minimum clear width 
between rows for the row between the two aisles shall be 1 2 
inches (305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each addi- 
tional seat above seven in the row between aisles. 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating there 
shall not be more than 40 seats between the two aisles 
and the minimum clear width shall be 12 inches (305 
mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for each additional seat. 

1028.9 Assembly aisles are required. Every occupied portion 
of any occupancy in Group A or assembly occupancies acce.s- 
sory to Group E that contains seats, tables, displays, similar fix- 


tures or equipment shall be provided with aisles leading to exits 
or exit access doorways in accordance with this section. Aisle 
accessways for tables and seating shall comply with Section 
1017.4. 

1028.9.1 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear width 
for aisles shall be as shown: 

1. Forty-eight inches (1219 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on each side. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on only one side. 

3. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle stair 
handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is sub- 
divided by a handrail. 

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped 
aisles having seating on both sides. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
serves less that 50 seats. 

2. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

5. Thirty-six inches (91 4 mm) for level or ramped a/s/es 
having seating on only one side. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

2. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an 
aisle stair handrail and seating where an 
aisle does not serve more than five rows on 
one side. 

1028.9.2 Aisle width. The aisle width shall provide suffi- 
cient egress capacity for the number of persons accommo- 
dated by the catchment area served by the aisle. The 
catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total 
space that is served by that section of the aisle. In establish- 
ing catchment areas, the assumption shall be made that there 
is a balanced use of all means of egress, with the number of 
persons in proportion to egress capacity. 

1028.9.3 Converging aisles. Where aisles converge to form 
a single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of 
that path shall not be less than the combined required capac- 
ity of the converging aisles. 

1028.9.4 Uniform width. Those portions of aisles, where 
egress is possible in either of two directions, shall be uni- 
form in required width. 

1028.9.5 Assembly aisle termination. Each end of an aisle 
shall terminate at cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory or 
concourse having access to an exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Dead-end aisles shall not be greater than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in length. 


156 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


2. Dead-end aisles longer than 20 feet (6096 mm) are 
permitted where seats beyond the 20-foot (6096 
mm) dead-end aisle are no more than 24 seats from 
another aisle, measured along a row of seats hav- 
ing a minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) 
plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat 
above seven in the row. 

3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
dead-end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not 
exceed a distance of 2 1 rows. 

4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer 
dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond the 
2 1 -row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 seats 
from another aisle, measured along a row of seats 
having an aisle accessway with a minimum clear 
width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) 
for each additional seat above seven in the row. 

1028.9.6 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall be no 
obstructions in the required width of aisles except for hand- 
rails as provided in Section 1028.13. 

1028.10 Clear width of aisle accessways serving seating. 

Where seating rows have 14 or fewer seats, the minimum clear 
aisle accessway width shall not be less than 12 inches (305 
mm) measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of 
the row ahead and the nearest projection of the row behind. 
Where chairs have automatic or self-rising seats, the measure- 
ment shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any 
chair in the row does not have an automatic or self-rising .seat, 
the measurements shall be made with the seat in the down posi- 
tion. For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing shall be 
determined with the tablet arm in tbe used position. 

Exception: For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing 
is permitted to be determined with the tablet arm in the 
stored position where the tablet arm when raised manually 
to vertical position in one motion automatically returns to 
the stored position by force of gravity. 

1028.10.1 Dual access. For rows of seating .served by 
aisles or doorways at both ends, there shall not be more 
than 100 seats per row. The minimum clear width of 12 
inches (305 mm) between rows shall be increased by 0.3 
inch (7.6 mm) for every additional seat beyond 14 seats, 
but the minimum clear width is not required to exceed 22 
inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1028.10.1. 

1028.10.2 Single access. For rows of seating served by an 
aisle or doorway at only one end of the row, the minimum 
clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be 
increased by 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for every additional seat 
beyond seven seats, but the minimum clear width is not 
required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
elear width shall be increased, are in Table 1028. 10. 1 . 


TABLE 1028.10.1 
SMOKE-PROTECTED 
ASSEMBLY AISLE ACCESSWAYS 


TOTAL NUMBER OF 
SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS PER ROW 
PERMITTED TO HAVE A MINIMUM 12-INCH 
CLEAR WIDTH AISLE ACCESSWAY 

Aisle or doorway at 
both ends of row 

Aisle or doorway at 
one end of row only 

Less than 4,000 

14 

7 

4,000 

15 

7 

7,000 

16 

8 

10,000 

17 

8 

1 3,000 

18 

9 

16,000 

19 

9 

19,000 

20 

10 

22,000 and greater 

21 

11 


For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 


1028.1 1 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. 4 w/ci with a slope 
not exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal 
(12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a ramp having a slip-resis- 
tant walking surface. Aisles with a slope exceeding one unit 
vertical in eight units horizontal ( 1 2.5-percent slope) shall con- 
sist of a series of risers and treads that extends across the full 
width of aisles and complies with Sections 1 028. 11.1 through 
1028.11.3. 

1028.11.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be a minimum of 1 1 
inches (279 mm) and shall have dimensional uniformity. 

Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall 
not exceed 0. 1 88 inch (4.8 mm). 

1028.11.2 Risers. Where the gradient of aisle stairs is to be 
the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, the riser 
height shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) nor more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) and shall be uniform within each 
flight. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the 
extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of 
the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate 
sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 0.188 
inch (4.8 mm) between adjacent risers, the exact 
location of such nonuniformities shall be indicated 
with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at 
the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuni- 
form risers. Such stripe shall be a minimum of 1 
inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 inches (51 
mm), wide. The edge marking stripe shall be dis- 
tinctively different from the contrasting marking 
stripe. 

2. Riser heights not exceeding 9 inches (229 mm) 
shall be permitted where they are necessitated by 
the slope of the adjacent seating areas to maintain 
sightlines. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


157 




MEANS OF EGRESS 


1028.11.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A contrast- 
ing marking stripe shall be provided on each tread at the nos- 
ing or leading edge such that the location of each tread is 
readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such stripe shall 
be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 
inches (51 mm), wide. 

Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted 

to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the loca- 
tion of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in 

descent. 

1028.12 Seat stability. In places of assembly, the seats shall be 
securely fastened to the floor. 

Exceptions: 

1. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with 200 or 
fewer seats, the seats shall not be required to be fas- 
tened to the floor. 

2. In places of assembly or portions thereof with seating 
at tables and without ramped or tiered floors for seat- 
ing, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the 
floor. 

3. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with greater 
than 200 seats, the seats shall be fastened together in 
groups of not less than three or the seats shall be 
securely fastened to the floor. 

4. In places of assembly where flexibility of the seating 
arrangement is an integral part of the design and func- 
tion of the space and seating is on tiered levels, a max- 
imum of 200 seats shall not be required to be fastened 
to the floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles 
shall be submitted for approval. 

5. Groups of seats within a place of assembly separated 
from other seating by railings, guards, partial height 
walls or similar barriers with level floors and having 
no more than 14 seats per group shall not be required 
to be fastened to the floor. 

6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and 
separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or 
similar barriers shall not be required to be fastened to 
the floor. 

1028.13 Handrails. Ramped aisles having a slope exceeding 
one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent slope) and 
aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails located either at 
the side or within the aisle width. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails are not required for ramped aisles having a 
gradient no greater than one unit vertical in eight units 
horizontal (12.5-percent slope) and seating on both 
sides. 

2. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, 
there is a guard that complies with the graspability 
requirements of handrails. 


3. Handrail extensions are not required at the top and 
bottom of aisle stairs and aisle ramp runs to permit 
crossovers within the aisles. 

1028.13.1 Discontinuous handrails. Where there is seating 
on both sides of the aisle, the handrails shall be discontinuous 
with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five rows to 
facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing from one 
side of the aisle to the other. These gaps or breaks shall have a 
clear width of at least 22 inches (559 mm) and not greater 
than 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally, and the 
handrail shall have rounded terminations or bends. 

1028.13.2 Intermediate handrails. Where handrails are 
provided in the middle of aisle stairs, there shall be an addi- 
tional intermediate handrail located approximately 1 2 inches 
(305 mm) below the main handrail. 

1028.14 Assembly guards. Assembly guards shall comply 
with Sections 1028.14.1 through 1028.14.3. 

1028.14.1 Cross aisles. Cross aisles located more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall have 
guards in accordance with Section 1013. 

Where an elevation change of 30 inches (762 mm) or less 
occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or grade 
below, guards not less than 26 inches (660 mm) above the 
aisle floor shall be provided. 

Exception: Where the backs of seats on the front of the 
cross aisle project 24 inches (6 10 mm) or more above the 
adjacent floor of the aisle, a guard need not be provided. 

1028.14.2 Sightline-constrained guard heights. Unless 
subject to the requirements of Section 1028.14.3, afasciaor 
railing system in accordance with the gMard requirements of 
Section 1013 and having a minimum height of 26 inches 
(660 mm) shall be provided where the floor or footboard 
elevation is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or 
grade below and the fascia or railing would otherwise inter- 
fere with the sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. At 
bleachers, a guard must be provided where required by ICC 
300. 

1028.14.3 Guards at the end of aisles. A fascia or railing 
system complying with the guard requirements of Section 
1013 shall be provided for the full width of the aisle where 
the foot of the aisle is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. The fascia or railing shall be a min- 
imum of 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall provide a mini- 
mum 42 inches (1067 mm) measured diagonally between 
the top of the rail and the nosing of the nearest tread. 

1028.15 Bench seating. Where bench seating is used, the num- 
ber of persons shall be based on one person for each 1 8 inches 
(457 mm) of length of the bench. 


[B] SECTION 1029 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 

1029.1 General. In addition to the means of egress required by 
this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape 
and rescue in Group R and I- 1 occupancies. Basements and 
sleeping rooms below the fourth story above grade plane shall 


158 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


have at least one exterior emergency escape and rescue open- 
ing in accordance with this section. Where basements contain 
one or more sleeping rooms, emergency escape and rescue 
openings shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not 
be required in adjoining areas of the basement. Such openings 
shall open directly into a public way or to a yard or court that 
opens to a public way. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group R-3 occupancies, buildings 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 
or 903.3.1.2. 

2. In other than Group R-3 occupancies, sleeping rooms 
provided with a door to a fire-resistance-rated corri- 
dor having access to two remote exits in opposite 
directions. 

3. The emergency escape and rescue opening is permit- 
ted to open onto a balcony within an atrium in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 404 of the 
International Building Code, provided the balcony 
provides access to an exit and the dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit has a means of egress that is not open to 
the atrium. 

4. Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall not be required to have emergency 
escape and rescue windows. 

5. High-rise buildings in accordance with Section 403 
of the International Building Code. 

6. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not 

required from basements or sleeping rooms that have 
an door or exit access door that opens directly into 

a public way or to a yard, court or exterior exit bal- 
cony that opens to a public way. 

7. Basements without habitable spaces and having no 
more than 200 square feet ( 1 8.6 m^) in floor area shall 
not be required to have emergency escape windows. 

1029.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue open- 
ings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet 
(0.53 m2). 

Exception: The minimum net clear opening for emergency 
escape and rescue grade-floor openings shall be 5 square 
feet (0.46 m^). 

1029.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net clear 
opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm). The 
minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 
inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimensions shall be 
the result of normal operation of the opening. 

1029.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not 
greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor. 

1029.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and res- 
cue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room 
without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar 
devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and 
rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening size 


complies with Section 1029.2 and such devices shall be, 
releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. Where such bars, 
grilles, grates or similar devices are installed in existing build- 
ings, smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.1 I regardless of the valuation of the alteration. 

1029.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue open- 
ing with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level 
shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sec- 
tions 1029.5.1 and 1029.5.2, 

1029.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of 
the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.84 m^), with a min- 
imum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the 
window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue 
opening to be fully opened. 

1029.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped 
with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Lad- 
ders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches 
(305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the 
wall and shall be spaced not more than 1 8 inches (457 mm) 
on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window 
well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required 
dimensions of the window well by more than 6 inches (152 
mm). The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the 
emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps 
required by this section are exempt from the stairway 
requirements of Section 1009. 

SECTION 1030 

MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1030.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or portions 
thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section. 
Overcrowding conditions shall be abated in accordance with 
Section 107.6. 

1030.2 Reliability. Required exit accesses, exits or exit dis- 
charges shall be continuously maintained free from obstruc- 
tions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or 
other emergency when the areas served by such exits are occu- 
pied. Security devices affecting means of egress shall be sub- 
ject to approval of the fire code official. 

1030.3 Obstructions. A means of egress shall be free from 
obstructions that would prevent its use, including the accumu- 
lation of snow and ice. 

1030.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed and maintained 
in accordance with Section 1011. Decorations, furnishings, 
equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility of exit 
signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of the exit 
shall not be allowed. 

1030.5 Nonexit identification. Where a door is adjacent to, 
constructed similar to and can be confused with a means of 
egre.ss door, that door shall be identified with an approved sign 
that identifies the room name or use of the room. 

1030.6 Furnishings and decorations. Furnishings, decora- 
tions or other objects shall not be placed so as to obstruct exits. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


159 



MEANS OF EGRESS 


access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. Hang- 
ings and draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or other- 
wise be located to conceal or obstruct an exit. Mirrors shall not 
be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adja- 
cent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of 
exit. 

1030.7 Emergency escape openings. Required emergency 
escape openings shall be maintained in accordance with the 
code in effeet at the time of eonstruction, and the following: 
Required emergency escape and rescue openings shall be oper- 
ational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or 
tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are allowed to be 
placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided 
the minimum netclear opening size complies with the code that 
was in effect at the time of construction and such devices shall 
be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. 

1030.8 Testing and maintenance. All two-way communica- 
tion systems for areas of refuge shall be inspected and tested on 
a yearly basis to verify that all components are operational. 
When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of 
the fire code official. 


160 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 11 


AVIATION FACILITIES 


SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. Airports, heliports, helistops and aircraft han- 
gars shall be in aeeordance with this ehapter. 

1101.2 Regulations not covered. Regulations not specifically 
contained herein pertaining to airports, aircraft maintenance, 
aircraft hangars and appurtenant operations shall be in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. 

1101.3 Permits. For permits to operate aircraft-refueling vehi- 
cles, applieation of flammable or eombustible finishes and hot 
work, see Section 105.6. 


SECTION 1102 
DEFINITIONS 

1102.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this ehapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA), Any area used or 
intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or 
other ground-based aircraft activity. 

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or 
intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with 
an overall length greater than 39 feet ( 1 1 887 mm) and an over- 
all exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and 
any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for air- 
port buildings and other airport facilities. 

HELIPORT, An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off 
of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facili- 
ties. 

HELISTOP, The same as “Heliport,” except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is per- 
mitted. 


SECTION 1103 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

1103.1 Sources of ignition. Open flames, flame-producing 
devices and other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in a 
bangar, except in approved locations or in any location within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling operation. 

1103.2 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft-refu- 
eling vehicles, aircraft hangars and aircraft operation areas 
used for cleaning, paint removal, painting operations or fuel- 
ing. “No Smoking” signs shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 310. 

Exception: Designated and approved smoking areas. 


1103.3 Housekeeping. The aircraft operation area (AOA) and 
related areas shall be kept free from combustible debris at all 
times. 

1103.4 Fire department access. Fire apparatus access roads 
shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Chapter 
5. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions 
shall be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possibility 
of fire vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked aircraft. 

1103.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids. 

The dispensing, transferring and storage of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter 
and Chapter 34. Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with Chapter 22. 

1103.6 Combustible storage. Combustible materials stored in 
aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved locations and con- 
tainers. 

1103.7 Hazardous material storage. Hazardous materials 
shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 27. 


SECTION 1104 
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 

1104.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids. 

Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into 
or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft except in 
approved locations. 

1104.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid 
finishes. The application of flammable or Class II combustible 
liquid finishes is prohibited unless both of the following condi- 
tions are met: 

1 . The application of the liquid finish is accomplished in an 
approved location. 

2. The application methods and procedures are in accor- 
dance with Chapter 15. 

1104.3 Cleaning parts. Class lA flammable liquids shall not 
be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or aircraft engines. 
Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with Section 3405.3.6. 

1104.4 Spills. This section shall apply to spills of flammable 
and combustible liquids and other hazardous materials. Fuel 
spill control shall also comply with Section 1 106.1 1. 

1104.4.1 Cessation of work. Activities in the affected area 
not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the 
spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been 
mitigated. 

1104.4.2 Vehicle movement. Aircraft or other vehicles 
shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled 
material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


161 



AVIATION FACILITIES 


1104.4.3 Mitigation. Spills shall be reported, documented 
and mitigated in accordance with the provisions of this 
chapter and Section 2703.3. 

1104.5 Running engines. Aircraft engines shall not be run in 
aircraft hangars except in approved engine test areas. 

1104.6 Open flame. Repairing of aircraft requiring the use of 
open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts 
above 500°F (260°C) shall only be done outdoors or in an area 
complying with the provisions of the International Building 
Code for a Group F-1 occupancy. 


SECTION 1105 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flam- 
mable or combustible liquid and electrical-type fires shall be 
provided as specified in Sections 1 105.2 through 1 105.6 and 
Section 906. Extinguishers required by this section shall be 
inspected and maintained in accordance with Section 906. 

1105.2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft 
shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire 
extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a mini- 
mum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be 
equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum 
rating of 2-A:20-B:C. 

1105.4 On aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing tank vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum 
of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Sec- 
tion 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B;C. A portable 
fire extinguisher shall be readily accessible from either side of 
the vehicle. 

1105.5 On hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles. Hydrant fuel-ser- 
vicing vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed 
portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906, and 
having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. Portable fire 
extinguishers at fuel-dispensing stations shall be located such 
that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from one such extinguisher. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided as follows: 

1. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is not more than 200 gallons per minute ( 1 3 L/s), 
a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
20-B:C shall be provided. 

2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s) but 
not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a mini- 
mum of one listed wheeled extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 and having a minimum extinguishing rating 
of80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds 
(57 kg), shall be provided. 

3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a 


minimum of two listed wheeled extinguishers comply- 
ing with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
80-B:C each, and a minimum capacity agent of 125 
pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided. 

1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers 
required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where 
necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of 
snow, ice and other forms of weather-induced obstructions. 

1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments 
used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly 
marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at 
least 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments 
shall be readily accessible at all times. 

1105.8 Reporting use. Use of a fire extinguisher under any cir- 
cumstances shall be reported to the manager of the airport and 
the fire code official immediately after use. 

SECTION 1106 
AIRCRAFT FUELING 

1106.1 Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities. 

Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 22. 

1106.2 Airport fuel systems. Airport fuel systems shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407. 

1106.3 Construction of aircraft-fueling vehicles and acces- 
sories. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall comply with this section 
and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
NFPA 407. 

1106.3.1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be equipped and maintained with an approved transfer 
apparatus. 

1106.3.1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such 
transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the 
internal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall 
be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, pip- 
ing, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels 
and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate 
compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The 
fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably 
designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity 
shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is 
installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail 
pipe shall be shielded. 

1106.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or 
chains, the gears, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and 
all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall 
be installed and maintained in an approved manner. 

1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections 
for the purpose of eliminating vibration are allowed if the 
material used therein is designed, installed and main- 
tained in an approved manner, provided such connec- 
tions do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length. 

1106.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type 
shall be provided with a bypass relief valve set at a pressure 
of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working 


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pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and 
maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of 
the pump. 

1106.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles. Hoses shall be 
designed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and 
shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient 
fuel transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an 
approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be 
self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure 
only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for hold- 
ing a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall 
be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper 
attachment for aircraft to be serviced. 

1106.3.4 Protection of electrical equipment. Electric wir- 
ing, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, when 
located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air 
eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equip- 
ment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical 
motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type 
approved for use as specified in NFPA 70. 

1106.3.5 Venting of equipment compartments. Compart- 
ments housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separa- 
tors, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately 
ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself. 

1106.3.6 Accessory equipment. Ladders, hose reels and 
similar accessory equipment shall be of an approved type 
and constructed substantially as follows: 

1 . Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are 
allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling 
vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of 
such ladders is approved and does not constitute an 
additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of 
such fueling vehicles. 

2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and 
shall be provided with a packing gland or other device 
which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and 
fuel manifolds. 

1106.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions. Transfer appara- 
tus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, 
axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.7.1 Bonding cables. Aircraft- fueling vehicles 
shall be provided and maintained with a substantial 
heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be 
bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be 
metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chas- 
sis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be 
provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to 
be fixed to the aircraft. 

1106.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection. The bonding 
cable shall be bare or have a transparent protective sleeve 
and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for 
no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that 
it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental break- 
age under eonditions of general use. 


1106.3.8 Smoking. Smoking in aircraft-fueling vehicles is 
prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be eonspicuously 
posted in the driver’s compartment of all fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.9 Smoking equipment. Smoking equipment such 
as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in 
aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling 
vehicles. The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fuel- 
ing vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4.1 
through 1 106.4.4 and other applicable provisions of this chap- 
ter. 

1106.4.1 Proper maintenance. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and 
kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and 
other flammable or combustible materials is prohibited. 
Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be 
accomplished in approved areas. 

1106.4.2 Vehicle integrity. Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and 
other fuel delivery equipment shall be maintained leak free 
at all times. 

1106.4.3 Removal from service. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and related equipment which are in violation of Section 

1106.4.1 or 1106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled and 
removed from service and shall not be returned to service 
until proper repairs have been made. 

1106.4.4 Operators. Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are 
operated by a person, firm or corporation other than the 
permittee or the permittee’s authorized employee shall be 
provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle 
showing the name of the person, firm or corporation operat- 
ing such unit. 

1106.5 Fueling and defueling. Aircraft-fueling and defueling 
operations shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.5.1 
through 1 106.5.5. 

1106.5.1 Positioning of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Air- 
craft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or permit- 
ted to stand in a position where such unit would obstruct 
egress from an aircraft should a fire oecur during fuel-trans- 
fer operations. Aircraft- fueling vehicles shall not be 
located, parked or permitted to stand under any portion of an 
aircraft. 

Exception: Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be allowed to 
be located under aircraft wings during underwing fuel- 
ing of turbine-engine powered aircraft. 

1106.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress. A clear path shall be 
maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to provide for 
prompt and timely egress from the fueling area. 

1106.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings. A clear space of at 
least 1 0 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between air- 
craft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion 
of an aircraft-fueling vehiele. 

1106.5.1.3 Parking. Prior to leaving the cab, the air- 
craft-fueling vehicle operator shall ensure that the park- 
ing brake has been set. At least two chock blocks not less 
than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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AVIATION FACILITIES 


mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of 
the tires shall be utilized and positioned in such a manner 
as to preelude movement of the vehicle in any direction. 

1106.5.2 Electrical bonding. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or 
defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to mak- 
ing fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until 
the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fueling 
connections have been removed. 

Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is used for fuel- 
ing, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant 
system prior to bonding the fueling equipment to the air- 
craft. 

1106.5.2.1 Conductive hose. In addition to the bonding 
cable required by Section 1106.5.2, conductive hose 
shall be used for all fueling operations. 

1106.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles. 

Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approvedhond- 
ing conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise posi- 
tively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on 
the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal 
of the cap. 

Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no 
appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel 
fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling 
operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle 
spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be 
kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is com- 
pleted. 

1106.5.2.3 Funnels. Where required, metal funnels are 
allowed to be used during fueling operations. Direct con- 
tact between the fueling receptacle, the funnel and the 
fueling nozzle shall be maintained during the fueling 
operation. 

1106.5.3 Training. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be 
attended and operated only by persons instructed in meth- 
ods of proper use and operation and who are qualified to use 
such fueling vehicles in accordance with minimum safety 
requirements. 

1106.5.3.1 Fueling hazards. Fuel-servicing personnel 
shall know and understand the hazards associated with 
each type of fuel dispensed by the airport fueling-system 
operator. 

1106.5.3.2 Fire safety training. Employees of fuel 
agents who fuel aircraft, accept fuel shipments or other- 
wise handle fuel shall receive approved fire safety train- 
ing. 

1106.5.3.2.1 Fire extinguisher training. Fuel-ser- 
vicing personnel shall receive approved training in 
the operation of fire-extinguishing equipment. 

1106.5.3.2.2 Documentation. The airport fuel- 
ing-system operator shall maintain records of all 
training administered to its employees. These records 


shall be made available to the fire code official on 
request. 

1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer opera- 
tions, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer 
nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate 
control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or other- 
wise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling opera- 
tions are begun until they are completed. 

Exceptions: 

1. For underwing refueling, the person stationed at 
the point of fuel intake is not required. 

2. For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the 
fuel pumping equipment shall not be required 
where the person at the fuel dispensing device is 
within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shut- 
off device; is not on the wing of the aircraft and has 
a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping 
equipment; and the fuel dispensing line does not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of the fuel- 
ing equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure 
fueling or shall monitor the fill port during overwing fuel- 
ing. 

1106.5.5 Fuel flow control. Fuel flow-control valves shall 
be operable only by the direct hand pressure of the operator. 
Removal of the operator’s hand pressure shall cause an 
immediate cessation of the flow of fuel. 

1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff con- 
trols and procedures shall comply with Sections 1 106.6.1 
through 1106.6.4. 

1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueling sys- 
tem is being operated. 

1106.6.2 Notification of the fire department. The fuel- 
ing-system operator shall establish a procedure by which 
the fire department will be notified in the event of an activa- 
tion of an emergency fuel shutoff control. 

1106.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of 
normal fuel flow, the cause of fuel shutoff conditions shall 
be determined and corrected. 

1106.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be 
operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. 
The fueling-system operator shall maintain suitable records 
of these tests. 

1106.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle 
is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on the 
approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the 
top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is pro- 
vided for security and protection of such equipment. 
Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part 
of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer 
hose shall not be dragged when such fueling vehicle is moved 
from one fueling position to another. 


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1106.8 Loading and unloading. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be loaded o6ly at an approved loading rack. Such loading 
racks shall be in accordance with Section 3406.5.1.12. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Aircraft-refueling units may be loaded from the fuel 
tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations. 

2. Fuel transfer between tank vehicles is allowed to be 
performed in accordance with Section 3406.6 and 
Appendix M when the operation is at least 200 feet 
(60 960 mm) from an aircraft. 

The fuel cargo of such units shall be unloaded only by 
approved transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, 
underground storage tanks or approved gravity storage tanks. 

1106.9 Passengers. Passenger traffic is allowed during the 
time fuel transfer operations are in progress, provided the fol- 
lowing provisions are strictly enforced by the owner of the air- 
craft or the owner’s authorized employee: 

1 . Smoking and producing an open flame in the cabin of the 
aircraft or the outside thereof within 50 feet (1 5 240 mm) 
of such aircraft shall be prohibited, 

A qualified employee of the aircraft owner shall be 
responsible for seeing that the passengers are not 
allowed to smoke when remaining aboard the aircraft or 
while going across the ramp from the gate to such air- 
craft, or vice versa. 

2. Passengers shall not be permitted to linger about the 
plane, but shall proceed directly between the loading 
gate and the aircraft. 

3. Passenger loading stands or walkways shall be left in 
loading position until all fuel transfer operations are 
completed. 

4. Fuel transfer operations shall not be performed on the 
main exit side of any aircraft containing passengers 
except when the owner of such aircraft or a capable and 
qualified employee of such owner remains inside the air- 
craft to direct and assist the escape of such passengers 
through regular and emergency exits in the event fire 
should occur during fuel transfer operations. 

1106.10 Sources of ignition. Smoking and producing open 
flames within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a point where fuel is 
being transferred shall be prohibited. Electrical and 
motor-driven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected 
from an aircraft at any time fueling operations are in progress 
on such aircraft. 

1106.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures. Fuel spill pre- 
vention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply 
with Sections 1106.11.1 through 1106.11.7. 

1106.11.1 Fuel-service equipment maintenance. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing equipment shall be maintained and kept free 
from leaks. Fuel-servicing equipment that malfunctions or 
leaks shall not be continued in service. 

1106.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be 
carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles 
along the ground shall be prohibited. 


1106.11.3 Drum fueling. Fueling from drums or other con- 
tainers having a capacity greater than 5 gallons (19 L) shall 
be accomplished with the use of an approved pump. 

1106.11.4 Fuel spill procedures. The fueling-system oper- 
ator shall establish procedures to follow in theevent of a fuel 
spill. These procedures shall be comprehensive and shall 
provide for at least all of the following: 

1. Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling 
operator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel 
by releasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control 
valve. 

2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued 
spillage of fuel shall be eause for the activation of the 
appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device. 

3. A supervisor for the fueling-system operator shall 
respond to the fuel spill area immediately. 

1106.11.5 Notification of the fire department. The fire 
department shall be notified of any fuel spill which is con- 
sidered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or 
more of the following criteria: 

1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m^). 

3. The fuel flow is continuous in nature. 

1106.11.6 Investigation required. An investigation shall 
be conducted by the fueling-system operator of all spills 
requiring notification of the fire department. The investiga- 
tion shall provide conclusive proof of the cause and verifica- 
tion of the appropriate use of emergency procedures. Where 
it is determined that corrective measures are necessary to 
prevent future incidents of the same nature, they shall be 
implemented immediately. 

1106.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles. Simultaneous 
delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft-fueling vehicle 
to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless 
proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent 
fuel flow into tbe tank vehicles. 

1106.12 Aircraft engines and heaters. Operation of aircraft 
onboard engines and combustion heaters shall be terminated 
prior to commencing fuel service operations and shall remain 
off until the fuel-servicing operation is completed. 

Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed 
to be operated during fuel servicing where all of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1. The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard 
failure of the aircraft’s auxiliary power unit. 

2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by 
ground support services is not available. 

3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the 
aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the 
fuel serviee operation. 

4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a 
written procedure approved by the fire code ojficial. 


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1106.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions. During aircraft- 
fueling operations, only the equipment actively involved in the 
fueling operation is allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the 
aircraft being fueled. Other equipment shall be prohibited in 
this area until the fueling operation is complete. 

Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing sin- 
gle-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel 
line eonnection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liq- 
uid. 

A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be main- 
tained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part 
or portion of aircraft-servicing vehicles or equipment. 

1106.13.1 Overwing fueling. Vehicles or equipment shall 
not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when 
aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft 
fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the 
wing. 

1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, includ- 
ing but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary 
power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, 
nor shall they be connected or disconnected from their power 
source, during fuel service operations. 

1106.14.1 Other equipment. Electrical or other spark-pro- 
ducing equipment shall not be used witbin 10 feet (3048 
mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill 
areas unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and 
approved for use in an explosive atmosphere. 

1106.15 Open flames. Open flames and open-flame devices 
are prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any aircraft 
fuel-servicing operation or fueling equipment. 

1106.15.1 Other areas. The fire code official is authorized 
to establish other locations where open flames and 
open-flame devices are prohibited. 

1106.15.2 Matches and lighters. Personnel assigned to 
and engaged in fuel-servicing operations shall not carry 
matches or lighters on or about their person. Matches or 
lighters shall be prohibited in, on or about aircraft-fueling 
equipment. 

1106.16 Lightning procedures. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the airport authority and the fueling-system 
operator to establish written proeedures to follow when light- 
ning flashes are detected on or near the airport. These proce- 
dures shall establish criteria for the suspension and resumption 
of aircraft-fueling operations. 

1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft fuel-transfer opera- 
tions shall be prohibited indoors. 

Exception: In aircraft hangars built in accordance with the 
provisions of the International Building Code for Group 
F-1 occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are 
allowed where: 

1. Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system mainte- 
nance operations. Such operations shall be performed 
in accordance with nationally recognized standards; 
or 


2. The fuel being used has afiash point greater than 
100°F (37.8°C). 

1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall 
be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel 
tank openings are a minimum of: 

1. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or struc- 
tures other than jet bridges; and 

2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for 
boiler, heater or incinerator rooms. 

1106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for tire service 
equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during fuel-ser- 
vicing operations. 

1106.18 Defueling operations. The requirements for fueling 
operations contained in this section shall also apply to aircraft 
defueling operations. Additional procedures shall be estab- 
lished by the fueling-system operator to prevent overfilling of 
the tank vehicle used in the defueling operation. 

1106.19 Maintenance of aircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fuel- 
ing hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 

1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4. 

1106.19.1 Inspections. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft 
shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability 
and suitability for continued service. The fuel-service oper- 
ator shall maintain records of all tests and inspections per- 
formed on fueling hoses. Hoses found to be defective or 
otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from ser- 
vice. 

1106.19.1.1 Daily inspection. Each hose shall be 
inspected daily. This inspection shall include a complete 
visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blis- 
tering or leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for 
evidence of leaks, slippage or misalignment. 

1106.19.1.2 Monthly inspection. A more thorough 
inspection, including pressure testing, shall be accom- 
plished for each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection 
shall include examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen 
for rubber particles, which indicates problems with the 
hose lining. 

1106.19.2 Damaged hose. Hose that has been subjected to 
severe abuse shall be immediately removed from service. 
Such hoses shall be hydrostatically tested prior to being 
returned to service. 

1106.19.3 Repairing hose. Hoses are allowed to be 
repaired by removing the damaged portion and recoupling 
the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only cou- 
plings designed and approved for the size and type of hose 
in question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner 
shall be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior 
to being placed back in service. 

1106.19.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected 
prior to being placed into service. 

1106.20 Aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles parking. Unat- 
tended aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles shall be parked in areas 
that provide for both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in 
the event of an emergency and the control of leakage such that 


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adjacent buildings and storm drains are not contaminated by 
leaking fuel. 

1106.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for tank 
vehicles shall be designed and utilized such that a clearance 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked 
vehicle for fire department access. In addition, a minimum 
clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be maintained 
between tank vehicles and parked aircraft and structures 
other than those used for the maintenance and/or garaging 
of aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. 

1106.21 Radar equipment. Aircraft fuel-servicing operations 
shall be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar of that air- 
craft is operating. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft 
surveillance radar. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall not be conducted 
within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance radar equipment. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic 
surveillance radar equipment. 

1106.21.1 Direction of radar beams. The beam from 
ground radar equipment shall not be directed toward fuel 
storage or loading racks. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 
feet (91 440 mm) from airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance equipment. 

2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 
feet (30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic sur- 
veillance equipment. 


SECTION 1107 

HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS 

1107.1 General. Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in 
aecordance with Sections 1107.2 through 1107.8. Helistops 
and heliports on buildings shall be constmcted in accordance 
with the International Building Code. 

1107.2 Clearances. The touchdown area shall be surrounded 
on all sides by a elear area having minimum average width at 
roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet 
(1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained. 

1107.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage. 

Landing areas on structures shall be maintained so as to confine 
flammable or Class II combustible liquid spillage to the landing 
area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage 
away from exits or stairways serving the helicopter landing 
area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. 

1107.4 Exits. Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 412.5 of the International Building Code. 


1107.5 Standpipe systems. Where a building with a rooftop 
helistop or heliport is equipped with a standpipe system, the 
system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport 
area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a i'/j-inch (63.5 
mm) outlet on a Class I or III standpipe. 

1107.6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities 
shall be provided for rooftop heliports. Such systems shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in accordance with the 
applicable provisions of Sections 903, 904 and 905. 

1107.7 Fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire 
extinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be pro- 
vided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for the 
aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance 
of theseextinguishers shall be in accordanee with Section 906. 

1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from 
helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the 
Federal Aviation Administration. 


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CHAPTER 12 

DRY CLEANING 


SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall 
comply with the requirements of this chapter. 

1201.2 Permit required. Permits shall be required as set forth 
in Section 105.6. 


SECTION 1202 
DEFINITIONS 

1202.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, 
paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, tex- 
tiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (solvents). 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning 
and associated operations are conducted, including the office, 
receiving area and storage rooms. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a 
building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the 
installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry 
cleaning solvents. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in 
which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which 
dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method 
for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following 
classes: 

Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below I00°F 
(38°C). 

Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below I40°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or 
above MOT (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
200T (93“C). 

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable. 

SECTION 1203 
CLASSIFICATIONS 

1203.1 Solvent classification. Dry cleaning solvents shall be 
classified according to their flash points as follows: 

1. Class I solvents are liquids having a flash point below 
100°F(38°C). 

2. Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 100°F (38°C) and below MOT (60°C). 


3. Class IIIA solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above MOT (60T) and below 200T (93°C). 

4. Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 200T (93°C). 

5. Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable. 

1203.2 Classification of dry cleaning plants and systems. 

Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the 
solvents used as follows: 

1 . Type I — systems using Class I solvents. 

2. Type II — systems using Class II solvents. 

3. Type IIl-A — systems using Class IIIA solvents. 

4. Type III-B — systems using Class IIIB solvents. 

5. Type IV — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is not conducted by the public. 

6. Type V — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is conducted by the public. 

Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accor- 
dance with Section 1206 shall not change the type of the dry 
cleaning plant. 

1203.2.1 Multiple solvents. Dry cleaning plants using 
more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be clas- 
sified based on the numerically lowest solvent class. 

1203.3 Design. The occupancy classification, design and con- 
struction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applica- 
ble requirements of the International Building Code. 


SECTION 1204 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1204.1 Prohibited use. Type I dry cleaning plants shall be pro- 
hibited. Limited quantities of Class 1 solvents stored and used 
in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry 
cleaning plants. 

1204.2 Building services. Building services and systems shall 
be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 6. 

1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 502 of the International Mechani- 
cal Code and DOL 29 CFR Part 1 9 1 0. 1 000, where appl ica- 
ble. 

1204.2.2 Heating. In Type II dry cleaning plants, heating 
shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water or hot oil 
only. 

1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations 
subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 70. 


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1204.2.4 Bonding and grounding. Storage tanks, treat- 
ment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleaning units, 
stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other such equipment, 
where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be 
bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment shall be 
grounded. 


SECTION 1205 

OPERATING REQUIREMENTS 

1205.1 General. The operation of dry cleaning systems shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 1205.1.1 through 
1205.3. 

1205.1.1 Written instructions. Written instructions cover- 
ing the proper installation and safe operation and use of 
equipment and solvent shall be given to tbe buyer. 

1205.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems. In 

Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, 
machines shall be operated in accordance with the oper- 
ating instructions furnished by the machinery manufac- 
turer. Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards 
involved in their departments and in the work they per- 
form. 

1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for 
customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be 
conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning 
unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emer- 
gency assistance. 

1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer 
shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicat- 
ing the class of solvent for which each machine is designed. 

1205.1.3 Open systems prohibited. Dry cleaning by 
immersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. The use of solvents 
with a flash point below that for which a machine is 
designed or listed shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. 

Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be 
observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the 
accumulation of lint. The handling of waste material gener- 
ated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of 
facilities shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and II liquids shall not be used 
for cleaning floors. 

1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other residues con- 
taining solvent shall be handled and disposed of in cov- 
ered metal containers. 

1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and refuse shall be removed from 
traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed 
from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other 
times, traps shall be held securely in place. 

1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning sys- 
tems, customer areas shall be kept clean. 


1205.2 Type II systems. Special operating requirements for 
Type II dry cleaning systems shall comply with the provisions 
of Sections 1205.2.1 through 1205.2.3. 

1205.2.1 Inspection of materials. Materials to be dry 
cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials, 
including matches and metallic substances, shall be 
removed. 

1205.2.2 Material transfer. In removing materials from the 
washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the drip- 
ping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred 
from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron 
shal I be placed so that the apron rests on the drai n tub and the 
cylinder of the washer. 

1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system 
which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute 
for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 mV(s • m^)] shall 
be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The 
ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry 
cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual 
controls at an approved location. 

1205.3 Type IV and V systems. Type IV and V dry cleaning 
systems shall be provided with an automatically activated 
exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet 
per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door 
when the door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equip- 
ment shall comply with the International Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be pro- 
vided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is 
installed immediately outside of and above the loading door 
which operates at an airflow rate as follows: 

Q=\0OxAu) (Equation 12-1) 

where: 

Q = flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per 
minute (mVs). 

Au,= area of the loading door, square feet (m^). 

SECTION 1206 

SPOTTING AND PRETREATING 

1206.1 General. Spotting and pretreating operations and 
equipment shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1 206.2 
through 1206.5. 

1206.2 Type I solvents. The maximum quantity of Type I sol- 
vents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). 
Class I solvents shall be stored in approved safety cans or in 
sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of not more 
than 1-gallon (4 L) capacity. Dispensing shall be from 
approved safety cans. 

1206.3 Type II and III solvents. Scouring, brushing, and spot- 
ting and pretreating shall be conducted with Class II or III sol- 
vents. The maximum quantity of Type II or III solvents 
permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other 
than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of sol- 
vents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per 
control area for use-open system. 


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1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting 
tables on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a 
liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than I inch 
(25 mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure 
thorough draining to a 1 Vj-inch (38 mm) drain connected to 
an approved container. 

1206.3.2 Special handling. When approved, articles that 
cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are 
allowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs 
shall comply with the following: 

1 . Only Class II or III liquids shall be used. 

2. The total amount of solvent used in such open con- 
tainers shall not exceed 3 gallons (11 L). 

3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor. 

4. Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent I '/j- 
inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided 
with a trap and shall be connected to an approved con- 
tainer. 

1206.3.3 Ventilation. Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing 
or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent 
vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating sys- 
tem. 

1206.3.4 Bonding and grounding. Metal scouring, brush- 
ing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be perma- 
nently and effectively bonded and grounded. 

1206.4 Type IV systems. Flammable and combustible liquids 
used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety 
cans or in sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of 
not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Dispensing shall be 
from approved safety cans. Aggregate amounts shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (38 L). 

1206.5 Type V systems. Spotting operations using flammable 
or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning 
systems. 


SECTION 1207 
DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS 

1207.1 General equipment requirements. Dry cleaning sys- 
tems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, 
drying cabinets, tumblers and their appurtenances, including 
pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The 
construction of buildings in which such systems are located 
shall comply with the requirements of this section and the 
International Building Code. 

1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank 
storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the 
lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3. 

Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in 
vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 
34. 

1207.2.1 Fire-fighting access. Type II dry cleaning plants 
shall be located so that access is provided and maintained 


from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in 
accordance with Section 503. 

1207.2.2 Number of means of egress. Type II dry cleaning 
rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors 
located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which 
shall lead directly to the outside. 

1207.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment. 

Curbs, drains or other provisions for spill control and sec- 
ondary containment shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection 
water and direct it to a safe location. 

1207.3 Solvent storage tanks. Solvent storage tanks for Class 
II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of 
Chapter 34 and be located underground or outside, above 
ground. 

Exception: As provided in NFPA 32 for inside storage or 
treatment tanks. 


SECTION 1208 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1208.1 General. Where required by this section, fire protec- 
tion systems, devices and equipment shall be installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. 

1208.2 Automatic sprinkler system. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1 .1 
throughout dry cleaning plants containing Type II, Type III-A 
or Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 

1208.3 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Type II dry 
cleaning units, washer-extractors, and drying tumblers in Type 
II dry cleaning plants shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system installed and maintained in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

Exception: Where approved, a manual steam jet not less 
than V 4 inch (19 mm) with a continuously available steam 
supply at a pressure not less than 15 pounds per square inch 
gauge (psig) (103 kPa) is allowed to be substituted for the 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

1208.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in 
accordance with this section and Section 906. A minimum of 
two 2-A;10-B;C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
near tbe doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II, 
Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 


2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


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CHAPTER 13 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS 


SECTION 1301 
GENERAL 

1301.1 Scope. The equipment, processes and operations 
involving dust explosion hazards shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this chapter. 

1301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required for combustible 
t^us'f-producing operations as set forth in Section 105.6. 

SECTION 1302 
DEFINITIONS 

1302.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material which 
is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 


SECTION 1303 
PRECAUTIONS 

1303.1 Sources of ignition. Smoking or the use of heating or 
other devices employing an open flame, or the use of spark- 
producing equipment is prohibited in areas where combustible 
dust is generated, stored, manufactured, processed or handled. 

1303.2 Housekeeping. Accumulation of combustible dust 
shall be kept to a minimum in the interior of buildings. Accu- 
mulated combustible dust shall be collected by vacuum clean- 
ing or other means that will not place combustible dust into 
suspension in air. Forced air or similar methods shall not be 
used to remove dust from surfaces. 


SECTION 1304 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION 

1304.1 Standards. The fire code official is authorized to 
enforce applicable provisions of the codes and standards listed 
in Table 1304.1 to prevent and control dust explosions. 


TABLE 1304.1 

EXPLOSION PROTECTION STANDARDS 


STANDARD 

SUBJECT 

NFPA61 

Agricultural and Food Products 

NFPA 69 

Explosion Prevention 

NFPA 70 

National Electrical Code 

NFPA 85 

Boiler and Combustion System Hazards 

NFPA 120 

Coal Preparation Plants 

NFPA 484 

Combustible Metals, Metal Powders 
and Metal Dusts 

NFPA 654 

Manufacturing, Processing and Handling 
of Combustible Particulate Solids 

NFPA 655 

Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions 

NFPA 664 

Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood 
Processing and Woodworking Facilities 


SECTION 1305 
DUST COLLECTION 

1305.1 Dust collection. Dust collection systems shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with Section 510 of the 
International Mechanical Code. Electrical ventilation fan 
motor shall be interlocked in accordance with Section 503.1 of 
the International Mechanical Code. 


Note: The Oregon Mechanical Specialty Code, Section 
511.1.1, Exception 2, limits the number of independent col- 
lectors (portable collectors) to not more than three collec- 
tors, servicing not more than five dust-producing appliances. 


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CHAPTER 14 

FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 


SECTION 1401 
GENERAL 

1401.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to structures in the 
course of construction, alteration or demolition, including 
those in underground locations. Compliance with NFPA 241 is 
required for items not specifically addressed herein. 

1401.2 Purpose. This chapter prescribes minimum safeguards 
for construction, alteration and demolition operations to pro- 
vide reasonable safety to life and property from fire during 
such operations. 


SECTION 1402 
DEFINITIONS 

1402.1 Terms deflned in Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 


SECTION 1403 

TEMPORARY HEATING EQUIPMENT 

1403.1 Listed. Temporary heating devices shall be listed and 
labeled in accordance with the International Mechanical Code 
or the International Fuel Gas Code. Installation, maintenance 
and use of temporary heating devices shall be in accordance 
with the terms of the listing. 

1403.2 Oil-fired heaters. Oil-fired heaters shall comply with 
Section 603. 

1403.3 LP-gas heaters. Fuel supplies for liquefied-petroleum 
gas-fired heaters shall comply with Chapter 38 and the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. 

1403.4 Refueling. Refueling operations for liquid-fueled 
equipment or appliances shall be conducted in accordance with 
Section 3405. The equipment or appliance shall be allowed to 
cool prior to refueling. 

1403.5 Installation. Clearance to combustibles from tempo- 
rary heating devices shall be maintained in accordance with the 
labeled equipment. When in operation, temporary heating 
devices shall be fixed in place and protected from damage, 
dislodgement or overturning in accordance with the manufac- 
turer’s instructions. 

1403.6 Supervision. The use of temporary heating devices 
shall be supervised and maintained only by competent person- 
nel. 


SECTION 1404 

PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

1404.1 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited except in 
approved areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. In approved areas where smoking is permitted, 

2010 OREGON FIRE CODE 


approved ashtrays shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tion 3 1 0. 

1404.2 Waste disposal. Combustible debris shall not be accu- 
mulated within buildings. Combustible debris, rubbish and 
waste material shall be removed from buildings at the end of 
each shift of work. Combustible debris, rubbish and waste 
material shall not be disposed of by burning on the site unless 
approved. 

1404.3 Open burning. Open burning shall comply with Sec- 
tion 307. 

1404.4 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spon- 
taneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a dis- 
posal container. 

1404.5 Fire watch. When required by the /ire code official for 
building demolition that is hazardous in nature, qualified per- 
sonnel shall be provided to serve as an on-site fire watch. Fire 
watch personnel shall be provided with at least one approved 
means for notification of the fire department and their sole duty 
shall be to perform constant patrols and watch for the occur- 
rence of fire. 

1404.6 Cutting and welding. Operations involving the use of 
cutting and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 
26. 

1404.7 Electrical. Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations used in connection with the construction, 
alteration or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or 
similar activities shall comply with NFPA 70. 


SECTION 1405 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

1405.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids. Stor- 
age of fiammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 3404. 

1405.2 Class I and Class II liquids. The storage, use and han- 
dling of flammable and combustible liquids at construction 
sites shall be in accordance with Section 3406.2. Ventilation 
shall be provided for operations involving the application of 
materials containing flammable solvents. 

1405.3 Housekeeping. Flammable and combustible liquid 
storage areas shall be maintained clear of combustible vegeta- 
tion and waste materials. Such storage areas shall not be used 
for the storage of combustible materials. 

1405.4 Precautions against fire. Sources of ignition and 
smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible liq- 
uid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. 

1405.5 Handling at point of final use. Class 1 and II liquids 
shall be kept in approved safety containers. 

175 



FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 


1405.6 Leakage and spills. Leaking vessels shall be immedi- 
ately repaired or taken out of service and spills shall be cleaned 
up and disposed of properly. 

SECTION 1406 
FLAMMABLE GASES 

1406.1 Storage and handling. The storage, use and handling 
of flammable gases shall comply with Chapter 35. 

SECTION 1407 
EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 

1407.1 Storage and handling. Explosive materials shall be 
stored, used and handled in accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.2 Supervision. Blasting operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.3 Demolition using explosives. Approved fire hoses for 

use by demolition personnel shall be maintained at the demoli- 
tion site whenever are used for demolition. Such fire 

hoses shall be connected to an approved water supply and shall 
be capable of being brought to bear on post-detonation fires 
anywhere on the site of the demolition operation. 


SECTION 1408 
OWNER’S RESPONSIBILITY 
FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

1408.1 Program superintendent. The owner shall designate a 
person to be the fire prevention program superintendent who 
shall be responsible for the fire prevention program and ensure 
that it is carried out through completion of the project. The fire 
prevention program superintendent shall have the authority to 
enforce the provisions of this chapter and other provisions as 
necessary to .secure the intent of this chapter. Where guard ser- 
vice is provided, the superintendent shall be responsible for the 
guard service. 

1408.2 Prefire plans. The fire prevention program superinten- 
dent shall develop and maintain an approved prefire plan in 
cooperation with the fire chief. The fire chief and the fire code 
official shall be notified of changes affecting the utilization of 
information contained in such prefire plans. 

1408.3 Training. Training of responsible personnel in the use 
of fire protection equipment shall be the responsibility of the 
fire prevention program superintendent. 

1408.4 Fire protection devices. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall determine that all fire protection equip- 
ment is maintained and serviced in accordance with this code. 
The quantity and type of fire protection equipment shall be 
approved. 

1408.5 Hot work operations. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall be responsible for supervising the permit 
system for hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 26. 

1408.6 Impairment of fire protection systems. Impairments 
to any fire protection system shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 901. 


1408.7 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Cov- 
erings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them 
from damage during construction processes shall be immedi- 
ately removed upon the completion of the construction pro- 
cesses in the room or area in which the devices are installed. 


SECTION 1409 
FIRE REPORTING 

1409.1 Emergency telephone. Readily accessible emergency 
telephone facilities shall be provided in an approved location at 
the construction site. The street address of the construction site 
and the emergency notification number (9- 1-1) shall be posted | | 
adjacent to the telephone. 

SECTION 1410 

ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING 

1410.1 Required access. Approved vehicle access for fire 
fighting shall be provided to all construction or demolition 
sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 
480 mm) of temporary or permanent fire department connec- 
tions. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary or 
permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under 
all weather conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until 
permanent fire apparatus access roads are available. 

1410.2 Key boxes. Key boxes shall be provided as required by 
Chapter 5. 

SECTION 1411 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

[B] 1411.1 Stairways required. Where a building has been 
constructed to a building height of 50 feet ( 1 5 240 mm) or four 
stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet ( 1 5 240 
mm) in building height is altered, at least one temporary lighted 
stairway shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent 
stairways are erected as the construction progresses. 

1411.2 Maintenance. Required means of egress shall be main- 
tained during construction and demolition, remodeling or 
alterations and additions to any building. 

Exception: Approved temporary means of egress systems 
and facilities. 


SECTION 1412 

WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

1412.1 When required. An approved water supply for fire 
protection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made avail- 
able as soon as combustible material arrives on the site. 

SECTION 1413 
STANDPIPES 

1413.1 Where required. In buildings required to have 
standpipes by Section 905.3. 1 , not less than one standpipe shall 
be provided for use during construction. Such standpipes shall 
be installed when the progress of construction is not more than 


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40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire 
department vehicle access. Such standpipe shall be provided 
with fire department hose connections at accessible locations 
adjacent to usable stairs. Such standpipes shall be extended as 
construction progresses to within one floor of the highest point 
of construction having secured decking or flooring. 

1413.2 Buildings being demolished. Where a building is 
being demolished and a standpipe is existing within such a 
building, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable 
condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. 
Such standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall 
not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being 
demolished. 

1413.3 Detailed requirements. Standpipes shall be installed 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 905. 

Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or perma- 
nent in nature, and with or without a water supply, provided 
that s